BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘wave’

Argument frame: X (wave) Y
Stimulus sentence: (Look, there’s P. on the other side of the river.) P. is waving a handkerchief .
Predicate label Ru: махать
Argument frame Ru: X (махать) Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Смотрите, на другом берегу реки стоит П.). П. машет платком .

Abaza q̇’a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa á-ḳas l-q̇’-əj-d
def -girl def -shawl 3 sg . f . erg -wave- prs - dcl
‘The girl is waving the shawl.’

Adyghe ʔe ṣ̂ə

Valency pattern: ERG_INSTR.CASE
X: ERG
Y: INSTR.CASE
Locus: Y
pŝaŝe-m ŝhe.tjeχʷe-m-č̣ʼe ʔe q-j-e-ṣ̂ə
девушка- obl головной.платок- obl - ins рука csl -3 sg . erg - dyn -делать
‘Девушка машет платком.’

Aghul tːutː.a-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a jaʁluqː tːutː.a-a
pn ( erg ) handkerchief shake. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is waving a handkerchief.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +šayəš

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata +bəššaš-o=la +yaləxta id-o
girl( f ) shake. prog - p .3 f =3 f handkerchief( f ) with hand( f )- p .3 f
‘The girl is waving a handkerchief.’

Bambara yúguyugu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Fántà bɛ́_kà kùnnasirilan` yúguyugu
pn prog headscarf shake
‘Fanta shakes out a headscarf.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Brazilian Portuguese acenar

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro acen-a com um lenço
pn ( m ) wave-3 sg . prs with indf handkerchief( m )
‘Pedro is waving a handkerchief.’

Catalan agitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere agit-a un mocador
def . sg . m pn ( m ) wave-3 sg . prs . ind indf . sg . m handkerchief( m )
‘Pere is waving a handkerchief.’

Czech mávat

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petr mavá šátk-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] wave( ipfv ). prs .3 sg scarf( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is waving a scarf.’

Danish vifte

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Peter vifte-r med et lommetørklæde
pn wave- prs with indf . sg handkerchief( n )
‘Peter is waving a handkerchief.’

Dutch zwaaien

Valency pattern: SBJ_met
X: SBJ
Y: met
Locus: Y
Piet zwaai-t met de sjaal
pn ( c ) wave-3 sg with art . def . c scarf(С)
‘Piet is waving the scarf.’

Eastern Maninka láfirinfirin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Fántà yé fàanin kùnkudun` náfirinfirin-na.
pn be cloth piece\ art wave- inf . la
‘Fanta waves a piece of cloth.’

English wave

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter is waving a handkerchief.

Estonian lehvitama

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peeter lehvita-b taskurätiku-ga
pn . sg . nom wave- prs .3 sg handkerchief- com
‘Peeter is waving a handkerchief.’

Finnish huiskuttaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka huiskutt-aa nenäliina-a
pn . nom wave- prs .3 sg handkerchief- part
‘Pekka is waving a handkerchief.’

Forest Enets lɛbitur

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ ɔbi-xone-da lɛbituŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg mitten- loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg wave( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is waving his mitten’.

French agiter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul agite son mouchoir
pn ( m ) stir. prs .3 sg one’s. sg . m handkerchief( m )
‘Paul is waving his handkerchief.’

Georgian Ø-i-kn-ev-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-Ø p'irsaxoc-s Ø-i-kn-ev-s
pn - nom towel- dat s 3- ver : s -wave- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre is waving a towel.’

German winken

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl wink-t mit dem Taschentuch
pn [ nom . sg ] wave- prs .3 sg with def . n . dat . sg handkerchief[ dat . sg ]
‘Karl is waving the handkerchief.’

Irish croith

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pól ag croitheadh ciairsiúir.
be. prs pn at wave. nmlz gs /handkerchief
‘Pól is waving a handkerchief.’
Note: The Y argument is in the GS-form because the verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian agitare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo agit-a un fazzolett-o
pn ( m ) wave-3 sg . prs indf . sg . m handkerchief- sg . m
‘Leo is waving a handkerchief.’

Kalderash Romani trintil

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
o Murš-a trinti-l la dyrz-asa
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg wave- prs .3 sg art . f . obl . sg rag- ins . sg
‘Murša is waving a rag.’

Kazakh bulɣa

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petya oramal-men bulɣa-p tur
pn handkerchief- ins wave- cvb stand.3 sg
‘Petya is waving a handkerchief.’

Kazym Khanty jɔwǝλti

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en pa pԑlǝk-ǝn λǫp-ǝn jɔwǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg other side- loc oar- loc wave. npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is waving an oar on the other bank.’

Khwarshi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
žik'wa miq'e-žo q'emq'osa šwana-ha gołe
мужчина\ erg далеко- el платок( iv ) махать- prs aux . prs
‘Мужчина издалека машет платком.’

Kina Rutul lawɨχara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
samira-ra jalɨʁ la-wɨ-χa-r=a
pn - erg kerchief( nom ) pv -3-wave. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Samira is waving a handkerchief.’

