BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘understand (language)’

Argument frame: X (understand) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. understands French .
Predicate label Ru: понимать#язык#
Argument frame Ru: X (понимать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. понимает французский язык .

Abaza ʕa-[gʷə.n-]ʕʷə

Valency pattern: LOCgwene_ABS
X: LOCgwene
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fatíma francúz–bəzŝá ʕá-l-gʷə.n-ʕʷ-əj-d
pn f rench–language cisl -3 sg . f . io - loc -understand- prs - dcl
‘Fatima understands French.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) qə-gʷə-rə-ʔʷe

Valency pattern: LOC.HEART.PRV.INSTR_ABS
X: LOC.HEART.PRV.INSTR
Y: ABS
Locus: X
pŝaŝe-m frencʷəzə–bze-r qə-gʷə-r-e-ʔʷe
girl- obl f rench–language- abs csl - loc : heart - instr - dyn -say
‘The girl understands French.’

Aghul ʁawur.di arx.a-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan ʡurus č’al.a-n ʁawur.di arx.a-a
pn russian speech- gen understanding( in ) { in }get. ipf - prs
‘Aslan understands Russian.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Alik Kryz q'aleʕ ʕarfic

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
terlan fransuz-ca q'aleʕ ʕarfar-e
pn f rench- obl . in head. obl . in m .go(down). ipfv - prs . m
‘Terlan understands French.’

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s francija-li-n čʼat sini
pn - dat f rance- obl - gen language know
‘Pasha understands the French language.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (so-called "stative").

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṗarmə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brun-i +ṗarmuy=əl lišana=ət suray
son( m )- p .1 sg understand. prog =3 m language( m )= rel a ssyrian. pl
‘My son understands the Assyrian language.’

Avar bič’č’ize

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-da parang mac’ b-ič’č’-ula
pn - loc f rench tongue n -understand- ipf
‘Ali understands French.’

Azerbaijani başa düşmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan fransız dil-i-ni baş-a düş-ür
pn f rench language- poss 3- acc head- dat / lat descend- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan understands French.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ júʔú-nɨ̀ ɣàâ tó njá
pn sm hear- ipfv language country def
‘Ambe understands the country’s language.’

Bambara fàamu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye kúma ìn fàamu
pn pfv . tr speech this understand
‘Seku understood these words.’

Brazilian Portuguese entender

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro entend-e francês
pn ( m ) understand-3 sg . prs f rench( m )
‘Pedro understands French.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
aslan fireng-co mez q'ala' ʕaraq'ar-i
pn f rench- obl . gen tongue( a ) head. obl . loc m .enter. ipf - prs
‘Aslan understands French.’

Catalan entendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere entèn francès
def . sg . m pn ( m ) understand.3 sg . prs . ind f rench( m )
‘Pere understands French.’

Chirag čaʁʷi

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
taˤ admi-l-i nixːa-la kub čarʁʷ-le
dem . dist man- obl - super we. incl - gen language( abs ) understand- dur . prs .3
‘That man understands our language.’

Czech rozumět

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr rozumí francouzštin-ě
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] understand( ipfv ). prs .3 sg f rench- f . dat . sg
‘Petr understands French.’

Danish forstå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter forstå-r fransk
pn understand- prs french( n ). sg
‘Peter understands French.’

Dutch verstaan

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet verstaa-t Frans
pn ( c ) understand-3 sg f rench
‘Piet understands French.’

Eastern Maninka ɲáye

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé fàranse` ɲáye-la.
pn be f rench\ art understand- inf . la
‘Seku understands French.’

English understand

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter understands French.

Estonian aru saama

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Peeter saa-b prantsuse keele-st aru
pn . sg . nom get- prs .3 sg f rench language- ela wit. sg . part
‘Peeter understands French.’

Finnish ymmärtää

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka ymmärt-ää ranska-a
pn . nom understand- prs .3 sg f rench- part
‘Pekka understands French.’

Forest Enets kameku

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲurak baza kamekuɔ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg n enets language understand( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend understands the Nenets language’.

French comprendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul comprend l’ allemand
pn ( m ) understand. prs .3 sg def . sg . m g erman( m )
‘Paul understands German.’

Georgian Ø-e-sm-i-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s prangul-i Ø-e-sm-i-s
pn - dat f rench- nom io 3- ver : r -hear- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre understands French.’

German verstehen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl versteh-t Französisch
pn [ nom . sg ] understand- prs .3 sg f rench[ acc . sg }
‘Karl understands French.’
Note: In this example, the second argument is not a real NP, but with different arguments, the pattern is clearly transitive.

Guinean Kpelle mǎŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe kpɛ̀lɛɛwoo màŋ
pn 3 sg . hab kpelle-language\ l understand\ l
‘Pepee understands the Kpelle language.’

