BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘write’

Argument frame: X (write) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. wrote a letter .
Predicate label Ru: писать
Argument frame Ru: X (писать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. написал письмо .

Abaza ʕʷə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
zarema pismo l-ʕʷə-d
pn letter 3 sg . f . erg -write( aor )- dcl
‘Zarema wrote a letter.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) txə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
pŝaŝe-m pisme-r ə-txə-ʁ
girl- obl letter- abs 3 sg . erg -write- pst
‘The girl wrote the letter.’

Aghul lik’.i-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a k’eǯ lik’.i-ne
pn ( erg ) letter write. pf - aor
‘Aslan wrote a letter.’

Alik Kryz yazmiş aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir mexhtub yazmiş var-du
pn - erg letter( f ) write f .do. pfv - aor . f
‘Terlan wrote a letter.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu kaʁər ši a<b>u
pn - obl ( erg ) paper write <3>do. pfv
‘Pasha wrote a letter.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic catəv

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
xa yala ctəv-lə xa ctava ka +xavr-u
one boy( m ) write. pst - ls .3 m one book( m ) to friend( m )- p .3 m
‘The boy wrote a letter.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar qwaze

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca kaʁat qwa-na
pn - erg paper scratch- aor
‘Ali wrote a letter.’

Azerbaijani yazmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan mǝktub yaz-dı
pn letter write- pst (3)
‘Aslan wrote a letter.’

Bambara sɛ́bɛn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye lɛ́tɛrɛ` sɛ́bɛn
pn pfv . tr letter\ art write
‘Seku wrote a letter.’

Brazilian Portuguese escrever

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro escrev-eu um-a carta
pn ( m ) write-3 sg . pst indf - f letter( f )
‘Pedro wrote a letter.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır mektub yezmi süʔür-cü
pn - erg letter( a ) write a .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan wrote a letter.’

Catalan escriure

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va escriu-re un-a carta
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind write- inf indf - sg . f letter( f )
‘Pere wrote a letter.’

Chirag b-elč’i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le qaʁar b-elk’-un
pn - erg letter( abs ) n . sg -write: pf - aor .3
‘Ali wrote a letter.’

Czech napsat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr napsa-l dopis
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] write( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] letter( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr wrote a letter.’

Danish skrive

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter skrev et brev
pn write. pst indf . sg letter( n )
‘Peter wrote a letter.’

Dutch schrijven

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft een brief ge-schrev-en
pn ( c ) have.3 sg art . indf letter( c ) ptcp -write- ptcp
‘Piet wrote a letter.’

Eastern Maninka sɛ́bɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà césɛbɛ` dó sɛ́bɛ.
pn aor . tr letter\ art indf write
‘Seku has written a letter.’

English write

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter wrote a letter.

Estonian kirjutama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter kirjuta-s kirja
pn . sg . nom write- pst .3 sg letter. sg . gen
‘Peeter wrote a letter.’

Finnish kirjoittaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka kirjoitt-i kirje-en
pn . nom write- pst .3 sg letter- gen
‘Pekka wrote a letter.’

Forest Enets pazu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ pazur paza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg paper write( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend wrote a letter’.

French écrire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a écrit une lettre
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg write. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f letter( f )
‘Paul wrote a letter.’

Georgian da-Ø-c'er-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m c'eril-i da-Ø-c'er-a
pn - erg letter- nom prv :downward- do 3-write- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre wrote a letter.’

German schreiben

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl schrieb ein-en Brief
pn [ nom . sg ] write. pst .3 sg indf - m . acc . sg letter[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl wrote a letter.’

Guinean Kpelle pɛ̰̌ɛ̰

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá hɛ́ɓɛ̂ pɛ̰̌ɛ̰
pn 3 sg . prf letter write
‘Pepee wrote a letter.’

Icari Dargwa b=elk'-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il kaʁar b=elk'-un
pn - erg letter. abs n =write: pf - aor
‘Islam wrote a letter.’