Latin vibro

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
qui vibra-nt hast-as ante pugn-am
which. nom . pl . m shake[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl spear( f )- acc . pl before fight( f )- acc . sg
‘... who shake their spears before the fight.’
Note: (Cic. De Oratore. II, 325)

Mandarin Chinese huīwǔ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zhèng huīwǔ zhe shǒupà
pn right wave dur handkerchief
‘Zhangsan is waving a hankerchief. ’

Mingrelian Ø-i-rk-en-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-Ø p'lat'ok'-i-s Ø-i-rk-en-s.
pn - nom handkerchief- b - dat do 3- ver : s -wave- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo is waiving a handkerchief.’

Modern Hebrew menofef

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Pinχas menofef be mitpaχat
pn wave[ ptcp . sg . m ] in handkerchief
‘Pinchas is waving a handkerchief.’

Nanai xarxi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia puŋku-ǯi xarxi-ni
pn handkerchief- ins wave. npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is waving a handkerchief.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Mansi xosji

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ēkwa tōr-əl xosj-i
woman kerchief- ins wave- npst .3 sg
‘The woman is waving a kerchief.’

Northern Yukaghir libaɣas=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn wаɣаdīliǝ-lǝ libаɣа-s-u-m
pn handkerchief- acc flutter- caus -0- tr .3 sg
‘Semien is waving a handkerchief.’

Norwegian Bokmål å vifte

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Per vifte-r med tørkle
pn wave- prs with handkerchief
‘Per is waving a handkerchief.’

Polish machać

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Paweł macha chustk-ą
pn [ nom . sg ] wave: ipfv . prs .3 sg handkerchief- ins . sg
‘Paweł is waving a handkerchief.’

Russian maxatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja maš-et platk-om
pn ( m )- nom . sg wave( ipfv )- prs .3 sg kerchief( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja is waving a handkerchief.’

Serbian mahati

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petar maše maram-om
pn . nom . sg wave. prs .3 sg handkerchief- ins . sg . f
‘Petar is waving a handkerchief.’

Shughni δust weδdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Azim lemol-ak=qati δust weδ-d
pn headscarf- dim = ins hand put- pst
‘Azim is waving a handkerchief.’

Skolt Saami heeilted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt lij heeilte-men nozvaireeʹppǩ-es
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg wave- prog . ptcp handkerchief. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete is waving his handkerchief.’

Slovak mávať

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Peter máva kapesník-om
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] wave( ipfv ). prs .3 sg scarf( m )- ins . sg
‘Peter is waving a scarf.’

Slovenian mahati

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Pavel maha z robčk-om
pn [ nom . sg ] wave: ipfv . prs .3 sg with handkerchief- ins . sg
‘Pavel is waving a handkerchief.’

Sorani Kurdish r̂aweʂandin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa desire-yek r̂a-de-weʂên-ê
pn handkerchief- def prev - ind -hit. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa is waving a handkerchief.’

Spanish agitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro agit-a un pañuelo
pn [ sg . m ] wave- prs .3 sg art . ndef . sg . m handkerchief[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro is waving a handkerchief.’

Swedish att vinka

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Björn vinka-r med en näsduk
pn wave- prs with indf . c . sg handkerchief
‘Björn is waving a handkerchief.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
W<in>a~wagayway ni Pedro ang panyo
< pv > ipfv ~wave pers . gen pn subj handkerchief
‘Pedro is waving the handkerchief.’
Note: Alternative is AV construction, also with the ACT_UND pattern: “Nag-wa~wagayway si Pedro ng panyo” [AV-IPFV~wave PERS.SUBJ PN GEN handkerchief] ‘Pedro is waving a handkerchief’.

Telugu ūpu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ dasti-ni gāli-lo ūputunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom handkerchief( n ). sg . obl - acc wind( n ). sg . obl - loc cause_to_swing. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is waving a handkerchief.’

Turkish sallamak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet mendil-i-ni sallı-yor
pn handkerchief- p .3- acc shake- prs
‘Mehmet is waving his handkerchief.’

Ulcha xarxi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
əńi-n goj sapsi kera-do-ni puŋku-ǯi xarx-i-ni
mother-3 sg other bank edge- dat -3 sg kerchief- ins wave- prs -3 sg
‘His mother is waving a handkerchief on the other bank (of the river).’

Uzbek silkitmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_bilan
X: NOM
Y: bilan
Locus: Y
Petya romali bilan silkit-ib tur-ip-ti
pn handkerchief with wave- cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja is waving a handkerchief.’

West Central Oromo mirmirsa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n alaabaa mirmirs-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom flag. abs wave- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is waving a flag.’

Zilo Andi xʷaʔi-la

Valency pattern: NOM_INST
X: NOM
Y: INST
Locus: Y
pat’imati k’azil-qχi xʷaʔi-la
pn [ f ][ nom ] shawl. obl - inst wave- prs
‘Patimat is waving her shawl.’