BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘take off’

Argument frame: X (take off) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. took off his shirt .
Predicate label Ru: снимать
Argument frame Ru: X (снимать) Y (рубашку)
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. снял рубашку .

Abaza [ŝə-]χ

Valency pattern: LOCsERG_ABS
X: LOCsERG
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasúl j-ás jə-ŝ-jə-χ-ṭ
pn 3 sg . m . io -shirt 3 sg . m . io - loc -3 sg . m . erg -take_off( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul took off his shirt.’
Note: The X argument is indexed on the verb twice (in the ergative slot and in the slot associated with the locative preverb ŝ-).

Adyghe (West Circassian) zə.šʼə-xə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
λ̣ə-m jə-ǯʼane zə-šʼ-jə-xə-ʁ
man- obl 3 sg . pr + poss -shirt rfl . io - loc -3 sg . erg -remove- pst
‘The man took off his shirt.’

Aghul latːaq.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a berʜem latːaq.u-ne
pn ( erg ) shirt take_off. pf - aor
‘Aslan took off his shirt.’

Alik Kryz yahayc

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir pirem yaha-du
pn - erg shirt( f ) flay. pfv - aor . f
‘Terlan took off his shirt.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu χːoˁšon b-aχːa a<b>u
pn - obl ( erg ) shirt 3-away <3>do. pfv
‘Pasha took off his shirt.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic šaləx

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata kam-šalx-a-la +oym-o
girl( f ) prf -undress. prs - ss .3 f - ls .3 f dress( f )- p .3 f
‘The girl took off her dress.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar baqine

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca gorde b-aq-ana
pn - erg shirt n -lift- aor
‘Ali took off his shirt.’

Azerbaijani soyunmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan köynǝyi-ni soy-un-du
pn shirt. poss 3- acc peel- refl - pst (3)
‘Aslan took off his shirt.’

Bambara bɔ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye dùlɔki` bɔ́
pn pfv . tr gown\ art go.out
‘Seku took off the gown.’

Brazilian Portuguese tirar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro tir-ou a camisa
pn ( m ) remove-3 sg . pst def . f shirt( f )
‘Pedro took off the shirt.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır uga' pirem avħa-ci
pn - erg refl . loc shirt( a ) a .take_off. pf - nar
‘Aslan took off his shirt.’

Catalan treure's

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere es va treu-re la camisa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg go.3 sg . prs . ind remove- inf def . sg . f shirt( f )
‘Pere took off his shirt.’

Chirag čerišʷi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le kːurtːe če-r-ix-ub
pn - erg shirt( abs ) super - elat -throw: pf - aor .3
‘Ali took off his shirt.’

Czech sundat si

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr si sunda-l košil-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat put_off( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] shirt( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr took off his shirt.’

Danish tage af

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter tog skjort-en af
pn take. pst shirt( c )- def . sg of
‘Peter took off his shirt.’

Dutch uittrekken

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft zijn hemd uit-ge-trokk-en
pn ( c ) have.3 sg poss . n .3 sg shirt( n ) out- ptcp -pull- ptcp
‘Piet took off his shirt.’

Eastern Maninka bɔ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bára lá dìriki` bɔ́.
pn prf 3 sg poss shirt\ art exit
‘Seku has taken off his shirt.’

English take off

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter took off his shirt.

Estonian seljast võtma

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter võtt-is särgi selja-st
pn . sg . nom take- pst .3 sg shirt. sg . gen back- elat
‘Peeter took off his shirt.’

Finnish riisua

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka riisu-i paida-n
pn . nom take.off- pst .3 sg shirt- gen
‘Pekka took off the shirt.’

Forest Enets dʲika

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ lubaxa-da dʲika
i man- nom . sg .1 sg cloth- obl . sg .3 sg take_off( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend took off his shirt’.

French ôter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a ôté sa chemise
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg take_off. pst . ptcp . m one’s. sg . f shirt( f )
‘Paul took off his shirt.’

Georgian ga-Ø-i-xd-i-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m p'erang-i ga-Ø-i-xad-a
pn - erg shirt- nom prv :outward- do 3- ver : s -(un)dress- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre took off his shirt.’

German ausziehen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl zieh-t sein Hemd aus
pn [ nom . sg ] pull- prs .3 sg his[ n . acc . sg ] shirt[ acc . sg ] out
‘Karl takes off his shirt.’

Guinean Kpelle kǔlo

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hèhee àá ŋwɔ̀ hèɣe-i kúlo gwàna
pn 3 sg . prf 3 sg . poss shirt- art go_out 3 sg \neck. loc
‘Hehee took off his shirt.’