Icari Dargwa irʁ-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il francuz-a-lla ʁaj irʁ-a-ca=d
pn - erg f renchman- pl . obl - gen language. abs understand: ipf - prs - cop = npl
‘Islam understands French.’

Irish tuig

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Tuig-eann Pól Fraincis.
understand- prs pn f rench
‘Pól understands French.’

Italian capire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo capisc-e il frances-e
pn ( m ) understand-3 sg . prs def . sg . m f rench- sg . m
‘Leo understands French.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-ah-es / CL-al-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li francuzskij mez d-al-a
pn - erg f rench language npl -know. ipfv - th
‘Muhammad understands French.’

Kalderash Romani aťarəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a aťarə-l francusko śib
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg understand- prs .3 sg f rench language[ acc . sg ]
‘Murša understands French.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_GEN
X: ABS
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
maˁhaˁmad aˁrab č’al.na-n ʁav.ri aq-ra
pn ( abs ) a rab language- gen consciousness( in ) ( h . sg )fall- prs
‘Mahamad understands the Arab language.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Karata b-ič’č’aɬa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja parank’dilo-b mac’c’i b-ič’č’-eda
pn . dat f rench- n tongue n -understand- ipf
‘Ali understands French.’

Kaytag Dargwa irʁara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l irğ-ulca franciaˁl-la ğaj
pn - erg understand. ipf - prs f rench. pl . obl - gen word( npl )
‘Petja understands French.’

Kazakh tüs-іn

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya frantsuwz tіl-і-n tüs-іn-edі
pn f rench language- poss 3- acc understand- refl - prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya understands the French language.’

Kazym Khanty χǫλti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en χǎnti jasǝŋ χǫλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg k hanty language hear. npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja understands the Khanty language.’

Khoekhoe ǁnâuǃā

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Herero-b-a ra ǁnâuǃā
pn -3 m . sg decl h erero-3 m . sg - obl ipfv understand
‘Peter understands Herero.’

Khwarshi bič'ida

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
di-l dahab bič’i:da aƛ'ilzis mec
1 sg . o - dat small understand\ gnt k hwarshi language( iii )
‘I understand Khwarshi a bit.’

Kina Rutul gijirq’ara

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB
X: NOM
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul francuskij č’ilɨ-χda gi-jirq’a-r=a
pn ( nom ) french language. obl - sub pv -1.understand. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul understands French.’

Kumyk anglamaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat francuz til-ni ang-la-j
pn f rench language- acc conscious- vblz -3 sg
‘Patimat understands French.’

Latin scio

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
is omn-is lingu-as sci-t, sed dissimula-t sci-ens ne sci-re
that. nom . sg . m each- acc . pl language( f )- acc . pl know[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg but hide[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg know- prs . ptcp . act . nom . sg not know[ prs . act ]- inf
‘He knows all languages, but, knowing them, simulates not knowing (them).’
Note: (Pl. Poen. 112)

Laz o-c'on-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k almanǯa-Ø oxo-Ø-c'on-am-s
pn - b - erg g erman- nom prv - do 3-memorize- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim understands German.’

Mandarin Chinese dǒng

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān dǒng fǎyǔ
pn understand f rench
‘Zhangsan understands French.’

Mano mā

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ máá wè mā
3 sg . ipfv m ano speech hear: ipfv
‘S/he understands Mano.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: CONT.LAT_NOM
X: CONT.LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-ize francuz-ane-la mez irʁ-an
pn - cont ( lat ) f rench- pl - gen language hear: ipfv - hab
‘Islam understands French.’

Mingrelian Ø-a-rčkil-en-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
čelo-s šonur-(i) Ø-a-rčkil-e(n)-Ø
pn - dat s van-( nom ) io 3- pot -hear- pot - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo understands Svan.’
Note: The verb is the lexicalized potential form of ‘to hear’.

Modern Hebrew mevin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas mevin tsarfatit
pn understand[ ptcp . sg . m ] f rench
‘Pinchas understands French.’

Mukhad Rutul gijq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad francuz-aš-dı č'ili-χda gijq'a-ra
pn f rench- hpl . obl - gen word. obl - apud m .understand. ipf - hab
‘Murad understands French.’

Nanai otoli-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia francuskij xəsə-wə otoli-ni
pn f rench word- obl be_able. npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia understands French.’

Nivkh jajmd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik lоci + duf j-ajm-d
pn r ussian + language 3 sg -understand- ind
‘Kaskazik understands Russian.’

Northern Akhvakh bič’č’uruƛa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-ƛa francuzskij bič’č’il-eri
pn - dat f rench understand- ipf 3
‘Patahi understands French.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir möri=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn čupčǝ-d-аrū-lǝ möri-m
pn c hukchi- gen -language- acc aff understand- tr .3 sg
‘Semien understands Chukchi.’

Norwegian Bokmål å forstå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per forstå-r fransk
pn understand- prs f rench
‘Per understands French.’

