BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘upset’

Argument frame: X (upset) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. greatly upset M . (He told her that he had spent all the money.)
Predicate label Ru: огорчать
Argument frame Ru: X (огорчать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. очень огорчил М . (Он сказал, что потратил все деньги).

Abaza Y-gʷə X-s

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murád zaréma l-gʷə d-a-s-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . f . io -heart 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io -beat( aor )- dcl
‘Murad upset Zarema.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Adyghe (West Circassian) gʷə xe-ʁe.č̣ʼə

Valency pattern: ERG_NominalPossessor
X: ERG
Y: NominalPossessor
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-m pŝaŝe-m ə-gʷ x-jə-ʁe-č̣ʼə-ʁ
guy- obl girl- obl 3 sg . pr -heart loc : among -3 sg . erg - caus -exit- pst
‘The guy greatly upset the girl.’
Note: Lit. ‘This guy removed the girl’s heart’.

Aghul pašman q’.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a meʜemed pašman q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn sad do. pf - aor
‘Aslan greatly upset Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz pert aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir rasul pert ar-id
pn - erg pn irritated do. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan greatly upset Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: SUP.EL_GEN
X: SUP.EL
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
paša-tː-iš marin-ni-n ikʼʷ aqˁu
pn - sup - el pn - obl - gen heart 4.break. pfv
‘Pasha greatly upset Marina.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic mapyəš ləbba

Valency pattern: SBJ_BARE
X: SBJ
Y: BARE
Locus: Y
a naša +raba ləbb=ət baxt-u muppəš-lə
dem 1. sg person( m ) many heart( m )= rel woman( f )- p .3 m leave. pst - ls .3 m
‘This man greatly upset his wife.’

Avar rek’eq’ɬizabize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca rek’eq’ɬ-izaw-una aħmad
pn - erg regret- caus . m - aor pn
‘Ali greatly upset Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani məyus etmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u çox mǝyus et-di
pn pn - acc very sad do- pst (3)
‘Aslan greatly upset Rasul.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: SBJ_ntong
X: SBJ
Y: ntong
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ ɣᵼ̀rə̂ ntɔ̂ŋ sùù lwǐ ʃíʔí ʃíʔí
pn sm make neck/ prep pn bitter a_lot a_lot
‘Ambe greatly upset Suh.’

Bambara dòn

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù dòn-na Fántà gàsi` lá
pn enter- pfv . intr pn guilt\ art in
‘Seku made Fanta sad.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Brazilian Portuguese ficar chateado

Valency pattern: com_SBJ
X: com
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Miguel fic-ou muito chate-ad-o com Pedro
pn ( m ) get-3 sg . pst very annoy- ptcp - m with pn ( m )
‘Miguel got very upset with Pedro.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Catalan molestar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va molest-ar molt en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind bother- inf a_lot def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere greatly upset Marc.’

Chirag ʡadab b-arq’i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le babaj ʡadab r-arq’-ib-le
pn - erg mother( abs ) upset f . sg -do: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali upset his mother.’

Czech rozesmutnit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr rozesmutni-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] make_sad( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr upset Michal.’

Danish gøre oprørt

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter gjorde Marie meget oprør-t
pn make. pst pn very upset- ptcp . pst . sg
‘Peter greatly upset Marie.’

Dutch teleurstellen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft Marie teleur-ge-stel-d
pn ( c ) have.3 sg pn ( c ) to.loss- ptcp -set- ptcp
‘Piet upset Marie.’

Eastern Maninka jùsumakása

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Fónba kà Sékù jùsumakása
pn aor . tr pn distress
‘Fomba saddened Seku.’

English upset

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter greatly upset Mary.

Estonian pahaseks tegema

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter teg-i Mareti väga pahase-ks
pn . sg . nom make- pst .3 sg pn . sg . gen very upset- transl
‘Peeter made Maret very upset.’

Finnish suututtaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka suututt-i Mati-n pahanpäiväisesti
pn . nom upset- pst .3 sg pn - gen badly
‘Pekka greatly upset Matti.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French chagriner

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a beaucoup chagriné Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg much make_sad. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f )
‘Paul greatly upset Marie.’

Georgian Ø-a-c'q'en-in-eb-s (PRS/FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-m mašo-s ʒalian Ø-a-c'q'en-in-a
pn - erg pn - dat very io 3- caus -break- caus - s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre greatly upset Masho.’

German enttäuschen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl enttäusch-te Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] upset- pst .3 sg pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl upset Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle ɲɛ́i pǎa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àa Hɛ́ni ɲɛ́i páa
pn 3 sg . prf pn face kill
‘Pepee upset Heni.’

