BivalTyp

‘take offence’

Argument frame: X (take_offence) at Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. called P. an idiot.) P. took offence at M . = P. got cross with M .
Predicate label Ru: обижаться
Argument frame Ru: X (обижаться) на Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. назвала П. дураком). П. обиделся на М .

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Adyghe (West Circassian) zə-fe-ʁe.gʷəse

Valency pattern: ERG_BEN
X: ERG
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-m pŝaŝe-m zə-f-jə-ʁe-gʷəsa-ʁ
guy- obl girl- obl rfl . abs - ben -3 sg . erg - caus -take_offence- pst
‘The guy took offence at the girl.’

Aghul qel aq’.u-

Valency pattern: ERG_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: ERG
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-k-as qel aq’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - sub / cont - elat resentment do. pf - aor
‘Aslan took offence at Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz daʕ ğaç'ic

Valency pattern: DAT_PART
X: DAT
Y: PART
Locus: XY
terlan-iz rasul-kar daʕ ğaç'-ca
pn - dat pn - part sore n .go_up. pfv - perf . n
‘Terlan took offence at Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
paša u<w>χˁu-li marin-ni-tː-iš
pn <1>become.mad- cvb . pfv m arin- obl - sup - el
‘Pasha took offence at Marina.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ceyp payəš

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
axun-i ceyp-u pəšta=əla mən baxt-u
brother( m )- p .1 sg pleasure( f )- p .3 m remain. res . f =3 f from woman( f )- p .3 m
‘My brother got cross with his wife.’
Note: ceyp is a dialect realization of cep.

Avar rak’ χweze

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmad-i-da rak’ χun w-ugo
pn pn - obl - loc heart die. seq m - cop
‘Ali took offence at Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani incimək

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-dan inci-di
pn pn - abl be_pissed- pst (3)
‘Aslan took offence at Rasul.’

Bafut jáŋə̀

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
nù jìí mə̀ sùù ɣᵼ̀rə̂ ᵼ̀ kɨ̀ jáŋə̀ àmbɛ́
thing which comp pn make/do sm p 2 pain pn
‘What Suh did offended Ambe.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed in a dependent clause.

Bambara *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Brazilian Portuguese ofender-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro se ofend-eu com Miguel
pn ( m ) refl offend-3 sg . pst with pn ( m )
‘Pedro got offended at Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-ekir incimi saxha-ci
pn pn - obl . part offended ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan took offence at Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan ofendre's

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere es va ofend-re amb en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind offend- inf with def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere took offence at Marc.’

Chirag ʡadab b-uχi

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʡa̰le rasul-la piša-l-i ʡadab uχ-ub-le
pn ( abs ) pn - gen action- obl - super upset ( m . sg )become: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali took offence with what Rasul did.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Czech urazit se

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Petr se urazi-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc offend( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr got offended.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed.

Danish blive fornærmet

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Peter blev fornærme-t Marie
pn become. pst offend- ptcp . pst . sg on pn
‘Peter took offence at Marie.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Dutch beledigen

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Marie heeft Piet beledig-d
pn ( c ) have.3 sg pn ( c ) offend- pst
‘Marie offended Piet.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Eastern Maninka mɔ́nɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_kama
X: SBJ
Y: kama
Locus: Y
Sékù bára mɔ́nɛ Fónba kámà.
pn prf be.angry pn for
‘Seku has taken offence at Fomba.’

English take offence

Valency pattern: SBJ_at
X: SBJ
Y: at
Locus: Y
Peter took offence at Mary.

Estonian solvuma

Valency pattern: NOM_GENpeale
X: NOM
Y: GENpeale
Locus: Y
Peeter solvu-s Mareti peale
pn . sg . nom take_offence- pst .3 sg pn . sg . gen at
‘Peeter took offence at Maret.’

