BivalTyp

‘wait’

Argument frame: X (wait) for Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. and M. have arranged to meet at 2 p.m. at the post office.) P. is waiting for M .
Predicate label Ru: ждать
Argument frame Ru: X (ждать) Y -а (сына)
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. и М. договорились встретиться в два часа на почте). П. ждет М .

Abaza [z-]pšə

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
b-s-zə-m-pšə́-n
2 sg . f . abs -1 sg . io - ben - neg -wait- neg . imp
‘Don’t wait for me!’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-že

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
č̣ʼelejeʁaǯʼe-r dirjekterə-m j-e-že
teacher- abs director- obl 3 sg . io + dat - dyn -wait
‘The teacher is waiting for the director.’

Aghul ʁuz.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.LAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.LAT
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-q-tːi ʁuz.u-naa
pn pn - post - lat stop. pf - prf
‘Aslan is waiting for Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz guzat aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir rasul guzat yi-raʕaca
pn - erg pn wait do. ipfv - prog . m
‘Terlan is waiting for Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUP.LAT
Locus: Y
paša su<w>kːa-r-ši w-i moħommad-l-tːi-k
pn <1>look- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be pn - obl - sup - lat
‘Pasha is waiting for Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic xaməl

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
yala bəxmal=əl +al švav-u
boy( m ) wait. prog =3 m on neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘The boy is waiting for his neighbor.’

Avar balahun č'eze

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmad-i-q w-alah-un č’-un w-ugo
pn pn - obl - apud m -look- seq stand- seq m - cop
‘Ali is waiting for Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani gözləmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u gözlǝ-yir
pn pn - acc wait- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is waiting for Rasul.’

Bafut júʔûtə́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ júʔûtə́-nɨ̀ sùù
pn sm wait- ipfv pn
‘Ambe is waiting for Suh.’

Bambara kɔ̀nɔ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù Fántà kɔ̀nɔ
pn ipfv pn wait
‘Seku is waiting for Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese esperar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro está esper-ando Miguel
pn ( m ) cop _ prog .3 sg . prs wait- prog pn ( m )
‘Pedro is waiting for Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-a' ʕül ʕave-ci
pn - erg pn - loc eye( a ) a .put_in. pf - nar
‘Aslan is waiting for Rasul.’

Catalan esperar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està esper-ant en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind wait- ger def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere is waiting for Marc.’

Chirag harak-b-i

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le rasul-l-i hara-k-eb-le
pn ( abs ) pn - obl - super post - down -( m . sg )sit: pf + aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali is waiting for Rasul.’

Czech čekat

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr čeká na Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] wait( ipfv ). prs .3 sg on pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr is waiting for Michal.’

Danish vente

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Peter vente-r Marie
pn wait- prs on pn
‘Peter is waiting for Marie.’

Dutch wachten

Valency pattern: SBJ_op
X: SBJ
Y: op
Locus: Y
Piet wacht op Marie
pn (С) wait.3 sg on pn (С)
‘Piet is waiting for Marie.’

Eastern Maninka mákɔ̀nɔn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé Fónbà mákɔ̀nɔn-na.
pn be pn wait- inf . la
‘Seku is waiting for Fomba.’

English wait

Valency pattern: SBJ_for
X: SBJ
Y: for
Locus: Y
Peter is waiting for Mary.

Estonian ootama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter oota-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom wait- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter is waiting for Maret.’

Finnish odottaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka odott-aa Matti-a
pn . nom wait- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka is waiting for Matti’

Forest Enets ɔte

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-da ɔtee
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- obl . sg .3 sg wait( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is waiting for his wife’.

French attendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul attend Marie
pn ( m ) wait. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul is waiting for Marie.’

Georgian Ø-e-lod-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s Ø-e-lod-eb-a
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : r -wait- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre is waiting for Masho.’

German warten

Valency pattern: NOM_aufACC
X: NOM
Y: aufACC
Locus: Y
Karl warte-t auf Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] wait- prs .3 sg on pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl is waiting for Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle mǎa kpɔ̌ŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe káa Hèhee màá kpɔ̀z-î
pn cop pn surface unite- inf
‘Pepee is waiting for Hehee.’

Icari Dargwa tːi-ke=j=g-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-reh tːi-ke=j=ž-ib-ca=w
pn . abs pn - post post - down = m =wait: pf - aor - cop = m
‘Islam is waiting for Nadir.’

