BivalTyp

‘throw’

Argument frame: X (throw) Y
Stimulus sentence: (Two boys are competing to see who can throw a stone the farthest.) P. threw a stone (first).
Predicate label Ru: бросить
Argument frame Ru: X (бросить) Y (-а)
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Мальчики соревнуются, кто дальше кинет камень. Сначала) П. бросил камень .

Abaza w-š’tə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č̣’ḳʷən-ĉa-kʷa a-háqʷ-kʷa j-á-wə-r-š’t-əj-ṭ
def -boy- pl . h - pl def -stone- pl 3 pl . abs -3 n . io - loc -3 pl . erg -throw- prs - dcl
‘The boys are throwing the stones.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ʒə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
č̣ʼele–nahə-ẑə-m məẑʷe-r ə-ʒə-ʁ
guy–more-old- obl stone- abs 3 sg . erg -throw- pst
‘The older guy threw the stone.’

Aghul fatːix.i-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a fatːix.i-ne ʁʷan
pn ( erg ) throw. pf - aor stone
‘Aslan threw a stone.’

Alik Kryz saʕayc

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir dahar saʕa-c
pn - erg stone throw. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan threw a stone.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu čʼele kammu
pn - obl ( erg ) stone throw. pfv
‘Pasha threw a stone.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +rappə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
cipa +ruppi-la brata
stone( m ) throw. pst - ls .3 f girl( f )
‘The girl threw the stone.’

Avar reχχize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca gamač’ reχχ-ana
pn - erg stone throw- aor
‘Ali threw a stone.’

Azerbaijani atmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan daş-ı at-dı
pn stone- acc throw- pst (3)
‘Aslan threw the stone.’

Bafut màʔâ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ fùû màʔâ ŋ̀gɔ̀ʔɔ̀
pn sm first throw stone
‘Ambe threw a stone first.’

Bambara fìli

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye kábakuru` fìli
pn pfv . tr stone\ art throw
‘Seku threw a stone.’

Brazilian Portuguese jogar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro jog-ou um-a pedra
pn ( m ) throw-3 sg . pst indf - f stone( f )
‘Pedro threw a stone.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır ğaye ğicebgir-ci
pn - erg stone( a ) a .throw. pf - nar
‘Aslan threw a stone.’

Catalan llançar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va llanç-ar un-a pedra
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind throw- inf indf - sg . f stone( f )
‘Pere threw a stone.’

Chirag išʷi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le qːarqːa ix-ub
pn - erg stone( abs ) throw: pf - aor .3
‘Ali threw a rock.’

Czech hodit

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petr hodi-l kamen-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] throw( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stone( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr threw a stone.’

Danish smide

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter smed en sten
pn throw. pst indf . sg stone( c )
‘Peter threw the stone.’

Dutch gooien

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet gooi-de een steen
pn (С) throw- pst art . indf stone( c )
‘Piet threw a stone.’

Eastern Maninka láfìli

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà kába` dó lá-fìli.
pn aor . tr stone\ art indf caus -throw
‘Seku threw a stone.’

English throw

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter threw a stone first.

Estonian viskama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter viska-s kivi esimese-na
pn . sg . nom throw- pst .3 sg stone. sg . part first- ess
‘Peeter threw a stone first.'

Finnish heittää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka heitt-i kiv-en
pn . nom throw- pst .3 sg stone- gen
‘Pekka threw a stone.’

Forest Enets bɛɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ pu-da bɛɛ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg stone- obl . sg .3 sg throw( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend threw his stone’.

French jeter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a jeté une pierre dans l’ eau
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg throw. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f stone( f ) inside def . sg . f water( f )
‘Paul threw a stone into the water.’

Georgian Ø-i-svr-i-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m p'irvel-ma Ø-i-sr-ol-a kva-Ø
pn - erg first- erg do 3- ver : s -shoot- r . ext - s 3 sg . pst stone- nom
‘Petre was the first to throw a stone.’

German werfen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl warf den Stein
pn [ nom . sg ] throw. pst .3 sg def . m . acc . sg stone[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl threw the stone.’

Guinean Kpelle pǐli

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá kwɛ̀ni píli
pn 3 sg . pfv stone throw
‘Pepee threw a stone.’

Icari Dargwa ix-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il qːarqːa ix-ub
pn - erg stone. abs throw: pf - aor
‘Islam threw a stone.’