Polish rozumieć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Staszek rozumie język francusk-i
pn [ nom . sg ] understand: ipfv . prs .3 sg language[ acc . sg ] f rench- m . acc . sg
‘Staszek understands French.’

Russian ponimatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja ponima-et francuzsk-ij jazyk
pn ( m )- nom . sg understand( ipfv )- prs .3 sg f rench- m . acc . sg language( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja understands French.’

Serbian razumeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar razume francusk-i jezik
pn . nom . sg understand. prs .3 sg f rench- acc . sg . m language. acc . sg
‘Petar understands French.’

Shinaz Rutul gijq'ɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
basir gijq'ɨ-j francuz č'il-ɨχda
pn m .understand. pf - aor . m f rench language. obl - apud
‘Basir understands French.’

Shughni fāmtow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Saida xuɣ̌nůni fam-t
pn s hughni know-3 sg
‘Saida understands Shughni.’

Skolt Saami fiʹttjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt fiʹttai franskk-ǩiõl
pn . sg . nom understand. prs .3 sg f rench-language. sg . acc
‘Pete understands French.’

Slovak rozumieť

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter rozumie francúzštin-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] understand( ipfv ). prs .3 sg f rench( f )- dat . sg
‘Peter understands French.’

Slovenian razumeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter razume francosk-i jezik
pn [ nom . sg ] understand: ipfv . prs .3 sg f rench- acc . sg . m language[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter understands French.’

Sorani Kurdish têgeîʂtin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa Fer̂anseî tê-de-g-a
pn f rench prev - ind -arrive. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa understands French.’

Southern Rutul başa itxhun

Valency pattern: DAT.AGR_NOM
X: DAT.AGR
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ıs fransız ç'al baş-a iyxhu-r
np - dat f rench language( a ) head- in m .fall_in. ipf - predic
‘Murad understands French.’
Note: Exceptionally, the verb agrees with the X argument in the dative case.

Spanish entender

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro entiend-e el francés
pn [ sg . m ] understand- prs .3 sg art . def . sg . m f rench[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro understands French.’

Standard Arabic fahima

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un yafhamu l-faransiyyat-a
pn - nom understand. ipf .3 m def - f rench( f )- acc
‘Badr understands French.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s lǝznu nin-Ø x-e-sm-i
pn - dat m egrelian language- nom io 3- ver : r -hear- prs
‘Maizer does not understand Megrelian.’

Swedish att förstå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn förstå-r franska
pn understand- prs f rench
‘Björn understands French.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Naka-ka~intindi si Pedro ng French
pot . av - ipfv ~understand pers . subj pn gen f rench
‘Pedro understands French.’

Telugu arthamu agu

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pravīṇ-ki preṁcibhāṣa artham' avutuṁdi
pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat f rench_language( n ). sg . nom meaning( n ). sg . nom become. npst .3 sg . nm
‘Praveen understands French.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsakhur vaats’iy

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-k’le tatar-sum vats’a-na
pn - obl - aff t atar-language( a ) a .know. ipf - a
‘Murad understands the Tatar language.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa arʁ-iz/irʁ-iz

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-z ʡurus mec irʁ-ule=sad
boy- dat russian language understand. ipfv - prog . cnv = cop . npl (3)
‘The boy understands Russian.’

Tsugni Dargwa arʁ-i / irʁ-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j ʡurus mec irʁ-u
boy- dat r ussian language understand. ipfv -3 hab . prs
‘The boy understands Russian.’

Turkish anlamak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Fransız dil-i-ni anlı-yor
pn f rench language- p .3- acc understand- prs
‘Mehmet understands the French language.’

Turoyo fohəm

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_DO.LS
X: SBJ.SS
Y: DO.LS
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-fohəm faransawi
pn prs -understand. ipfv .3 m f rench
‘Gabriyel understands French.’

Ulcha utuli-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama nāńi xəsə-wə-n utul-i-ni
father u lcha word- acc -3 sg understand- prs -3 sg
‘Father understands Ulcha.’

Uzbek tušunmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya francuz tili-ni tušun-a-di
pn f rench language- acc understand- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja understands French.’

West Central Oromo ɗagaʔa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
boontuu-n afaan faransaayii ɗageessi
pn - nom language. abs f rance. gen hear.3 sg . f . ipfv
‘Bontu understands French.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Sahib fransuz çˈal-a-n ʕavur-d-a aqˈa-zva
pn f rench language- obl - gen understanding- obl - in bump. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib understands French.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Zilo Andi batʃ’ː.u-mado

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
he-ge-ʃːu-<b>o b-atʃ’ː.u-mado hin-gi-b-ul roʃol
dem - ll - obl - aff < inan 1> inan 1- pl \understand. pst - prog dem - ll - inan 1- pl [ nom ] word[ inan 1]. pl [ nom ]
‘He understands these words.’