BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘throw’

Argument frame: X (throw) Y
Stimulus sentence: (Two boys are competing to see who can throw a stone the farthest.) P. threw a stone (first).
Predicate label Ru: бросить
Argument frame Ru: X (бросить) Y (-а)
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Мальчики соревнуются, кто дальше кинет камень. Сначала) П. бросил камень .

Abaza w-š’tə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č̣’ḳʷən-ĉa-kʷa a-háqʷ-kʷa j-á-wə-r-š’t-əj-ṭ
def -boy- pl . h - pl def -stone- pl 3 pl . abs -3 n . io - loc -3 pl . erg -throw- prs - dcl
‘The boys are throwing the stones.’

Aghul fatːix.i-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a fatːix.i-ne ʁʷan
pn ( erg ) throw. pf - aor stone
‘Aslan threw a stone.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +rappə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
cipa +ruppi-la brata
stone( m ) throw. pst - ls .3 f girl( f )
‘The girl threw the stone.’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro jogou uma pedra
‘Педру бросил камень.’

Czech hodit

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petr hodi-l kamen-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] throw( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stone( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr threw a stone.’

Finnish heittää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka heitt-i kiv-en
pn . nom throw- pst .3 sg stone- gen
‘Pekka threw a stone.’

Forest Enets bɛɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ pu-da bɛɛ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg stone- obl . sg .3 sg throw( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend threw his stone’.

Latin jaceo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(vinc-es) non fu-isse armat-os e-os qui sax-a iace-re-nt
(win- fut . ind . act .2 sg ) not be[ prf ]- inf . act arm. prf . ptcp . pass - acc . pl . m that- acc . pl . m which. nom . pl stone( n )- acc . pl throw- ipfv . sbjv - act .3 pl
‘(You will prove), that those who were throwing stones were not armed.’
Note: (Cic. Pro Caec. 60)

Modern Hebrew zarak

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas zarak even
pn throw[ pst .3 sg . m ] stone
‘Pinchas threw a stone.’

Nanai naŋgala-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia ǯolo-wa naŋga.la-xa-ni
pn stone- obl throw. pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia threw a stone.’

Norwegian Bokmål å kaste

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per kaste-t stein-en først
pn throw- pst stone- def . m . sg first
‘Per threw the stone first.’

Polish rzucić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Janek rzuci-ł kamień
pn [ nom . sg ] throw: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] stone[ acc . sg ]
‘Janek threw a stone.’

Russian brositʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja brosi-l kamenʹ
pn ( m )- nom . sg throw( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stone( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja threw a stone.’

Rutul χač’ibχɨr

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a dahar χa-č’-i<b>χɨ-r
pn - erg rock( nom ) pv - pv -<3>throw. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul threw a stone.’

Skolt Saami kõõškeed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kõõšk-i ǩieʹđj
pn . sg . nom throw- pst .3 sg rock. sg . acc
‘Pete threw a stone.’

Slovenian vreči

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je vrge-l kamen
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg throw: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] stone[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter threw a stone.’

Swedish att kasta

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn kasta-de en sten först
pn throw- pst indf . c . sg stone first
‘Björn threw a stone first.’

Turkish atmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet taş-ı at-tı
pn stone- acc throw- pst
‘Mehmet threw his stone.’

Ulcha ǯololo-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
um piktə ǯolo-wa ǯololo-xo
one child stone- acc throw- pst
‘A boy threw a stone.’

Zilo Andi ʃamm.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di hints’o ʃamm.i
pn - erg stone[ inan 1][ nom ] throw. pst ( aor )
‘Ali threw a stone.’