BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘think’

Argument frame: X (think) about Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. has a thoughtful look.) P. is thinking about M .
Predicate label Ru: думать
Argument frame Ru: X (думать) об Y -е (об отце)
Stimulus sentence Ru: (У П. задумчивый вид). П. думает о М .

Abaza [z-]qʷəc

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
murad fatima d-lə-z-qʷə́c-əj-ṭ
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - ben -think- prs - dcl
‘Murad is thinking about Fatima.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-gʷəpšəse

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-r pŝaŝe-m je-gʷəpšəse
guy- abs girl- obl 3 sg . io + dat -think
‘The guy is thinking about the girl.’

Aghul fikir q’.a-

Valency pattern: ERG_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: ERG
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-k-as fikir q’.a-a
pn ( erg ) pn - sub / cont - elat thought do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is thinking about Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz fikirreşmiş xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_baraca
X: NOM
Y: baraca
Locus: Y
terlan leyla baraca fikirreşmiş şe-re
pn pn for think be. ipfv - prs . m
‘Terlan is thinking about Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_DATxir
X: NOM
Y: DATxir
Locus: Y
paša w-arhar-ši w-i moħommad-li-s χir
pn 1-think- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be pn - obl - dat after
‘Pasha is thinking about Muhammad.’
Note: The NP in the dative case cannot be separated from the “χir” element. The combination of the dative case and “χir” is analyzed as an argument-encoding device.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic taxmən

Valency pattern: SBJ_bar
X: SBJ
Y: bar
Locus: Y
naša taxmun=əl +bar baxt-u
person( m ) think. prog =3 m after woman( f )- p .3 m
‘The man is thinking about his wife.’

Avar pikrabazda buk’ine

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʕali marjam-il pikrabaz-da w-ugo
pn pn - gen idea. pl . obl - loc m - cop
‘Ali is thinking about Marjam.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Azerbaijani düşünmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Leyla-nı düşün-ür
pn pn - acc think- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is thinking about Leyla.’

Bambara míiri

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù míiri Fántà lá
pn ipfv think pn in
‘Seku thinks about Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese pensar

Valency pattern: SBJ_em
X: SBJ
Y: em
Locus: Y
Pedro pens-a em Miguel
pn ( m ) think-3 sg . prs in pn ( m )
‘Pedro is thinking about Miguel.’

Catalan pensar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
en Pere està pens-ant en la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind think- ger in def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere is thinking about Marc.’

Chirag pikri b-uč’i

Valency pattern: ABS_GEN
X: ABS
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
babaj gal-la pikri r-uk’-le
mother( abs ) boy- gen thought f . sg -say: ipf - dur . prs .3
‘The mother is thinking about her son.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Czech přemýšlet

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Petr přemýšlí o Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] think( ipfv ). prs .3 sg about pn ( m )- loc . sg
‘Petr is thinking about Michal.’

Danish tænke

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Peter tænke-r Marie
pn think- prs on pn
‘Peter is thinking about Marie.’

Dutch denken

Valency pattern: SBJ_aan
X: SBJ
Y: aan
Locus: Y
Piet denk-t aan Marie
pn (С) think-3 sg on pn (С)
‘Piet is thinking about Marie.’

Eastern Maninka míri

Valency pattern: SBJ_ma
X: SBJ
Y: ma
Locus: Y
Sékù kà míri Fántà mà.
pn aor . tr 3 sg think pn adr
‘Seku thinks about Fanta.’

English think

Valency pattern: SBJ_about
X: SBJ
Y: about
Locus: Y
Peter is thinking about Mary.

Estonian mõtlema

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Peeter mõtle-b Mareti-st
pn . sg . nom think- prs .3 sg pn - ela
‘Peeter is thinking about Maret.’
Note: Peeter mõtleb Maretle (ALL instead of ELA) is also possible, so the y-argument could be analysed as ELA~ALL

Finnish ajatella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka ajattel-ee Matti-a
pn . nom think- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka is thinking about Matti’

Forest Enets biis

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ kasa nʲe-da biiʔɛ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg man child- obl . sg .3 sg remember( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is thinking about his son’.

French penser

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Paul pense à Marie
pn ( m ) think. prs .3 sg to pn ( f )
‘Paul is thinking about Marie.’

Georgian Ø-pikr-ob-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT.SUPERESS
X: ERG
Y: DAT.SUPERESS
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-ze Ø-pikr-ob-s
pn - nom pn - pstp : superess s 3-think- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre is thinking about Masho.’

German denken

Valency pattern: NOM_anACC
X: NOM
Y: anACC
Locus: Y
Karl denk-t an Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] think- prs .3 sg at pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl is thinking about Marie.’

Icari Dargwa pikri-ik'ʷ-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT.CONT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT.CONT
Locus: Y
Islam Madina-lij-čilla pikri-ik'ʷ-il-ca=w
pn - abs pn - suplat - cont thought-( m ) lv : ipf - conv - cop = m
‘Islam is thinking about Madina.’