Icari Dargwa pašman=r=ih-aq-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il Madina c'aˤq'-il pašman=r=ih-aq-ub
pn - erg pn . abs very- adv disappointment= f = lv : pf - caus - aor
‘Islam greatly upset Madina.’

Irish gortaigh

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Ghortaigh Pól Máire g’ mór.
pst /cause_pain pn pn strongly
‘Pól greatly upset Máire.’

Italian rendere triste

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha reso molto trist-e Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs make. pst . ptcp very sad- sg . f pn ( f )
‘Leo made Maria very sad.’

Kadar Dargwa ʁabundu-CL-uk'-as (IPFV)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li ʁabundu-r-uk'-aq-ib ʡašura
pn - erg grieve- f -say. ipfv - caus - pret pn
‘Muhammad greatly upset Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani xoľarəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a xoľar-ď-a la Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg upset- pst -3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Murša greatly upset Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Fatima-ji dada.ji-z derd tuv-nu
pn - erg mother- dat sadness give- pst
‘Fatima upset her mother.’

Karata rak’wa q’waraɬa

Valency pattern: ERG_POSS
X: ERG
Y: POSS
Locus: Y
ʕali-l aħmat’-i-b rak’wa q’war-a
pn - erg pn - obl - n heart bite- pf
‘Ali greatly upset Ahmat.’
Note: The possessor NP displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Kaytag Dargwa abik:ulaqaχara

Valency pattern: ERG_DATLAT
X: ERG
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja-l c’aq’-li miša-j abik:ulaqiχ-iv
pn - erg power- erg pn - datlat upset. pf - aor
‘Petja greatly upset Misha.’

Kazakh renžіt

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï qattï renž-іt-tі
pn pn - acc strongly upset- caus - pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya upset Masha.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe ǁaixa kai

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge buruxase Maria-s-a ge ǁaixa kai
pn -3 m . sg decl amazingly pn -3 f . sg - obl pst upset cause
‘Peter greatly upset Maria.’

Khwarshi q'ʷarid j/uwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
uža q'ʷarid j-uj-ja išu
son\ erg sad ii -make- pst . w mother
‘The son has upset the mother.’

Kina Rutul *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Kumyk göngün buzmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
musa patimat-nɨ göng-ün buz-d-u
pn pn - gen soul-3 sg . acc spoil- pst -3 sg
‘Musa greatly upset Patimat.’

Latin contristo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
contrista-v-it haec sententi-a Balb-um
upset- prf - ind . act .3 sg this. nom . sg . f decision( f )- nom . sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘This decision upset Balbus.’
Note: (Cic. Ep. ad Fam. 8, 9, 5)

Laz o-č'-u

Valency pattern: ABL_DAT
X: ABL
Y: DAT
Locus: XY
Käzim-i-s Fatma-šen gu(r)-i Ø-a-č'-un-Ø
pn - b - dat pn - abl heart- nom io 3- ver : r -ache- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Fatma makes Käzim’s heart ache.’

Mandarin Chinese xīnfán

Valency pattern: SBJ_rang
X: SBJ
Y: rang
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān ràng Lǐsì hěn xīnfán
pn make pn very upset
‘Zhangsan greatly upset Lisi.’
Note: Here, "ràng" is treated as an argument-marking device, but its status is controversial.

Mano kɛ̄ yéŋ̀zɛ̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋ̄ kɛ̄ yéŋ̀zɛ̀
3 sg . pst 1 sg do unhappy
‘S/he upset me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Islam-ini wahaj-le pašman d-aq'-ib Madina
pn - erg bad- advz sad f -do: pfv - pst pn
‘Islam greatly upset Madina.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-c'q'in-eb-apu-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k anučia-s mangaro(t) Ø-o-c'q'in-eb-ap-u
pn - erg pn - dat greatly io 3- caus -upset- r . ext - caus - s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo greatly upset Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew hirgiz

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas hirgiz meod et Mirjam
pn upset[ pst .3 sg . m ] much do pn
‘Pinchas greatly upset Miriam.’

Mukhad Rutul pašmal hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'urban pašmal hıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn sad m .do. pf - aor
‘Murad greatly upset Kurban.’

Nanai orkila opowan-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Petia Maša do-ni orke-la o-powaŋ-ki-ni
pn pn inside- p .3 sg bad- adv become- caus - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia greatly upset Masha.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh rak’wa baq’q’weloot’uruƛa

Valency pattern: ERG_POSS
X: ERG
Y: POSS
Locus: Y
pataħi-de čaka rak’wa b-aq’q’weloot’-ari madina-ƛƛi
pn - erg very heart n -dry. caus - aor pn - gen
‘Patahi greatly upset Madina.’

