BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘trust’

Argument frame: X (trust) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. and M. have a happy family. M. never deceives P.) P. trusts M .
Predicate label Ru: доверять
Argument frame Ru: X (доверять) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (У П. и М. дружная семья, М. никогда не обманывает П.) П. доверяет М .

Abaza [z-]qa-c̣a

Valency pattern: ERG_BEN
X: ERG
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
fatíma murád jə-z-qá-l-c̣-əj-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . m . io - ben - loc -3 sg . f . erg -believe- prs - dcl
‘Fatima trusts Murad.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) cəhe fe-ṣ̂ə

Valency pattern: ERG_BEN
X: ERG
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-m pŝaŝe-m cəhe f-j-e-ṣ̂ə
guy- obl girl- obl trust ben -3 sg . erg - dyn -do
‘The girl trusts the guy.’

Aghul quχ.a-

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
aslan uč.i-n čːučːu-q quχ.a-a
pn self- gen brother- post believe. ipf - prs
‘Aslan trusts his brother.’

Alik Kryz ihtibar varic

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
terlan-ir leyla-ğ ihtibar yi-ryu
pn - erg pn - super respect( f ) do. ipfv - prs . f
‘Terlan trusts Leyla.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
paša marin-n-it wiχ
pn pn - obl - sup be.trusting
‘Pasha trusts Marina.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (so-called "stative").

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic avə +ərxay

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
+avvo naša +ərxay=ələ bi baxt-u
dem 3. m person( m ) secure=3 m with woman( f )- p .3 m
‘This man trusts his wife.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate, avə is 'to be'. +ərxay is a dialect realization of +arxayən.

Avar božize

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ʕali bož-ula marjam-i-da
pn trust- ipf pn - obl - loc
‘Ali trusts Marjam.’

Azerbaijani etibar etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla-ya etibar ed-ir
pn pn - dat / lat trust do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan trusts Leyla.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: SBJ_nu
X: SBJ
Y: nu
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ bíí-nᵼ̀ nú sùù
pn sm agree- ipfv body/ prep pn
‘Ambe trusts Suh.’

Bambara dá

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù dá-len bɛ́ Fántà lá
pn lie.down- ptcp . res be pn in
‘Seku trusts Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese confiar

Valency pattern: SBJ_em
X: SBJ
Y: em
Locus: Y
Pedro confi-a em Maria
pn ( m ) trust-3 sg . prs in pn ( f )
‘Pedro trusts Maria.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır leyla' eħtiba'r süʔü-rü
pn - erg pn trust( a ) a .do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan trusts Leyla.’

Catalan confiar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
en Pere confi-a en la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) trust-3 sg . prs . ind in def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere trusts Maria.’

Chirag iχtibar ke-b-išːi

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰li-le cin-na xadi-l-i iχtibar ke-b-irxː-le
pn - erg self. sg - gen wife- obl - super permission( abs ) down - n . sg -put: pf - dur . prs .3
‘Ali trusts his wife.’

Czech věřit

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr věří Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] trust( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr trusts Michal.’

Danish stole

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Peter stole-r Marie
pn rely- prs on pn
‘Peter trusts Marie.’

Dutch vertrouwen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet vertrouw-t Marie
pn ( c ) trust-3 sg pn ( c )
‘Piet trusts Marie.’

Eastern Maninka lá

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù lá-nin Fántà lá.
pn lay- ptcp . res pn at
‘Seku trusts Fanta.’

English trust

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter trusts Mary.

Estonian usaldama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter usalda-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom trust- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter trusts Maret.’

Finnish luottaa

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Pekka luott-aa Matti-in
pn . nom trust- prs .3 sg pn - ill
‘Pekka trusts Matti.’

Forest Enets dʲeɔdur

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ nɛ-xo-da dʲeɔduŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg trust( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend trusts his wife’.

French faire confiance

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul fait confiance à Marie
pn ( m ) make. prs .3 sg trust( f ) to pn ( f )
‘Paul trusts Marie.’

Georgian Ø-e-nd-ob-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s Ø-e-nd-ob-a
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : r -trust- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre trusts Masho.’

German vertrauen

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Karl vertrau-t Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] trust- prs .3 sg pn [ dat . sg ]
‘Karl trusts Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle láa

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Pépèe láa-ì Hèhee lá
pn lie.stat- pred pn on2
‘Pepee trusts Hehee.’

Icari Dargwa či=w=iχː-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam Madina-lij či=w=iχː-a-ca=w
pn . abs pn - suplat on = m =believe: ipf - prs - cop = m
‘Islam trusts Madina.’