Irish scríobh

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=scríobh Pól leitir.
pst =write pn letter
‘Pól wrote a letter.’

Italian scrivere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha scritto un-a letter-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs write. pst . ptcp indf . sg - f letter- sg . f
‘Leo wrote a letter.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-elk'-es / luk'-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li kaʁat b-elk'-un
pn - erg paper n -write. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad wrote a letter.’

Kalderash Romani ramol

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a ramo-sarď-a pisʼmo
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg write- pst -3 sg letter[ acc . sg ]
‘Murša wrote a letter.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatima-ji maˁhaˁmad.a-z kaʁaz ʁi-b-ik’-nu
pn - erg pn - dat letter( abs ) pf - n . sg -write- pst
‘Fatima wrote Mahamad a letter.’

Karata qwaraɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l kaʁat qwar-e
pn - erg paper write- pf
‘Ali wrote a letter.’

Kaytag Dargwa luk’ana

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l b-elk’-un kağar
pn - erg n -write. pf - aor letter
‘Petja wrote a letter.’

Kazakh žaz

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya xat žaz-dï
pn letter write- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya wrote a letter.’

Kazym Khanty χǎnši

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en piśma χǎnš-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg letter write- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja wrote a letter.’

Khoekhoe xoa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge sîǂkhani-s-a ge xoa
pn -3 m . sg decl letter-3 f . sg - obl pst write
‘Peter wrote a letter.’

Khwarshi qʷaja

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šamil-i q'ʷaj-ja q'aʁat
pn - erg write- pst . w letter( iii )
‘Shamil wrote a letter.’

Kina Rutul kixira

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a pisʲmo k-ixi-r=a
pn - erg letter( nom ) pv -4.write. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul wrote a letter.’

Kumyk jazmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir kaʁɨz jaz-d-ɨ
pn paper write- pst -3 sg
‘Basir wrote a letter.’

Latin scribo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
terti-am ad te hanc epistul-am scrips-i
third- acc . sg . f at you. acc this. acc . sg . f letter( f )- acc . sg write[ prf . ind ]- act .1 sg
‘This is the third letter I have written to you.’
Note: (Cic. Ep. ad Fam. 16, 6, 1)

Laz o-(n)č'ar-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k mektub-i do-Ø-nč'a(r)-u
pn - b - erg letter- nom prv - do 3-write- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim wrote a letter.’

Mandarin Chinese xiě

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān xiě le yì-fēng xìn
pn write pfv one- clf letter
‘Zhangsan wrote a letter.’

Mano bɛ̰̀ɛ̰̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ̄ sɛ́ɓɛ̀ bɛ̰̀ɛ̰̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg . exi book write- inf
‘S/he is writing a letter.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Islam-ini b-elk'-un kaʁar
pn - erg n -write: pfv - aor paper
‘Islam wrote a letter.’

Mingrelian do-Ø-č'ar-un-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k kart'an-(i) do-Ø-č'ar-(u)
pn - erg letter-( nom ) prv - do 3-write- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo wrote a letter.’

Modern Hebrew katav

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas katav miχtav
pn write[ pst .3 sg . m ] letter
‘Pinchas wrote a letter.’

Mukhad Rutul kixin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a kaʁat kixi-ri
pn - erg paper ( n )write. pf - aor
‘Murad wrote a letter.’

Nanai niru-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia bičxə-wə niru-xə-ni
pn leter- obl write- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia wrote a letter.’

Nivkh rajud

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik pitɣəŋ raju-d
pn letter write- ind
‘Kaskazik wrote a letter.’

Northern Akhvakh qqwaruruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi-de kaʁa qqwar-ari
pn - erg paper write- aor
‘Patahi wrote a letter.’

Northern Mansi xansǝs

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
āɣi piɕma xans-ǝs
girl letter write- pst [3 sg ]
‘A girl wrote a letter.’