Finnish loukkaantua

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka loukkaantu-i Mati-lle
pn . nom take.offence- pst .3 sg pn - all
‘P got cross with Matti.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French en vouloir

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul en a voulu à Marie
pn ( m ) of.it have. prs .3 sg want. pst . ptcp . m to pn ( f )
‘Paul had a grudge against Marie.’

Georgian s-c'q'in-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN.ABL
X: DAT
Y: GEN.ABL
Locus: XY
p'et're-s mašo-s-gan Ø-e-c'q'in-a
pn - dat pn - gen - pstp : abl io 3- ver : r -offend- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre took offence at Masho.’

German beleidigt sein

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Karl war beleidigt
pn [ nom . sg ] be. pst .3 sg offended
‘Karl was offended.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed.

Guinean Kpelle *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Icari Dargwa q'uc'-ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-rij q'uc'-ih-ub
pn pn - suplat offence-( m ) lv : pf - aor
‘Islam took offence at Nadir.’

Irish bí an goimh

Valency pattern: ar_go.dti
X: ar
Y: go.dti
Locus: XY
Bhí an goimh air Phól go_dtí Máire.
be. pst def sting on pn in_direction pn
‘Pól took offence at Máire.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian offendersi

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo si è offes-o con Maria
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs offend. pst . ptcp - sg . m with pn ( f )
‘Leo got offended at Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa him-CL-erg-es / him-CL-irg-es

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad him-0-erg-un ʡaˤšura-ke
pn anger- m -give. pfv - pret pn - super
‘Muhammad took offence at Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ERG_CONT.ELAT
X: ERG
Y: CONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
fatima-ji rasul.i-k-an qaˁl d-ap’-na
pn - erg pn - cont - elat anger res -do- res
‘Fatima took offence at Rasul’.

Karata rak’wa ssoraɬa

Valency pattern: POSS_EL
X: POSS
Y: EL
Locus: XY
ʕali-b aħmat-jagal rak’wa ssor-e.
pn - n pn - el heart turn- pf
‘Ali took offence at Ahmat.’
Note: The possessor NP displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Kaytag Dargwa q’uc’veʁara

Valency pattern: NOM_INTEREL
X: NOM
Y: INTEREL
Locus: Y
petja q’uc’veʁ-iv miša-c:ir
pn m .be_offended. pf - aor pn - interel
‘Petja took offence at Misha.’

Kazakh ökpele

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ɣa ökpele-dі
pn pn - dat take_offence- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya took offence at Masha.’

Kazym Khanty χǫrǝmti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMpela
X: NOM
Y: NOMpela
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en maša-j-en pελa χǫrǝm-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg at take_offence- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja took offence at Maša.’

Khoekhoe mîǁam-he

Valency pattern: SBJ_xa
X: SBJ
Y: xa
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge Maria-s xa ge mîǁam-he
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg by pst offend- pass
‘Peter took offence at Maria.’

Khwarshi j/oχa

Valency pattern: ABS_INTER
X: ABS
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
fatima j-oχa-ha hamaʁe-ł
pn ii -get.offended- prs friend- inter
‘Shamil has a grudge against her friend.’

Kina Rutul χatir adgɨra

Valency pattern: DAT_SUP.EL
X: DAT
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: XY
rasul-u-s χatir a<d>gɨ-r=a asijet-ɨ-la
pn - obl - dat grudge <4>be.stuck. pfv - cvb =be pn - obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul took offence at Asijat.’

Kumyk ačuwlanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
musa patimat-ʁa ačuw-la-n-d-ɨ
pn pn - dat anger- vblz - refl - pst -3 sg
‘Musa took offence at Patimat.’