Irish caith

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=chaith Pól cloch.
pst =throw pn stone
‘Pól threw a stone.’

Italian tirare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha tirato un sass-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs throw. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m stone- sg . m
‘Leo threw a stone.’

Kadar Dargwa ib-es / ilb-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li ʁarqa ib-un
pn - erg stone throw. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad threw a stone.’

Kalderash Romani śudel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a śuď-a bař
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg throw- pst .3 sg stone[ acc . sg ]
‘Murša threw a stone.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
maˁhaˁmed-ǯi ʁan gat’a<b>x-nu
pn - erg stone( abs ) < n . sg >throw- pst
‘Mahamad threw a stone.’

Karata t’amaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l anča t’am-e
pn - erg stone throw- pf
‘Ali threw a stone.’

Kaytag Dargwa ixvara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
bahsar petja-l iš-ur q:arq:a
at_first pn - erg throw. pf - aor stone
‘Petja threw a stone first.’

Kazakh laqtïr

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya tas laqtïr-dï
pn stone throw- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya threw a stone.’

Kazym Khanty wǒśkəti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
petˊa-j-en kew wǒśkə-s
pn - ep - poss .2 sg stone throw- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja threw a stone.’

Khoekhoe ǂnoa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Sara-s ge ǂgūro ǀui-s-a go ǂnoa
pn -3 f . sg decl first rock-3 f . sg - obl rpst throw_at
‘Sara threw a stone first.’

Khwarshi coƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
di-lo uža ʁur cojƛa
1 sg . o - gen 2 son\ erg stone( v ) throw\ pst . w
‘My son threw a stone.’

Kina Rutul χač’ibχɨr

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a dahar χa-č’-i<b>χɨ-r
pn - erg rock( nom ) pv - pv -<3>throw. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul threw a stone.’

Kumyk atmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir taš-nɨ at-d-ɨ
pn stone- acc throw- pst -3 sg
‘Basir threw the stone.’

Latin jaceo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(vinc-es) non fu-isse armat-os e-os qui sax-a iace-re-nt
(win- fut . ind . act .2 sg ) not be[ prf ]- inf . act arm. prf . ptcp . pass - acc . pl . m that- acc . pl . m which. nom . pl stone( n )- acc . pl throw- ipfv . sbjv - act .3 pl
‘(You will prove), that those who were throwing stones were not armed.’
Note: (Cic. Pro Caec. 60)

Laz o-t'k'oč-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k kfa-Ø Ø-o-t'k'oč-u
pn - b - erg stone- nom do 3- fact -throw- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim threw a stone.’

Mandarin Chinese rēng-chū

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān rēng-chū le yì-kē shízǐ
pn throw-out pfv one- clf rock
‘Zhangsan threw a stone.’

Mano dùò

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋ̄ gɔ́ wɛ́lɛ́ dùò
1 sg . pst cola bone throw
‘I threw cola nuts.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Pajzula-jni ʁarʁa ih-ub ha-b-ha-b
pn - erg stone throw: pfv - aor ahead- n -ahead- n
‘Patimat threw a stone first.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-ʔot-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k p'rivel-k Ø-o-ʔot-(u) kua-Ø
pn - erg first- erg do 3- fact -throw-( s 3 sg . pst ) stone- nom
‘Chelo threw a stone first.’

Modern Hebrew zarak

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas zarak even
pn throw[ pst .3 sg . m ] stone
‘Pinchas threw a stone.’

Mukhad Rutul χaaʁun

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a qat χaaʁu-ri
pn - erg pebble ( n )throw. pf - aor
‘Murad threw a stone.’

Nanai naŋgala-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia ǯolo-wa naŋga.la-xa-ni
pn stone- obl throw. pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia threw a stone.’

Nivkh pazd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik kоqvеlq paz-d
pn shell throw- ind
‘Kaskazik threw a shell.’

Northern Akhvakh zorooruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
patħudi-de inč’a zor.ari
pn - erg stone throw. aor
‘Pathudi threw a stone.’

Northern Mansi wuɕkasas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pājel wuɕkas-as āxwtas
pn throw- pst .3 sg stone
‘Pasha threw a stone.’

Northern Yukaghir sūsǝj=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn hаjlˈ-lǝ sūsǝ-j-m
pn stone- acc throw- pf - tr .3 sg
‘Semien threw a stone.’

