BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘wave’

Argument frame: X (wave) Y
Stimulus sentence: (Look, there’s P. on the other side of the river.) P. is waving a handkerchief .
Predicate label Ru: махать
Argument frame Ru: X (махать) Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Смотрите, на другом берегу реки стоит П.). П. машет платком .

Abaza q̇’a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa á-ḳas l-q̇’-əj-d
def -girl def -shawl 3 sg . f . erg -wave- prs - dcl
‘The girl is waving the shawl.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ʔe ṣ̂ə

Valency pattern: ERG_INSTR.CASE
X: ERG
Y: INSTR.CASE
Locus: Y
pŝaŝe-m ŝhe.tjeχʷe-m-č̣ʼe ʔe q-j-e-ṣ̂ə
girl- obl head_scarf- obl - ins hand csl -3 sg . erg - dyn -do
‘The girl is waving the headscarf.’

Aghul tːutː.a-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a jaʁluqː tːutː.a-a
pn ( erg ) handkerchief shake. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is waving a handkerchief.’

Alik Kryz yelletmiş aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir dasmal yelletmiş yi-re
pn - erg towel wave do. ipfv - prs . n
‘Terlan is waving a towel.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
patʼimat-li gatʼ lapʼa-r-ši b-i
pn - obl ( erg ) shawl wave- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 3-be
‘Pasha is waving a shawl.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +šayəš

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata +bəššaš-o=la +yaləxta id-o
girl( f ) shake. prog - p .3 f =3 f handkerchief( f ) with hand( f )- p .3 f
‘The girl is waving a handkerchief.’

Avar xwaʕize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca kwerbac’c’ xwaʕ-ule-b b-ugo
pn - erg handkerchief wave- ipf . ptcp - n n - cop
‘Ali is waving a handkerchief.’

Azerbaijani yelləmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan dǝsmal-ı-nı yellǝ-yir
pn towel- poss 3- acc wave- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is waving a towel.’

Bambara yúguyugu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Fántà bɛ́_kà kùnnasirilan` yúguyugu
pn prog headscarf shake
‘Fanta shakes out a headscarf.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Brazilian Portuguese acenar

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro acen-a com um lenço
pn ( m ) wave-3 sg . prs with indf handkerchief( m )
‘Pedro is waving a handkerchief.’

Catalan agitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere agit-a un mocador
def . sg . m pn ( m ) wave-3 sg . prs . ind indf . sg . m handkerchief( m )
‘Pere is waving a handkerchief.’

Chirag lamč b-arq’i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le tːuʁ lamč b-irq’-le
pn - erg flag( abs ) wave n . sg -do: ipf - prs . dur .3
‘Ali is waving a flag.’

Czech mávat

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petr mavá šátk-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] wave( ipfv ). prs .3 sg scarf( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is waving a scarf.’

Danish vifte

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Peter vifte-r med et lommetørklæde
pn wave- prs with indf . sg handkerchief( n )
‘Peter is waving a handkerchief.’

Dutch zwaaien

Valency pattern: SBJ_met
X: SBJ
Y: met
Locus: Y
Piet zwaai-t met de sjaal
pn ( c ) wave-3 sg with art . def . c scarf(С)
‘Piet is waving the scarf.’

Eastern Maninka láfirinfirin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Fántà yé fàanin kùnkudun` náfirinfirin-na.
pn be cloth piece\ art wave- inf . la
‘Fanta waves a piece of cloth.’

English wave

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter is waving a handkerchief.

Estonian lehvitama

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peeter lehvita-b taskurätiku-ga
pn . sg . nom wave- prs .3 sg handkerchief- com
‘Peeter is waving a handkerchief.’

Finnish huiskuttaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka huiskutt-aa nenäliina-a
pn . nom wave- prs .3 sg handkerchief- part
‘Pekka is waving a handkerchief.’

Forest Enets lɛbitur

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ ɔbi-xone-da lɛbituŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg mitten- loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg wave( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is waving his mitten’.

French agiter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul agite son mouchoir
pn ( m ) stir. prs .3 sg one’s. sg . m handkerchief( m )
‘Paul is waving his handkerchief.’

Georgian Ø-i-kn-ev-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-Ø p'irsaxoc-s Ø-i-kn-ev-s
pn - nom towel- dat s 3- ver : s -wave- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre is waving a towel.’

German winken

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl wink-t mit dem Taschentuch
pn [ nom . sg ] wave- prs .3 sg with def . n . dat . sg handkerchief[ dat . sg ]
‘Karl is waving the handkerchief.’

Icari Dargwa hak'-ik'ʷ-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_ERG
X: ABS
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
Islam deškːan-ni hak'-ik'ʷ-il-ca=w
pn . abs handkerchief- erg wave-( m ) lv : ipf - conv - cop = m
‘Islam is waving a handkerchief.’