Latin offensus + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
cum Priam-i lacrim-is offens-us non sit Achill-es
when pn ( m )- gen . sg tear( f )- abl . pl get_offended. prf . ptcp . pass - nom . sg . m not be. prs . sbjv . act .3 sg pn ( m )- nom . sg
‘... when Achilles was not offended by the tears of Priam.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. (Ov. Tristia. V, 1, 55)

Laz o-c'k'un-u

Valency pattern: DAT_ABL
X: DAT
Y: ABL
Locus: XY
Käzim-i-s Fatma-šen Ø-a-c'k'un-u
pn - nom pn - abl io 3- ver : r -pain- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim took offence at Fatma.’
Note: .

Mandarin Chinese gǎndào (bèi) màofàn

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Zhāngsān gǎndào bèi màofàn le
pn feel pass offend pfv
‘Zhangsan felt offended.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because Y cannot be overtly expressed.

Mano *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.EL
Locus: Y
Islam ak-ib Nadir-li-če-la
pn take.offence: pfv - pst pn - obl - super - el
‘Islam took offence at Nadir.’

Mingrelian Ø-a-nč'q'or-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k anučia-s ga-Ø-a-nč'q'or-(u)
pn - erg pn - dat prv - io 3- ver : r -take_offence- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo took offence at Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew nifga

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
Pinχas nifga mi Menaχem
pn be.offended[ pst .3 sg . m ] from pn
‘Pinchas took offence at Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul χatir adgın

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s q'urban-ııla χatir adgı-ri
pn - obl - dat pn - superel consideration n .remain. pf - aor
‘Murad took offence at Kurban.’

Nanai aksa-

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-či aksa-xa-ni
pn pn - dir take_offence- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia took offence at Masha.’

Nivkh umd

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT/ADD
X: SBJ
Y: DAT/ADD
Locus: Y
Kaskazik Ajsana-rоχ um-d
pn pn - dat / add be.angry- ind
‘Kaskazik took offence at Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh q’iluruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pataħi madina-k’ena q’il-ohe gudi
pn pn - com be_offended- cv m . cop
‘Patahi took offence at Madina.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained. Same as “be angry”

Northern Yukaghir habuguriǝ=

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаt hаbuguriǝ-j
pn pn - abl aff take_offence- intr .3 sg
‘Semien took offence at Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å bli fornærmet

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Per ble fornærme-t Ola
pn become. pst offended- ptcp on pn
‘Per took offence at Ola.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Polish obrazić się

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Michał obrazi-ł się na Magd-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] offend: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] refl on pn - acc . sg
‘Michał took offence at Magda.’

Russian obidetʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja obide-l-sja na Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg offend( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl on pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja took offence at Maša.’

Serbian uvredeti se

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Petar se uvredi-o
pn . nom . sg refl offend- part . perf . m . sg
‘Petar got offended.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed.

Shinaz Rutul χatir atkɨ-n

Valency pattern: DAT_EL
X: DAT
Y: EL
Locus: XY
basir-ɨs χatir atkɨ-r a karam-ɨla
pn - dat grudge n .remain- seq exist pn - el
‘Basir took offence at Karam.’

Shughni malol vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Nizora Safina=qati malol
pn pn = ins offended
‘Nizora took offence at Safina.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

Skolt Saami neuʹrrõõvvâd

Valency pattern: NOM_GENdiott
X: NOM
Y: GENdiott
Locus: Y
Peâtt neuʹrrõõv-i Määʹrj diõtt
pn . sg . nom be.offended- pst .3 sg pn . sg . gen because.of
‘Pete took offence at Maria’

Slovak uraziť sa

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Peter sa na Mark-a urazi-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc on pn ( m )- acc . sg offend( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Peter took offense at Marek.’

Slovenian zameriti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je zameri-l An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg resent: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Peter took offence at Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish bê r̂êzî kirdin

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Hîwa bê r̂êzî be Perî-î kird-Ø
pn without respect to pn - obl do. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa took offence at Pari.’

