BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘write’

Argument frame: X (write) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. wrote a letter .
Predicate label Ru: писать
Argument frame Ru: X (писать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. написал письмо .

Abaza ʕʷə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
zarema pismo l-ʕʷə-d
pn letter 3 sg . f . erg -write( aor )- dcl
‘Zarema wrote a letter.’

Aghul lik’.i-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a k’eǯ lik’.i-ne
pn ( erg ) letter write. pf - aor
‘Aslan wrote a letter.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic catəv

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
xa yala ctəv-lə xa ctava ka +xavr-u
one boy( m ) write. pst - ls .3 m one book( m ) to friend( m )- p .3 m
‘The boy wrote a letter.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro escreveu uma carta
‘Педру написал письмо.’

Czech napsat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr napsa-l dopis
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] write( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] letter( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr wrote a letter.’

Finnish kirjoittaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka kirjoitt-i kirje-en
pn . nom write- pst .3 sg letter- gen
‘Pekka wrote a letter.’

Forest Enets pazu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ pazur paza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg paper write( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend wrote a letter’.

Latin scribo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
terti-am ad te hanc epistul-am scrips-i
third- acc . sg . f at you. acc this. acc . sg . f letter( f )- acc . sg write[ prf . ind ]- act .1 sg
‘This is the third letter I have written to you.’
Note: (Cic. Ep. ad Fam. 16, 6, 1)

Modern Hebrew katav

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas katav miχtav
pn write[ pst .3 sg . m ] letter
‘Pinchas wrote a letter.’

Nanai niru-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia bičxə-wə niru-xə-ni
pn leter- obl write- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia wrote a letter.’

Norwegian Bokmål å skrive

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per skrev et brev
pn write. pst indf . n . sg letter
‘Per wrote a letter.’

Polish napisać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Staszek napisa-ł list
pn [ nom . sg ] write: pfv \ pst - pst [ m .3 sg ] letter[ acc . sg ]
‘Staszek wrote a letter.’

Russian napisatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja napisa-l pisʹm-o
pn ( m )- nom . sg write( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] letter( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja wrote a letter.’

Rutul kixira

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a pisʲmo k-ixi-r=a
pn - erg letter( nom ) pv -4.write. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul wrote a letter.’

Skolt Saami ǩeeʹrjted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt ǩeeʹrjt-i ǩeeʹrj
pn . sg . nom write- pst .3 sg letter. sg . acc
‘Pete wrote a letter.’

Slovenian napisati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je napisa-l-a pism-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg write: pfv - lpt - f . sg letter- acc . sg
‘Ana wrote a letter.’

Swedish att skriva

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn skrev ett brev
pn write. pst indf . n . sg letter
‘Björn wrote a letter.’

Turkish yazmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet mektup yaz-dı
pn letter write- pst
‘Mehmet wrote a letter.’

Ulcha ńuru-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama bitxə-wə ńur-xə-ni
father letter- acc write- pst -3 sg
‘Father wrote a letter.’

Zilo Andi qχʷar.i-j

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di qχʷar.i-j kaʁar
pn - erg write. pst - pf letter[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat has written a letter.’