Irish bí muinín

Valency pattern: aige_as
X: aige
Y: as
Locus: XY
muinín aige Pól as Mháire.
be. prs trust at pn from pn
‘Pól trusts Máire.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian fidarsi

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
Leo si fid-a di Maria
pn ( m ) refl trust-3 sg . prs of pn ( f )
‘Leo trusts Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa mar-CL-uh-es / mar-CL-ur-es

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad mar-0-ur-ar ʡašura-ke
pn true- m -become. ipfv - th pn - super
‘Muhammad trusts Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani paťalpe

Valency pattern: NOM_ande
X: NOM
Y: ande
Locus: Y
o Murš-a paťa-l-pe ande Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg believe- prs .3 sg - refl in pn - nom . sg
‘Murša trusts Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: GEN_ABS
X: GEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasul.i-n maˁhaˁmad.ǯi-in quʁval al
pn - gen pn - super trust( abs ) (super)be
‘Rasul trusts Mahamad’.
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Karata bežwaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali marjam-ja bež-uda
pn pn - dat trust- ipf
‘Ali trusts Marjam.’

Kaytag Dargwa inaldibarara

Valency pattern: GEN_DATLAT
X: GEN
Y: DATLAT
Locus: XY
petja-la maša-j inaldi bi
pn - gen pn - datlat trusting n . cop
‘Petja trusts Misha.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kazakh sen

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ɣa sen-edі
pn pn - dat trust- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya trusts Masha.’

Kazym Khanty ewǝλti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en maša-j-en-a ewǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg - dat believe. npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja trusts Maša.’

Khoekhoe ǂgomǃgâ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a ǂgomǃgâ
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl trust pfv
‘Peter trusts Maria.’

Khwarshi buža

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
c'aldoq'an buža-ha učitel-ƛ'o
pupil believe- prs teacher- super
‘The pupil trusts the teacher.’

Kina Rutul ilamiš riɁi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
madina ilamiš r-iɁi ǯi-dɨ χɨnχ-ɨ
pn ( nom ) trust 2- cop self- attr child- obl ( sup )
‘Madina trusts her child.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kumyk inanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
patimat musa-ʁa inan-a
pn pn - dat trust-3 sg
‘Patimat trusts Musa.’

Latin fido

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ut nec duc-i milit-es, nec milit-ibus dux satis fide-re-t
conj and_not general( m )- dat . sg soldier( m )- dat . pl and_not soldier( m )- dat . pl general( m ). nom . sg enough trust- ipfv . sbjv - act .3 sg
‘... when neither the soldiers trust the general, nor the general suffieciently relied on the soldiers.’
Note: (Liv. X, 18, 6)

Laz o-nd-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s Fatma-Ø Ø-o-nd-un-Ø
pn - b - dat pn - nom io 3- ver : sup -trust- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim trusts Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese xìnrèn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān xìnrèn Lǐsì
pn trust pn
‘Zhangsan trusts Lisi.’

Mano láá

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
ŋ́ŋ̀ làà là
1 sg . ipfv spread: ipfv 3 sg on
‘I trust him.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: GEN_SUPER.LAT
X: GEN
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: XY
Islam-la d-irχ-deš le-r Madina-če
pn - gen npl -believe: ipfv - nmlz be- npl pn - super ( lat )
‘Islam trusts Madina.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Mingrelian Ø-o-nd-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-s Ø-o-nd-u(n)-Ø
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : sup -trust- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo trusts Anuchia.’
Note: This verb phrase is a recent calque from Georgian.

Modern Hebrew someχ

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
Pinχas someχ al Menaχem
pn trust[ ptcp . sg . m ] on pn
‘Pinchas trusts Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul iχtibar vıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad-a majram-ıı iχtibar vaʔa-ra
pn - erg pn - super trust( a ) a .do. ipf - hab
‘Murad trusts Majram.’

Nanai agdača-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wə agda-ča-j-ni
pn pn - obl believe- res - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia trusts Masha.’

Nivkh jaχtt

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT/ADD
X: SBJ
Y: DAT/ADD
Locus: Y
Kaskazik Ajsana-rоχ j-aχt-t
pn pn - dat / add 3 sg -trust- ind
‘Kaskazik trusts Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh bužuruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
pataħi madina-ga buž-iri
pn pn - lat believe- ipf 3
‘Patahi trusts Madina.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir ǝwiǝ=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ mǝr ǝwiǝ-m
pn pn - acc aff believe- tr .3 sg
‘Semien trusts Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å stole på

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per stole-r Kari
pn trust- prs on pn
‘Per trusts Kari.’
Note: Phrasal verb ( is not a flagging device).