Northern Mansi xotkantmaltas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pīj ɕān’-e takiɕ xot-kantm-alt-as-t-e
son mother- poss .3 sg strongly off-be.angry- caus - pst - sg . o -3 sg . s
‘The son made the mother very angry.’

Northern Yukaghir habuguriǝsǝ=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ hаbuguriǝ-sǝ-m
pn pn - acc aff take_offence- caus - tr .3 sg
‘Semien greatly upset Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å gjøre trist

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per gjor-de Ola svært trist
pn make- pst pn very sad
‘Per greatly upset Ola.’

Polish zasmucić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Paweł bardzo zasmuci-ł Magd-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] very upset: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Paweł greatly upset Magda.’

Russian ogorčitʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja očenʹ ogorči-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg very upset( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja greatly upset Maša.’

Serbian rastužiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je mnogo rastuži-o Marij-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg very upset- part . perf . m . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar greatly upset Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul χatir atk hɨʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: ERG_ATTR
X: ERG
Y: ATTR
Locus: Y
basir bala-na χatir atk hɨʔɨ-r karam-dɨ
pn ( erg ) much- adv grudge n .remain. cov n .do. pf - aor pn - attr
‘Basir greatly upset Karam.’

Shughni xafā čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Towus=i xu amsoya xafā čūd
pn =3 sg refl neighbour upset do. pst
‘Towus upset her neighbour.’

Skolt Saami *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Slovak rozrušiť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter veľmi rozruši-l Mark-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] very make_sad( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Peter upset Marek.’

Slovenian razžalostiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel je zelo razžalosti-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg very upset: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel greatly upset Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish bêzar kirdin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa Perî-î zor bêzar kird-Ø
pn pn =3 sg . pc very upset do. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa greatly upset Pari.’

Southern Rutul paşmal hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a aydın paşmal hıʔı-r
pn - erg pn sad m .do. pf - aor
‘Murad greatly upset Aydin.’

Spanish afligir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro afligi-ó mucho a María
pn [ sg . m ] upset- aor .3 sg very dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro greatly upset Maria.’

Standard Arabic Ɂāḏā

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un Ɂāḏā Maryam-a
pn - nom hurt. pf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr greatly upset Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-d lile-s gwi-Ø a-[x]-γzigwn-e
pn - erg pn - dat heart- nom prv : dist -[ io 3]-hurt
‘Maizer greatly upset Lile (lit. ‘Maizer disturbed Lile's heart’).’

Swedish att göra upprörd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn gjor-de Maja väldigt upprör-d
pn make- pst pn very upset- ptcp . c . sg
‘Björn greatly upset Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
I<ni>nis ni Pedro si Miguel
< pv > pfv .upset pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro greatly upset Miguel’

Telugu duḥkhaparucu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni cālā duḥkhaparicāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc very upset. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen greatly upset Mahesh.’

Tsakhur pašman haʔiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee rasul geer pašman haʔu
pn - erg pn very. h sad ( m )do. pf
‘Murad greatly upset Rasul.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa waˤl b-iχ-aq-iz

Valency pattern: ERG/LOC(LAT)_DAT
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
uršːi-le juldaš-li-z waˤl b-iχ-aq-ub
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) friend- obl - dat bad n -be. pfv - caus - pret (3)
‘The boy greatly upset his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa pašman b-arq'-i / b-irq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li zumra pašman w-arq'-ib
boy- erg neighbor sad m -do. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy greatly upset his neighbor.’

Turkish üzmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Orhan Mehmed-i üz-dü
pn pn - acc upset- pst
‘Orhan upset Mehmet.’

Turoyo qḥiro + COP

Valency pattern: SBJ_m
X: SBJ
Y: m
Locus: Y
Maryam qḥərto wa me Mixoyel
pn angry( f ) cop . pst from pn
‘Maryam was upset wich Michael.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Ulcha *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Uzbek qayɣittirmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni qayɣit-tir-di
pn pn - acc upset- caus - pst .3 sg
‘Petja greatly upset Maša.’

West Central Oromo mufattʃiisa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n boontuu baajjee mufattʃiis-e
pn - nom pn . abs greatly be_annoyed. caus -3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa greatly upset Bontu.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a Eldar ppara ppașman-ar-na
pn - erg pn much sad- caus - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib greatly upset Eldar.’

Zilo Andi waswasil-ʔo <j>-ukː-oɬ.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di waswasil-ʔo j-ukː-oɬ.i marjam
pn - erg doubt. obl - super . lat f -fall- caus . pst ( aor ) pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat upset Mariam.’