BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘understand (language)’

Argument frame: X (understand) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. understands French .
Predicate label Ru: понимать#язык#
Argument frame Ru: X (понимать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. понимает французский язык .

Abaza ʕa-[gʷə.n-]ʕʷə

Valency pattern: LOCgwene_ABS
X: LOCgwene
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fatíma francúz–bəzŝá ʕá-l-gʷə.n-ʕʷ-əj-d
pn f rench–language cisl -3 sg . f . io - loc -understand- prs - dcl
‘Fatima understands French.’

Aghul ʁawur.di arx.a-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan ʡurus č’al.a-n ʁawur.di arx.a-a
pn russian speech- gen understanding( in ) { in }get. ipf - prs
‘Aslan understands Russian.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṗarmə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brun-i +ṗarmuy=əl lišana=ət suray
son( m )- p .1 sg understand. prog =3 m language( m )= rel a ssyrian. pl
‘My son understands the Assyrian language.’

Brazilian Portuguese entender

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro entend-e francês
pn ( m ) understand-3 sg . prs f rench( m )
‘Pedro understands French.’

Catalan entendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere entèn francès
def . sg . m pn ( m ) understand.3 sg . prs . ind f rench( m )
‘Pere understands French.’

Czech rozumět

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr rozumí francouzštin-ě
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] understand( ipfv ). prs .3 sg f rench- f . dat . sg
‘Petr understands French.’

Danish forstå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter forstå-r fransk
pn understand- prs french( n ). sg
‘Peter understands French.’

Dutch verstaan

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet verstaa-t Frans
pn ( c ) understand-3 sg f rench
‘Piet understands French.’

Estonian aru saama

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Peeter saa-b prantsuse keele-st aru
pn . sg . nom get- prs .3 sg f rench language- ela wit. sg . part
‘Peeter understands French.’

Finnish ymmärtää

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka ymmärt-ää ranska-a
pn . nom understand- prs .3 sg f rench- part
‘Pekka understands French.’

Forest Enets kameku

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲurak baza kamekuɔ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg n enets language understand( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend understands the Nenets language’.

German verstehen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl versteh-t Französisch
pn [ nom . sg ] understand- prs .3 sg f rench[ acc . sg }
‘Karl understands French.’

Italian capire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo capisc-e il frances-e
pn ( m ) understand-3 sg . prs def . sg . m f rench- sg . m
‘Leo understands French.’

Kazakh tüs-іn

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya frantsuwz tіl-і-n tüs-іn-edі
pn f rench language- poss 3- acc understand- refl - prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya understands the French language.’

Kazym Khanty χǫλti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en χǎnti jasǝŋ χǫλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg k hanty language hear. npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja understands the Khanty language.’

Latin scio

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
is omn-is lingu-as sci-t, sed dissimula-t sci-ens ne sci-re
that. nom . sg . m each- acc . pl language( f )- acc . pl know[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg but hide[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg know- prs . ptcp . act . nom . sg not know[ prs . act ]- inf
‘He knows all languages, but, knowing them, simulates not knowing (them).’
Note: (Pl. Poen. 112)

Modern Hebrew mevin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas mevin tsarfatit
pn understand[ ptcp . sg . m ] f rench
‘Pinchas understands French.’

Nanai otoli-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia francuskij xəsə-wə otoli-ni
pn f rench word- obl be_able. npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia understands French.’

Nivkh jajmd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik lоci + duf j-ajm-d
pn r ussian + language 3 sg -understand- ind
‘Kaskazik understands Russian.’

Norwegian Bokmål å forstå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per forstå-r fransk
pn understand- prs f rench
‘Per understands French.’

Polish rozumieć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Staszek rozumie język francusk-i
pn [ nom . sg ] understand: ipfv . prs .3 sg language[ acc . sg ] f rench- m . acc . sg
‘Staszek understands French.’

Russian ponimatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja ponima-et francuzsk-ij jazyk
pn ( m )- nom . sg understand( ipfv )- prs .3 sg f rench- m . acc . sg language( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja understands French.’

Rutul gijirq’ara

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB
X: NOM
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul francuskij č’ilɨ-χda gi-jirq’a-r=a
pn ( nom ) french language. obl - sub pv -1.understand. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul understands French.’

Serbian razumi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar razume francusk-i jezik
pn . nom . sg понимать. prs .3 sg французский- acc . sg . m язык. acc . sg
‘Петар понимает французский язык.’

Shughni fāmtow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Saida xuɣ̌nůni fam-t
pn s hughni know-3 sg
‘Saida understands Shughni.’

Skolt Saami fiʹttjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt fiʹttai franskk-ǩiõl
pn . sg . nom understand. prs .3 sg f rench-language. sg . acc
‘Pete understands French.’

Slovenian razumeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter razume francosk-i jezik
pn [ nom . sg ] understand: ipfv . prs .3 sg f rench- acc . sg . m language[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter understands French.’

Spanish entender

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro entiend-e el francés
pn [ sg . m ] understand- prs .3 sg art . def . sg . m f rench[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro understands French.’

Swedish att förstå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn förstå-r franska
pn understand- prs f rench
‘Björn understands French.’

Turkish anlamak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Fransız dil-i-ni anlı-yor
pn f rench language- p .3- acc understand- prs
‘Mehmet understands the French language.’

Ulcha utuli-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama nāńi xəsə-wə-n utul-i-ni
father u lcha word- acc -3 sg understand- prs -3 sg
‘Father understands Ulcha.’

Zilo Andi batʃ’ː.u-mado

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
he-ge-ʃːu-<b>o b-atʃ’ː.u-mado hin-gi-b-ul roʃol
dem - ll - obl - aff < inan 1> inan 1- pl \understand. pst - prog dem - ll - inan 1- pl [ nom ] word[ inan 1]. pl [ nom ]
‘He understands these words.’