Polish ufać

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Michał ufa Janas-owi
pn [ nom . sg ] trust: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg
‘Michał trusts Janas.’

Russian doverjatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja doverja-et Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg trust( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja trusts Maša.’

Serbian imati poverenje

Valency pattern: NOM_uACC
X: NOM
Y: uACC
Locus: Y
Petar ima poverenj-e u Marij-u
pn . nom . sg have. prs .3 sg trust- acc . sg in pn - acc . sg
‘Petar trusts Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul umud v-iši-n

Valency pattern: ATTR_SUPER
X: ATTR
Y: SUPER
Locus: XY
basir-dɨ hamıʔ umud ʁa peri-j
pn - attr now trust( a ) be_on pn - super
‘Basir trusts Peri.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The possessor NP displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Shughni bowar δêdow1

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
Ahmed Saida-ra bowari δī-d
pn pn - lat trust give-3 sg
‘Ahmed trusts Saida.’

Skolt Saami naʹddjõõttâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt naʹddjââtt Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom trust. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete trusts Maria’

Slovak dôverovať

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter dôveruje Mári-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] trust( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Peter trusts Maria.’

Slovenian zaupati

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter zaupa An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] trust: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - dat . sg . f
‘Peter trusts Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish mitmane bûn

Valency pattern: EXT_be
X: EXT
Y: be
Locus: XY
Hîwa mitmane=î be Perî-î-e
pn trust=3 sg . pc to pn - obl -be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa trusts Pari.’

Southern Rutul ixtibar hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad-a ayten-aa ixtibar haʔa-r
pn - erg pn - super faith ( n )do. ipf - prs
‘Murad trusts Ayten.’

Spanish confiar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
Pedro confí-a en María
pn [ sg . m ] trust- prs .3 sg in pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro trusts Maria.’

Standard Arabic waṯiqa

Valency pattern: NOM_biGEN
X: NOM
Y: biGEN
Locus: Y
Salwā taṯiqu b=Aḥmad-a
pn . nom trust. ipf .3 f by= pn - gen
‘Salwa trusts Ahmad’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø lile-s x-e-munden-i
pn - dat pn - nom io 3- ver : r -trust- prs
‘Maizer trusts Lile.’

Swedish att lita

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Björn lita-r Maja
pn trust- prs on pn
‘Björn trusts Maja.’
Note: For some speakers, lita på is rather a (transitive) phrasal verb.

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Nag-ti~tiwala si Pedro kay Maria
av - ipfv ~trust pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro trusts Maria.’
Note: The GEN encoding of the Y is not possible.

Telugu nammakamu + COP

Valency pattern: DAT_ante
X: DAT
Y: ante
Locus: XY
pravīṇ-ki madhuri aṁṭē nammakamu
pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat pn ( f ). sg . nom that_is credit( n ). sg . nom
‘Praveen trusts Madhuri.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsakhur dalbı qhirzıriy

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPERLAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPERLAT
Locus: Y
murad-ee leyla-y-lqha dalbı qhiyzar
pn - erg pn - obl - superlat support m .prop. ipf
‘Murad trusts Leyla.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa irχ k-až-iz/k-arž-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
tːutːeš sune-la uršːi-jaˤ irχ k-arg-u
father refl . obl - gen boy- super ( lat ) belief down-put. ipfv -3 hab . prs
‘The father trusts his son.’

Tsugni Dargwa če-b-b-iχː-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li-ge-w tatːi če-w-w-iχː-uˤle=caj
boy- obl - super - m . ess father on - m . ess - m -keep. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The father trusts his son.’

Turkish güvenmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e güven-iyor
pn pn - dat trust- prs
‘Mehmet trusts Filiz.’

Turoyo kit- tuxlono

Valency pattern: OBJAGR_b
X: OBJAGR
Y: b
Locus: XY
Gabriyel kət-le tuxlono b Maryam
pn exi - ls .3 m trust in pn
‘Gabriyel trusts Maryam.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Ulcha agdi-

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
əńi-n mə̄n piktə-ti agd-i-ni
mother-3 sg self child- lat believe- prs -3 sg
‘Mother trusts her child.’

Uzbek išonmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ga išon-a-di
pn pn - dat believe- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja trusts Maša.’

West Central Oromo amana

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n tolaa aman-a
pn - nom pn . abs trust-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa trusts Tola.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Lale-da-l ixtibar-zva
pn - erg pn - obl - sup trust- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib trusts Lale.’

Zilo Andi buʒ.u-rado

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
pat’imati buʒ.u-rado marjam-ʔo
pn [ f ][ nom ] believe. pst - prog pn - super . lat
‘Patimat trusts Mariam.’