Northern Yukaghir nimǝlǝs=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn nimǝlǝ nimǝlǝ-s-mǝ-lǝ
pn pattern pattern- vr - tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien wrote a letter.’

Norwegian Bokmål å skrive

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per skrev et brev
pn write. pst indf . n . sg letter
‘Per wrote a letter.’

Polish napisać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Staszek napisa-ł list
pn [ nom . sg ] write: pfv \ pst - pst [ m .3 sg ] letter[ acc . sg ]
‘Staszek wrote a letter.’

Russian napisatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja napisa-l pisʹm-o
pn ( m )- nom . sg write( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] letter( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja wrote a letter.’

Serbian napisati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je napisa-o pism-o
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg write- part . perf . m . sg letter- acc . sg
‘Petar wrote a letter.’

Shinaz Rutul kixi-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir kixi-r kaʁad
pn ( erg ) ( n ).write. pf - aor letter
‘Basir wrote a letter.’

Shughni nivištow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Lola=yi xāt niviš-t
pn =3 sg letter write- pst
‘Lola wrote a letter.’

Skolt Saami ǩeeʹrjted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt ǩeeʹrjt-i ǩeeʹrj
pn . sg . nom write- pst .3 sg letter. sg . acc
‘Pete wrote a letter.’

Slovak písať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter písa-l list
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] write( ipfv )- pst [ m . sg ] letter( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter wrote a letter.’

Slovenian napisati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je napisa-l-a pism-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg write: pfv - lpt - f . sg letter- acc . sg
‘Ana wrote a letter.’

Sorani Kurdish nûsîn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa name-yek=î nûsî-Ø
pn letter- indf =3 sg . pc write. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa wrote a letter.’

Southern Rutul kixhin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a mektub kixhi-r
pn - erg letter ( n )write. pf - aor
‘Murad wrote a letter.’

Spanish escribir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro escribi-ó una carta
pn [ sg ] write- aor .3 sg art . ndef . sg . f letter[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro wrote a letter.’

Standard Arabic kataba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un kataba risālat-a-n
pn - nom write. pf .3 m letter( f )- acc - indef
‘Badr wrote a letter.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d c'eril-Ø ad-Ø-iːr-e
pn - erg letter- nom prv : slightly - do 3-write- pst
‘Maizer wrote a letter.’

Swedish att skriva

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn skrev ett brev
pn write. pst indf . n . sg letter
‘Björn wrote a letter.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
S<um>ulat si Pedro ng liham
< av > pfv .write pers . subj pn gen letter
‘Pedro wrote a letter.’

Telugu rāyu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ oka uttaramu rāsāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom one answer( n ). sg . nom write. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen wrote a letter.’

Tsakhur odk’uniy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee maˁktub odk’un
pn - erg letter n .write. pf
‘Murad wrote a letter.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-elč'-iz/luč'-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le kaʁar b-elk'-un
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) letter n -write. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy wrote a letter.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-elk'-i / luk'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li kaʁar b-elk'-un
boy- erg letter n -write. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy wrote a letter.’

Turkish yazmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet mektup yaz-dı
pn letter write- pst
‘Mehmet wrote a letter.’

Turoyo koṯu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel kṯu-le egarṯo
pn write. pfv - ls .3 m letter( f )
‘Gabriyel wrote a letter.’

Ulcha ńuru-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama bitxə-wə ńur-xə-ni
father letter- acc write- pst -3 sg
‘Father wrote a letter.’

Uzbek yozmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya xat yoz-di
pn letter write- pst .3 sg
‘Petja wrote a letter.’

West Central Oromo barreessa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n t'alajaa barreess-e
pn - nom letter. abs write-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa wrote a letter.’

Zilo Andi qχʷar.i-j

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di qχʷar.i-j kaʁar
pn - erg write. pst - pf letter[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat has written a letter.’