Norwegian Bokmål å kaste

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per kaste-t stein-en først
pn throw- pst stone- def . m . sg first
‘Per threw the stone first.’

Polish rzucić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Janek rzuci-ł kamień
pn [ nom . sg ] throw: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] stone[ acc . sg ]
‘Janek threw a stone.’

Russian brositʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja brosi-l kamenʹ
pn ( m )- nom . sg throw( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stone( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja threw a stone.’

Serbian baciti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je baci-o kamen
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg throw- part . perf . m . sg stone. acc . sg
‘Petar threw a stone.’

Shinaz Rutul χač'ibχɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir χač'ibχɨ-r duχul
pn ( erg ) a .throw. pf - aor stone( a )
‘Basir threw a stone.’

Shughni šič δêdow1

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmat=i yakum žīr šič δod
pn =3 sg first stone throw give. pst
‘Ahmat threw a stone first.’

Skolt Saami kõõškeed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kõõšk-i ǩieʹđj
pn . sg . nom throw- pst .3 sg rock. sg . acc
‘Pete threw a stone.’

Slovak hodiť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter hodi-l kameň
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] throw( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] stone( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter threw a stone.’

Slovenian vreči

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je vrge-l kamen
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg throw: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] stone[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter threw a stone.’

Sorani Kurdish fir̂êdan

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
hewelê Hîwa berd-êk=î fir̂êda-Ø
first pn stone- indf =3 sg . pc throw. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa threw a stone first.’
Note: The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the subject of the transitive clause in the past tense.

Southern Rutul yihin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a dahar yihi-r
pn - erg stone n .throw. pf - aor
‘Murad threw a stone.’

Spanish tirar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha tira-do una piedra
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg throw- ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . f stone[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro threw a stone.’

Standard Arabic ramā

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un ramā ḥaǧar-a-n
pn - nom throw. pf .3 m stone- acc - indef
‘Badr threw a stone.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d bäč-Ø ad-Ø-k'wär
pn - erg stone- nom prv : dist - do 3-throw
‘Maizer trew a stone away.’

Swedish att kasta

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn kasta-de en sten först
pn throw- pst indf . c . sg stone first
‘Björn threw a stone first.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
h<in>agis ni Pedro ang bato
< pv > pfv .throw pers . gen pn subj stone
‘Pedro threw a stone.’
Note: Co-exists with an AV construction.

Telugu visurēyu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ mundu rāyyi visurēsāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom before stone( n ). sg . nom throw. intens . pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen threw a stone first.’

Tsakhur avhiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee q:aye avhu-na
pn - erg stone( a ) a .shoot. pf - a
‘Murad threw a stone.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa iš-iz/irš-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le qːarqːa ix-ub
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) stone throw. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy threw a stone.’

Tsugni Dargwa ix-i / irxʷ-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li qːarqːa ix-ub
boy- erg stone throw. ipfv - pret (3)
‘The boy threw a stone.’

Turkish atmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet taş-ı at-tı
pn stone- acc throw- pst
‘Mehmet threw his stone.’

Turoyo mḥaləq

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel mḥalaq-le i kefo b-i qamayto
pn throw. pfv - ls .3 m art . f stone( f ) in- art . f beginning( f )
‘Gabriyel threw the stone first.’

Twi to

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kofi to-o εboᴐ bi
pn throw- pst stone indef
‘Kofi threw a stone.’

Ulcha ǯololo-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
um piktə ǯolo-wa ǯololo-xo
one child stone- acc throw- pst
‘A boy threw a stone.’

Uzbek otmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya toš ot-ti
pn stone throw- pst .3 sg
‘Petja threw a stone.’

West Central Oromo darbata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n dursa ɗakaa darbat-e
pn - nom first stone. abs throw-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa threw a stone first.’

Wolof sànni

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
k-u sànni xeer w-i
cl k - interr throw stone( w ) cl w - def
‘Who threw the stone?’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a qvan xkkadar-na
pn - erg stone throw- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib threw a stone.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ.TR
Y: DO
Locus: TR
oxɨr-i kɛmɛr-e ɛʃt-ə
pn - m . obl stone- indf throw. pst -3 sg . f
‘Oxir threw a stone.’

Zilo Andi ʃamm.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di hints’o ʃamm.i
pn - erg stone[ inan 1][ nom ] throw. pst ( aor )
‘Ali threw a stone.’