Irish cuimhnigh

Valency pattern: SBJ_ar
X: SBJ
Y: ar
Locus: Y
Pól aig cuimhneamh air Mháire.
be. prs pn at think. nmlz on pn
‘Pól is thinking about Máire.’
Note: The verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian pensare

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
Leo pens-a a Maria
pn ( m ) think-3 sg . prs to pn ( f )
‘Leo thinks about Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
meħamad-i-s ʡašura han-r-irk-ur
pn - obl - dat pn remember- f -fall. ipfv - th
‘Muhammad is thinking about Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani gyndilpe

Valency pattern: NOM_pa
X: NOM
Y: pa
Locus: Y
gynd-iv-ma pa la-te
think- prs .1 sg - refl with she- loc
‘I am thinking about her.’

Karata

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʕali marjam-i-b urʁel-ja idja
pn pn - obl - n thought- dat cop
‘Ali is thinking about Marjam.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Kaytag Dargwa пикриик1вара

Valency pattern: NOM_GENcevtar
X: NOM
Y: GENcevtar
Locus: Y
petja pikri ik’-ulca miša-la č:evt:ar
pn thought say- prs pn - gen about
‘Petja is thinking about Misha.’

Kazakh oyla

Valency pattern: NOM_turaly
X: NOM
Y: turaly
Locus: Y
Petya Maša tuwralï oyla-ydï
pn pn about think- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya is thinking about Masha.’

Kazym Khanty nǫmǝsti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMolenen
X: NOM
Y: NOMolenen
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en maša-j-en ɔλǝŋǝn nǫmǝs-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg about think- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is thinking about Maša.’

Khoekhoe ǂâi

Valency pattern: SBJ_xa
X: SBJ
Y: xa
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge Maria-s xa ra ǂâi
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg by ipfv think
‘Peter is thinking about Maria.’

Khwarshi urʁida

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
šamil urʁida-ha ʁina-ƛ'o
pn think- prs wife- super
‘Shamil is thinking about his wife.’

Kina Rutul fikir waɁara

Valency pattern: ERG_INTER.EL
X: ERG
Y: INTER.EL
Locus: Y
rasul-a samira-k-la fikir w-aɁa-r=a
pn - erg pn - inter - el thought 3-do. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is thinking about Samira.’

Kumyk ojlamaq

Valency pattern: NOM_GENhaqinda
X: NOM
Y: GENhaqinda
Locus: Y
patimat musa-nɨ haqɨnda oj-la-j
pn pn - gen about thought- vblz -3 sg
‘Patimat is thinking about Musa.’

Latin meditor

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
nec iam furtiv-um Dido medita-tur amor-em
and_not now secret- acc . sg . m pn ( f ). nom . sg think[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg love( m )- acc . sg
‘And Dido does not think about the secrecy of her love.’
Note: (Verg. Aen. IV, 171)

Laz o-dušun-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k Mehmet'-i Ø-i-dušun-am-s
pn - b - erg pn - nom do 3- ver : s -think- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim thinks about Mehmet'.’
Note: The verb is a borrowing from Turkish.

Mandarin Chinese xiǎng

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zhèngzài xiǎng Lǐsì
pn prog think pn
‘Zhangsan is thinking about Lisi.’

Mano yɛ́lɛ́ táá

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
Pèé lɛ̄ yɛ́lɛ́ táá-pɛ̀lɛ̀ mɔ̀
pn 3 sg . exi 3 sg . refl spirit walk- inf 2 sg on
‘Pe is thinking about you.’
Note: Labile verb used transitively. The object’s possessor is necessarily coreferential with the subject.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pajzula le-w Madinat-la pikri-li-če-w
pn be- m pn - gen thought- obl - super - m
‘Islam is thinking about Madinat.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Mingrelian Ø-p'irk-en-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_ABL
X: ERG
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-še(n) Ø-pirk-en-s
pn - nom pn - abl s 3-think- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo thinks about Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew hoʃev

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
Pinχas hoʃev al Menaχem
pn think[ ptcp . sg . m ] on pn
‘Pinchas is thinking about Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul fikir vıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_CONTEL
X: ERG
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
murad-a majram-ı-klaa fikir vaʔa-ra a
pn - erg pn - obl - contel thought( a ) a .do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is thinking about Majram.’

Nanai murči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa murči-ni
pn pn - obl think. npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is thinking about Masha.’

Nivkh kʰəmləd

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT/ADD
X: SBJ
Y: DAT/ADD
Locus: Y
Kaskazik Ajsana-rоχ kʰəmlə-d
pn pn - dat / add think- ind
‘Kaskazik is thinking about Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: NOM_POSS
X: NOM
Y: POSS
Locus: Y
patħudi musa-ƛ:i čundala uʁi-lo-de gudi
pn pn - gen always thought- pl . obl - erg m . cop
‘Pathudi is always thinking about Musa’ (lit. ‘Pathudi is always in thoughts of Musa’).
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Northern Mansi nomsaxti

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
āɣi noms-axt-i ɕān’-ēl
girl think- refl - npst .3 sg mother- poss .3 sg . el
‘The girl is thinking about her mother.’