Icari Dargwa či-r-ix-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il kːurtːi či-r-ix-ub
pn - erg shirt. abs on - elat -throw: pf - aor
‘Islam took off his shirt.’

Irish bain do

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=bhain Pól a léine.
pst =take_off pn from.3 sg poss .3 sg shirt
‘Pól took off his shirt.’

Italian togliersi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo si è tolto la camicia
pn ( m ) refl aux .3 sg . prs remove. pst . ptcp - sg . m def . sg . f shirt- sg . f
‘Leo took off his shirt.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-až-es / CL-iž-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li ħawa b-až-ib
pn - erg shirt n -take.off. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad took off his shirt.’

Kalderash Romani śudel pa peste

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a śuď-a o gad pa pes-te
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg throw- pst .3 sg art . m . dir . sg shirt[ acc . sg ] from oneself- loc
‘Murša took off his shirt.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
maˁhaˁmad-ǯi kurtka qti<b>t-nu
pn - erg jacket( abs ) < n . sg >take.off- pst
‘Mahamad took off (his) jacket’.

Karata boqaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l gordi b-oq-e
pn - erg shirt n -take_out- pf
‘Ali took off his shirt.’

Kaytag Dargwa č:erhatara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l penžek č:erhat-ur
pn - erg jacket take_off. pf - aor
‘Petja took off his jacket.’

Kazakh šeš

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya žeyde-sі-n šeš-tі
pn shirt- poss 3- acc take_off- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya took off his shirt.’

Kazym Khanty ԑŋχti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en jεrnas-λ ԑŋχ-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg shirt- poss .3 sg put_off- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja took off his shirt.’

Khoekhoe ǁhû

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǁî-b di hem-s-a ge ǁhû
pn -3 m . sg decl 3-3 m . sg poss shirt-3 f . sg - obl decl take_off
‘Peter took off his shirt.’

Khwarshi j/eʁʷa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
de l-eʁ-ʁa q'emqosa
1 sg . erg iv -take.off- pst . w shawl( iv )
‘I took off my shawl.’

Kina Rutul saɁ qiwir

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a saɁ qi-wi-r rubaška
pn - erg down. lat re -take.off. pfv - cvb shirt( nom )
‘Rasul took off his shirt.’

Kumyk čečmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
musa göleg-in čeč-d-i
pn shirt-3 sg . acc untie- pst -3 sg
‘Musa took off his shirt.’

Latin se devestio

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
(Pamphile) omn-ibus lacini-is se devesti-t
pn ( f ) nom . sg all- abl . pl garment( f )- abl . pl refl . acc take_off[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘(Pamphile) takes off all of her clothes.’
Note: (Ap. Met. III, 21)

Laz o-c'k'-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k po(r)ča-Ø mo-Ø-i-c'k'-am-s
pn - b - erg shirt- nom prv - do 3- ver : s -put_on- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is taking his shirt off.’

Mandarin Chinese tuōxià

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān tuōxià le tā-de chènshān
pn take_off pfv he- de shirt
‘Zhangsan took off his shirt.’

Mano ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sɔ̄ ɓō
3 sg . pst cloth remove
‘S/he took his shirt off.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Islam-ini ħawa b-at-ur
pn - erg shirt n -take.off: pfv - aor
‘Islam took off his shirt.’

Mingrelian mik'-Ø-i-nc'q'-un-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k osare-Ø ga-mk'-Ø-i-nc'q'-u
pn - erg shirt- nom pfv - prv - do 3- ver : s -take_off- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo took off (his) shirt.’

Modern Hebrew paʃat

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas paʃat et ha χultsa ʃel-o
pn take.off[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def shirt poss -3 sg . m
‘Pinchas took off his shirt.’

Mukhad Rutul qhadžin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a rubaška qhabdži-ri
pn - erg shirt( a ) a .take_off. pf - aor
‘Murad took off his shirt.’

Nanai ačo-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia tətuə-i ačo-xa-ni
pn garment- p . refl . sg take_off- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia took off his shirt.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh beqquruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi-de ƛ’onko b-eqq-ari
pn - erg shirt n -extract- aor
‘Patahi took off his shirt.’

Northern Mansi noxāŋxǝs

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
am xot-āŋx-ǝs-l-um i nox-tājat-as-l-um kūrtka-m
1 sg off-take_off- pst - sg . o -1 sg . s and up-hang- pst - sg . o -1 sg . s jacket- poss .1 sg
‘I took off and hung my jacket’

Northern Yukaghir kǝriǝs=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn urbа̄hа-lǝ kǝriǝ-s-u-m
pn shirt- acc fall- caus -0- tr .3 sg
‘Semien took off his shirt.’