Southern Rutul incimiş yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ııle incimiş yişi-r i
pn pn - superel pissed m .be. pf - seq ( m ) cop
‘Murad took offence at Aydin.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Spanish disgustar

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Pedro está disgusta-do con María
pn [ sg . m ] be_ prog . prs .3 sg irritate- ptcp . sg . m with pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro took offence at Maria.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Standard Arabic zaʕila

Valency pattern: NOM_alaaGEN
X: NOM
Y: alaaGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un zaʕila ʕalā Maryam-a
pn - nom be_angry. pf .3 m on pn - gen
‘Badr took offence at Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_ABL.EL
X: DAT
Y: ABL.EL
Locus: XY
maizer-s lile-š-xän-ka at-Ø-sasdk'-ǝn
pn - nom pn - abl - el prv : dist . io 3-offend- pst
‘Maizer took offence at Lile.’

Swedish att bli sur

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Björn blev sur Maja
pn become. pst sour. indf . c . sg on pn
‘Björn took offence at Maja.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_CAUSE
X: ACT
Y: CAUSE
Locus: Y
na-galit si Pedro kay Miguel
av . pfv -get_angry pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro took offence at Miguel.’
Note: The Y-argument i) can be introduced by an explicit causal marker and ii) can be promoted to subject in the causal voice construction.

Telugu manastāpamu ceṁdu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLpai
X: NOM
Y: OBLpai
Locus: Y
pravīṇ maheṣ pai manastāpamu ceṁdāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl over mental_distress( n ). sg . nom happen. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen got cross with Mahesh.’

Tsakhur indžimišхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
aˁli murad-le indžimiš-хha-na
pn pn - superel offended-( m ) aux . pf - h
‘Ali took offence at Murad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsudakhar Dargwa sim ha-b-uč'-iz/ha-b-urč'-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi juldaš-li-jaˤ sim ha-w-č'-ib
boy friend- obl - super ( lat ) angry up - m -come- pret (3)
‘The boy took offence at his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa q'uc'-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-ge q'uc' w-iχ-ub
boy neighbor- super ( lat ) angry m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy took offence at his neighbor.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish gücenmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e gücen-di
pn pn - dat take_offence- pst
‘Mehmet took offence at Filiz.’

Turoyo ʕoǧəz

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_m
X: SBJ.SS
Y: m
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ʕaǧəz me Maryam
pn be_annoyed. pfv .3 m from pn
‘Gabriyel got annoyed by Maryam.’

Twi bo fu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Kofi bo fu-u nanabarima
pn breast swell- pst grandfather
‘Kofi got cross with grandfather.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Arguably, this sentence literally means ‘Kofi’s breast got swollen at his grandfather’. See (Christaller 1933: 29, 142)

Ulcha aqsa-

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
ama mə̄n piktə-ti aqsa-xa-ni
father self child- lat take_offence- pst -3 sg
‘Father took offence at his child.’

Uzbek hafa bo’lmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ga xafa bo’l-di
pn pn - dat sad be- pst .3 sg
‘Petja took offence at Maša.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

West Central Oromo mufata

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
obsaa-n tolaa-tti mufat-e
pn - nom pn - loc take_offence-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa took offence at Tola.’

Wolof mere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
Usmaan dafa ma mer-e ndax dama diiŋat doom-am
pn f oc v .s i :3 sg o i :1 sg get.angry- appl because f oc v .s i :1 sg criticize child( j )- poss :3 sg
‘Usmaan took offence at me because I criticized his child.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTEL
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-kaa beykef xha-nva
pn pn - obl - sub / postel offended become. pfv - prf
‎‎‎‘Sahib took offence at Eldar.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: SBJ.INTR_ra.PSTP
X: SBJ.INTR
Y: ra.PSTP
Locus: Y
o ajɛ=ra hɛrɛdija
3 sg . m . abs 3 sg . f . obl =from sulk. pst
‘He got cross with her.’

Zilo Andi <w>-uχ.onn-ij

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
muħammad w-uχ.onn-ij ali-ʔa
pn [ m ][ nom ] m -be_offended. pst - pf pn - super
‘Muhammad was offended by Ali.’