Irish croith

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pól ag croitheadh ciairsiúir.
be. prs pn at wave. nmlz gs /handkerchief
‘Pól is waving a handkerchief.’
Note: The Y argument is in the GS-form because the verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian sventolare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo sventola un fazzolett-o
pn ( m ) wave-3 sg . prs indf . sg . m handkerchief- sg . m
‘Leo is waving a handkerchief.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_AD
X: NOM
Y: AD
Locus: Y
ʡašura ħaˤrt-r-uk'-ar kasinka-li-ču
pn wave- f -say. ipfv - th scarf- obl - ad
‘Muhammad is waving a scarf.’

Kalderash Romani trintil

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
o Murš-a trinti-l la dyrz-asa
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg wave- prs .3 sg art . f . obl . sg rag- ins . sg
‘Murša is waving a rag.’

Karata

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l korbac’ xwaʕa-jdja idja
pn - erg handkerchief wave- ipf cop
‘Ali is waving a handkerchief.’

Kaytag Dargwa хвяртик1вара

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
petja k’anal-li χvaˁrtik’-ulca
pn handkerchief. obl - erg move. ipf - prs
‘Petja is waving a handkerchief.’

Kazakh bulɣa

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petya oramal-men bulɣa-p tur
pn handkerchief- ins wave- cvb stand.3 sg
‘Petya is waving a handkerchief.’

Kazym Khanty jɔwǝλti

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en pa pԑlǝk-ǝn λǫp-ǝn jɔwǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg other side- loc oar- loc wave. npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is waving an oar on the other bank.’

Khoekhoe ǁhawu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǀomanaiǃkhai-b-a ra ǁhawu
pn -3 m . sg decl handkerchief-3 m . sg - obl ipfv wave
‘Peter is waving a handkerchief.’

Khwarshi šʷana

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
žik'ʷa miq'e-žo q'emq'osa šʷana-ha gołe
man\ erg far- el shawl( iv ) wave- prs aux . prs
‘A man is waving a shawl from a far.’

Kina Rutul lawɨχara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
samira-ra jalɨʁ la-wɨ-χa-r=a
pn - erg kerchief( nom ) pv -3-wave. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Samira is waving a handkerchief.’

Kumyk sillemek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat jawluʁ-un sil-le-j
pn kerchief-3 sg . acc (wave)- vblz -3 sg
‘Patimat is waving her handkerchief.’

Latin vibro

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
qui vibra-nt hast-as ante pugn-am
which. nom . pl . m shake[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl spear( f )- acc . pl before fight( f )- acc . sg
‘... who shake their spears before the fight.’
Note: (Cic. De Oratore. II, 325)

Laz o-val-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k mendil-i Ø-u-val-am-s
pn - b - erg handkerchief- nom io 3- ver : o -wave- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is waving a handkerchief.’

Mandarin Chinese huīwǔ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zhèng huīwǔ zhe shǒupà
pn right wave dur handkerchief
‘Zhangsan is waving a hankerchief. ’

Mano vṵ́ ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà mmouchoir vṵ́ ɓō
3 sg . prf handkerchief[ fr ] movement implement
‘S/he waved a handkerchief.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Majsarat pardaw-iču xʷaʡ duk'-uwe le-r
pn handkerchief- com wave f . lv : ipfv - cvb be- f
‘Majsarat is waving a handkerchief.’

Mingrelian Ø-i-rk-en-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-Ø xeškosal-s Ø-i-rk-en-s
pn - nom handkerchief- dat do 3- ver : s -wave- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo is waiving a handkerchief.’

Modern Hebrew menofef

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Pinχas menofef be mitpaχat
pn wave[ ptcp . sg . m ] in handkerchief
‘Pinchas is waving a handkerchief.’

Mukhad Rutul suda hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a jaluqh subda vaʔa-ra a
pn - erg kerchief( a ) a .shake a .do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is waving a handkerchief.’

Nanai xarxi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia puŋku-ǯi xarxi-ni
pn handkerchief- ins wave. npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is waving a handkerchief.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
hwari-de hwado q:wat’-ere godi
pn - erg handkerchief shake- simul n . cop
‘Pari is waving a handkerchief.’

Northern Mansi xosji

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ēkwa tōr-əl xosj-i
woman kerchief- ins wave- npst .3 sg
‘The woman is waving a kerchief.’

Northern Yukaghir libaɣas=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn wаɣаdīliǝ-lǝ libаɣа-s-u-m
pn handkerchief- acc flutter- caus -0- tr .3 sg
‘Semien is waving a handkerchief.’

Norwegian Bokmål å vifte

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Per vifte-r med tørkle
pn wave- prs with handkerchief
‘Per is waving a handkerchief.’