Norwegian Bokmål å ta av seg

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per tok av seg skjort-a
pn take. pst of refl shirt- def . f . sg
‘Per took off his shirt.’

Polish zdjąć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Ann-a zdję-ł-a koszul-ę
pn - nom . sg take_off: pfv - pst - f .3 sg shirt- acc . sg
‘Anna took off his shirt.’

Russian snjatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja snja-l rubašk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg put_off( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] shirt( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja took off his shirt.’

Serbian skinuti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je skinu-o košulj-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg put.off- part . perf . m . sg shirt- acc . sg
‘Petar took off his shirt.’

Shinaz Rutul qhebdži-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir qhebdži-r vɨχɨn
pn ( erg ) a .take_off. pf - aor shirt( a )
‘Basir took off his shirt.’

Shughni weδdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim xu kurtā weδ-d
pn refl shirt take_off- pst
‘Azim took off his shirt.’

Skolt Saami jäʹhssed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt jaauʹs-i pääiʹd-es
pn . sg . nom take.off- pst .3 sg shirt. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete took off his shirt.’

Slovak vyzliecť si

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter si vyzlieko-l košeľ-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat put_off( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] shirt( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter took off his shirt.’

Slovenian sleči

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a je slek-l-a bluz-o
pn - nom . sg aux .3 sg take_off: pfv - lpt - f . sg shirt- acc . sg
‘Ana took off her shirt.’

Sorani Kurdish dakendin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa kiras-eke=î da-kend-Ø
pn shirt- def =3 sg . pc prev -pull. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa took off his shirt.’

Southern Rutul eğlehin

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a uxun eğlevi-r
pn - erg shirt( a ) a .lift. pf - aor
‘Murad took off his shirt.’

Spanish quitarse

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro se ha quita-do la camisa
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg aux .3 sg put_off- ptcp : prf art . def . sg . f shirt[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro took off his shirt.’

Standard Arabic nazaʕa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un nazaʕa l-qamīs-a
pn - nom take_off. pf .3 m def -shirt- acc
‘Badr took off his shirt.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d pupäik'a-Ø k-aː-Ø-t'k'id
pn - erg jersey- nom prv : outward - prv : dist - do 3-undress
‘Maizer took off (his) jersey.’

Swedish att ta av sig

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn tog av sig sin tröja
pn take. pst of refl poss . refl . c . sg shirt
‘Björn took off his shirt.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
H<in>ubad ni Pedro ang kaniya-ng damit
< pv > pfv .take_off pers . gen pn subj 3. sg . dat - lin shirt
‘Pedro took off his shirt.’

Telugu viḍacēyu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ tana cokka-ni viḍacēsāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom own shirt( n ). sg . obl - acc undo. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen took off/unbuttoned his shirt.’

Tsakhur q:akkahiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee gurt q:akkahi-yn
pn - erg jacket ( n )take_off. pf - n
‘Murad took off his jacket.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa če-b-b-at-iz/če-b-b-alt-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le ħewa če-b-b-at-ur
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) shirt on - n . ess - n -leave. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy took off his shirt.’

Tsugni Dargwa če-rka-b-at-i / če-rka-b-alt-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li awa če-rka-b-at-ur
boy- erg shirt on . abl - down - n -leave. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy took off his shirt.’

Turkish çıkarmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet gömleğ-i-ni çıkar-dı
pn shirt- p .3- acc extract- pst
‘Mehmet took off his shirt.’

Turoyo šoləḥ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel šləḥ-le i gomlak-ayḏe
pn take_off. pfv - ls .3 m art . f shirt( f )- p .3 m
‘Gabriyel took off his shirt.’

Ulcha ačo-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama tətu-j ačo-xa-ni
father garment- refl . sg take_off- pst -3 sg
‘Father took off his shirt (garment).’

Uzbek ečmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya ko’ylag-i-ni eč-ti
pn dress- poss .3 sg - acc take_off- pst .3 sg
‘Petja took off his shirt.’

West Central Oromo baasa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n ʃamizii isaa of irraa baas-e
pn - nom shirt. abs 3 sg . m . poss self on. abl take_off-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa took off his shirt.’

Zilo Andi <r>-uχ.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di ɡurdo r-uχ.i
pn - erg shirt[ inan 2][ nom ] inan 2-take_off. pst ( aor )
‘Ali took off his shirt.’