Northern Yukaghir *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sǝmiǝn čundǝ-dǝ-ɣа Əkulˈǝ lˈǝ-j
pn thought- poss .3- loc pn be- intr .3 sg
‘Semien is thinking about Akulina.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Norwegian Bokmål å tenke

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Per tenke-r Kari
pn think- prs on pn
‘Per is thinking about Kari.’

Polish myśleć

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Tadeusz myśli o Hanc-e
pn [ nom . sg ] think: ipfv . prs .3 sg about pn - loc . sg
‘Tadeusz is thinking about Hanka.’

Russian dumatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja duma-et o Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg think( ipfv )- prs .3 sg about pn ( f )- loc . sg
‘Petja is thinking about Maša.’

Serbian misliti

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petar misli na Marij-u
pn . nom . sg think. prs .3 sg on pn - acc . sg
‘Petar is thinking about Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul fikɨr havʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: ERG_CONTEL
X: ERG
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
basir fikɨr vaʔa-r a peri-kla
pn ( erg ) thought( a ) a .do. ipf - simul exist pn - contel
‘Basir is thinking about Peri.’

Shughni fikri čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim Lola fikri kix̌-t
pn pn thought do-3 sg
‘Ahmed is thinking about Lola.’

Skolt Saami juurdčed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt juurdač Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom think. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete is thinking about Maria’

Slovak rozmýšľať

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Peter rozmýšľa o Mark-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] think( ipfv ). prs .3 sg about pn ( m )- loc . sg
‘Peter is thinking about Marek.’

Slovenian razmišljati

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Peter razmišlja o An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] think: ipfv . prs .3 sg about pn - loc . sg
‘Peter is thinking about Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish bir kirdinewe

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa bîr le Zanko-î de-ka-t-ewe
pn think from pn - obl ind -do. prs -3 sg - asp
‘Hiwa is thinking about Zanko.’
Note: The OBL morpheme is used as a residual case marker here.

Southern Rutul fikir havʔın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-a natig-di fikir vaʔa-r
pn - erg pn - attr thought( a ) a .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is thinking about Natig.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Spanish pensar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
Pedro está pensa-ndo en María
pn [ sg . m ] be_ prog . prs .3 sg think- ger : prog in pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro is thinking about Maria.’

Standard Arabic fakkara

Valency pattern: NOM_biGEN
X: NOM
Y: biGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-u-n yufakkiru bi=Maryam-a
pn - nom - indef think. ipf .3 m by= pn - gen
‘Badr is thinking about Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPERESS
X: ERG
Y: SUPERESS
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø lile-ži a-Ø-sk'oːr-e
pn - nom pn - superess pn - nom pn - superess prv : dist - do 3-think- prs
‘Maizer is thinking about Lile.’

Swedish att tänka

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Björn tänk-er Maja
pn think- prs on pn
‘Björn is thinking about Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
<In>i~isip ni Pedro si Miguel
< pv > ipfv ~think pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro is thinking about Miguel.’
Note: Ask Sergey

Telugu ālōciṁcu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLgurinci
X: NOM
Y: OBLgurinci
Locus: Y
pravīṇ madhuri guriṁci ālōcistunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( f ). sg . obl about think. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is thinking about Madhuri.’

Tsakhur fıkırrašmıšхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTRhakee
X: NOM
Y: ATTRhakee
Locus: Y
murad nigar-ni haˁk’ee vo-r fıkırrašmıš-eхhi
pn pn - attr . obl about cop - h think- aux . ipf
‘Murad is thinking about Nigar.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_GENcela
X: NOM
Y: GENcela
Locus: Y
uršːi neš-la če-la pikri ik'ule=saj
boy mother- gen on- abl 1 thought ( m )say- prog . cnv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is thinking about his mother.’

Tsugni Dargwa pikri b-ik'ʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ABL.DOWN
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ABL.DOWN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ rursːi-ge-rka pikri w-ik'-ule=caj
boy girl- super - abl . down thought m -say- cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is thinking about the girl.’

Turkish düşünmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i düşün-üyor
pn pn - acc think- prs
‘Mehmet is thinking about Filiz.’

Turoyo mətfakər

Valency pattern: SBJ_b
X: SBJ
Y: b
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-mətfakər b Yuḥanən
pn prs -think. ipfv .3 m in pn
‘Gabriyel thinks about Yuḥanən.’

Ulcha muruči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
əj xusə piktə sup muruč-i-n əj əktə piktə-wə
this male child constantly think- prs -3 sg this female child- acc
‘This boy is constantly thinking about this girl.’

Uzbek o’ylamoq

Valency pattern: NOM_haqida
X: NOM
Y: haqida
Locus: Y
Petya Miša haqida o’yla-b tur-ib-ti
pn pn about think- cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja is thinking about Miša.’

West Central Oromo jaada

Valency pattern: NOM_waa7eeGEN
X: NOM
Y: waa7eeGEN
Locus: Y
obsaa-n waaʔee boontuu jaad-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom about pn . gen think- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is thinking about Bontu.’

Zilo Andi urʁ.u-mallo

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali urʁ.u-mallo umarħadʒi-ʔo
pn [ m ][ nom ] think. pst - prog pn - super . lat
‘Ali is thinking about Umargaji.’