Polish machać

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Paweł macha chustk-ą
pn [ nom . sg ] wave: ipfv . prs .3 sg handkerchief- ins . sg
‘Paweł is waving a handkerchief.’

Russian maxatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja maš-et platk-om
pn ( m )- nom . sg wave( ipfv )- prs .3 sg kerchief( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja is waving a handkerchief.’

Serbian mahati

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petar maše maram-om
pn . nom . sg wave. prs .3 sg handkerchief- ins . sg . f
‘Petar is waving a handkerchief.’

Shinaz Rutul levi-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir jaluqh leve-r a
pn ( erg ) handkerchief a .swing. ipf - simul exist
‘Basir is waving a handkerchief.’

Shughni δust weδdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Azim lemol-ak=qati δust weδ-d
pn headscarf- dim = ins hand put- pst
‘Azim is waving a handkerchief.’

Skolt Saami heeilted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt lij heeilte-men nozvaireeʹppǩ-es
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg wave- prog . ptcp handkerchief. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete is waving his handkerchief.’

Slovak mávať

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Peter máva kapesník-om
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] wave( ipfv ). prs .3 sg scarf( m )- ins . sg
‘Peter is waving a scarf.’

Slovenian mahati

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Pavel maha z robčk-om
pn [ nom . sg ] wave: ipfv . prs .3 sg with handkerchief- ins . sg
‘Pavel is waving a handkerchief.’

Sorani Kurdish r̂aweʂandin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa desire-yek r̂a-de-weʂên-ê
pn handkerchief- def prev - ind -hit. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa is waving a handkerchief.’

Southern Rutul seyte hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a desmel seyte haʔa-r
pn - erg towel n .strike. ipf n .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is waving a towel.’

Spanish agitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro agit-a un pañuelo
pn [ sg . m ] wave- prs .3 sg art . ndef . sg . m handkerchief[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro is waving a handkerchief.’

Standard Arabic lawwaḥa

Valency pattern: NOM_biGEN
X: NOM
Y: biGEN
Locus: Y
Maryam-u tulawwiḥu bi=fūṭat-i-n
pn - nom wave. ipf .3 f by= handkerchief- gen - indef
‘Badr is waving a handkerchief.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-Ø laqwc'äːn-s Ø-a-käːwin-e
pn - nom handkerchief- dat do 3- fact -wave- prs
‘Maizer is waving a handkerchief.’

Swedish att vinka

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Björn vinka-r med en näsduk
pn wave- prs with indf . c . sg handkerchief
‘Björn is waving a handkerchief.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
W<in>a~wagayway ni Pedro ang panyo
< pv > ipfv ~wave pers . gen pn subj handkerchief
‘Pedro is waving the handkerchief.’
Note: Alternative is the AV construction, also with the ACT_UND pattern.

Telugu ūpu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ dasti-ni gāli-lo ūputunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom handkerchief( n ). sg . obl - acc wind( n ). sg . obl - loc cause_to_swing. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is waving a handkerchief.’

Tsakhur q:ooхhar havʔıy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee k’at’ar vo-b q:ooхhar haaʔa
pn - erg handkerchief( a ) cop - a a .wave. ipf a .do. ipf
‘Murad is waving a handkerchief.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG/LOC(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi naˤq-le hak' ik'-ule=saj
boy hand- erg / loc ( lat ) id .swing ( m )say- prog . cnv = cop . m (3)
‘The boy is waving his hand.’

Tsugni Dargwa hak' b-arq'-i / b-irq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li naˤq hak' b-arq'-ib
boy- erg hand id .swing n -do. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy is waving his hand.’

Turkish sallamak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet mendil-i-ni sallı-yor
pn handkerchief- p .3- acc shake- prs
‘Mehmet is waving his handkerchief.’

Turoyo hoyəz

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel həz-le i dəsmale
pn shake. pfv - ls .3 m art . f handkerchief( f )
‘Gabriyel waved the handkerchief.’

Ulcha xarxi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
əńi-n goj sapsi kera-do-ni puŋku-ǯi xarx-i-ni
mother-3 sg other bank edge- dat -3 sg kerchief- ins wave- prs -3 sg
‘His mother is waving a handkerchief on the other bank (of the river).’

Uzbek silkitmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_bilan
X: NOM
Y: bilan
Locus: Y
Petya romali bilan silkit-ib tur-ip-ti
pn handkerchief with wave- cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja is waving a handkerchief.’

West Central Oromo mirmirsa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n alaabaa mirmirs-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom flag. abs wave- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is waving a flag.’

Zilo Andi xʷaʔi-la

Valency pattern: NOM_INST
X: NOM
Y: INST
Locus: Y
pat’imati k’azil-qχi xʷaʔi-la
pn [ f ][ nom ] shawl. obl - inst wave- prs
‘Patimat is waving her shawl.’