Irish fan

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pól ag fanúint le Máire.
be. prs pn at wait. nmlz with pn
‘Pól is waiting for Máire.’
Note: The verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian aspettare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo aspett-a Maria
pn ( m ) wait-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo waits for Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa t'ar-CL-uk'-as (IPFV)

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad t'ar-0-uk'-u-le w-0-ar ʡaˤšura-li-ke
pn look- m -say. ipfv - prs - cvb m -be. ipfv - th pn - obl - super
‘Muhammad is waiting for Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani aźukərəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a aźukər-əl la Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg wait- prs .3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Murša is waiting for Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
fatima maˁhaˁmad.a-z kːilig-ura
pn ( abs ) pn - dat wait.for- prs
‘Fatima is waiting for Mahamad.’

Karata bek’anɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_POST
X: NOM
Y: POST
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmad-i-q w-ok’-an w-uʁ-e idja
pn pn - obl - post m -look- pf m -stay- pf cop
‘Ali is waiting for Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa hereʁkigara

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja miša-j hereʁkiž-ivca
pn pn - datlat wait. pf - perf
‘Petja is waiting for Misha.’

Kazakh tos

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï tos-ïp tur
pn pn - acc wait- cvb stand.3 sg
‘Petya is waiting for Masha.’

Kazym Khanty λawǝλti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en maša-j-ǝλ λawǝλ-λ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg wait- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is waiting for Maša.’

Khoekhoe ǃâu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a ǃâu
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl wait pfv
‘Peter is waiting for Maria’

Khwarshi gic'a

Valency pattern: ABS_CONT.LAT
X: ABS
Y: CONT.LAT
Locus: Y
da hoboža hamaʁe-qo-l=na gic'a-na gołe
1 sg . abs now friend- cont - lat = add wait- pst . u aux . prs
‘I am now waiting for a friend.’

Kina Rutul güzet haɁara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a ramazan güzet haɁa-r=a
pn - erg pn ( nom ) wait 1.do. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is waiting for Ramazan.’

Kumyk gözlemek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat musa-nɨ göz-le-j
pn pn - acc eye- vblz -3 sg
‘Patimat is waiting for Musa.’

Latin maneo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
qui nud-us atque inerm-is host-em mane-a-t
which. nom . sg naked- nom . sg . m and_also unarmed- nom . sg enemy( m )- acc . sg wait- prs . sbjv - act .3 sg
‘That who expected the enemy unarmed and defenceless.’
Note: (Liv. X, 35, 10)

Laz o-čum-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k Mehmet'-i Ø-čum-e(r)-s
pn - b - erg pn - nom do 3-wait- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is waiting for Mehmet' (to come).’

Mandarin Chinese děng

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zhèngzài děng Lǐsì
pn prog wait pn
‘Zhangsan is waiting for Lisi.’

Mano mɛ́ gbṵ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ̄ mɛ́ gbṵ̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg . exi 2 sg prev gather- inf
‘S/he is waiting for you.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
Pajzula le-w ħule Musa-če
pn be- m look pn - super ( lat )
‘Pajzula is waiting for Musa.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian Ø-u-ǯin-e(n)-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-s Ø-u-ǯin-e(n)-Ø
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : o -look.at- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo is waiting for Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew meχake

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas meχake le Menaχem
pn wait[ ptcp . sg . m ] to pn
‘Pinchas is waiting for Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul güzet hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'urban güzet haʔa-ra a
pn - erg pn wait m .do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is waiting for Kurban.’

Nanai xalači-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa xala.či-ni
pn pn - obl wait. ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is waiting for Masha.’

Nivkh ŋarməd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Ajsana + ŋarmə-d
pn pn + wait- ind
‘Kaskazik is waiting for Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh eqquruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
patħudi musa-ga eqq-ohe gudi
pn pn - lat wait- seq . m m . cop
‘Pathudi is waiting for Musa.’

Northern Mansi ūri

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
kūt’uw ūr-i ōtr-e
dog wait- npst .3 sg master- poss .3 sg
‘The dog waits for his master.’

Northern Yukaghir mа̄=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn mа̄-m Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ
pn aff wait- tr .3 sg pn - acc
‘Semien is waiting for Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å vente

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Per vente-r Ola
pn wait- prs on pn
‘Per is waiting for Ola.’

Polish czekać

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Basi-a czeka na kuzynk-ę
pn - nom . sg wait: ipfv . prs .3 sg on cousin- acc . sg
‘Basia is waiting for her cousin.’

Russian ždatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja žd-et Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg wait( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja is waiting for Maša.’

Serbian čekati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar čeka Marij-u
pn . nom . sg wait. prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar is waiting for Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul güzlemiš hɨʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir güzlemiš haʔa-r a karam
pn ( erg ) waiting m .do. ipf - simul exist pn
‘Basir is waiting for Karam.’

Shughni nīstow

Valency pattern: NOM_PREP.UP
X: NOM
Y: PREP.UP
Locus: Y
Azim pi Lola nūs-č
pn prep . up pn sit. m - pf
‘Azim is waiting for Lola.’

Skolt Saami vueʹrdded

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vuârdd Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom wait. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete is waiting for Maria’

Slovak čakať

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Peter čaká na Mark-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] wait( ipfv ). prs .3 sg on pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Peter is waiting for Marek.’

Slovenian čakati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Аn-a čaka sestričn-o
pn - nom . sg wait: ipfv . prs .3 sg female_cousin- acc . sg
‘Ana is waiting for her cousin.’

Sorani Kurdish çawer̂wan bûn

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hîwa çawer̂wan-î Kamr̂an-î-e
pn waiter- izf pn - obl -be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa is waiting for Kamran.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul güzet hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a natig güzet haʔa-r
pn - erg pn wait ( m )do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is waiting for Natig.’

Spanish esperar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro esper-a a María
pn [ sg . m ] wait- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro is waiting for Maria.’

Standard Arabic Ɂintaẓara

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un yantaẓiru Maryam-a
pn - nom wait. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr is waiting for Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø lile-s x-o-γl-i
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : o -wait- prs
‘Maizer is waiting for Lile.’

Swedish att vänta

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Björn vänta-r Maja
pn wait- prs on pn
‘Björn is waiting for Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
nag-hi~hintay si Pedro kay Miguel
av - ipfv ~wait pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro is waiting for Miguel.’
Note: Co-exists with a PV construction.

Telugu edurucūcu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLkosamu
X: NOM
Y: OBLkosamu
Locus: Y
pravīṇ maheṣ kōsamu edurucūstunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl for wait. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is waiting for Mahesh.’

Tsakhur gozet haʔıy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee aydın gozet haʔu-na
pn - erg pn wait ( m )do. pf - h
‘Murad is waiting for Aydin.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa ħerli ha-b-iž-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
rursːi neš-li-ja ħer-li ha-r-iž-ible=sar
girl mother- obl - super ( lat ) look- adv up - f -sit. pfv - pret . cnv = cop : f (3)
‘The girl is waiting for her mother.’

Tsugni Dargwa er-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
rursːi durħaˤ-ge er-le=cari
girl boy- super ( lat ) look- adv = cop : f (3)
‘The girl is waiting for the boy.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish beklemek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i bekli-yor
pn pn - acc wait- prs
‘Mehmet is waiting for Filiz.’

Turoyo noṭər

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel ko-noṭər Yuḥanən
pn prs -wait. ipfv .3 m pn
‘Gabriyel is waiting for Yuḥanən.’

Twi twεn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kofi re-twεn nanabarima
pn prog -wait grandfather
‘Kofi is waiting for grandfather.’

Ulcha xalači-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə əktə piktə-wə xaj-du=nu xalač-i-ni
male child female child- acc what- dat = q wait- prs -3 sg
‘The boy is somewhere waiting for the girl.’

Uzbek kutmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni kut-ib tur-ib-ti
pn pn - acc wait- cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja is waiting for Maša.’

West Central Oromo eega

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n tolaa eeg-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom pn . abs wait- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is waiting for Tola.’

Wolof xaar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
sama jabar laa-y xaar
poss :1 sg wife( j ) f oc o / x .s i :1 sg - incpl wait
‘It’s my wife I’m waiting for.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a Eldar güzlemiș-zva
pn - erg pn wait_ vn - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is waiting for Eldar.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: SBJ.INTR_sero.PSTP
X: SBJ.INTR
Y: sero.PSTP
Locus: Y
o mɨ=sɛro vɨnd-ɛn-o
3 sg . m . abs 1 sg . obl =onto stay. prs - aug -3 sg . m
‘He is waiting for me.’

Zilo Andi tʃ’on

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
pat’imati marjam-ʔo tʃ’on
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn [ f ]- super . lat stand_waiting. pst ( aor )
‘Patimat is waiting for Mariam.’