BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘take’

Argument frame: X (take) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. took a book (from the shelf).
Predicate label Ru: взять
Argument frame Ru: X (брать) Y (-а)
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. взял книгу (с полки).

Abaza ʕa-χʷ

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa á-pχ’aga ʕa-l-áχʷ-ṭ
def -girl def -book cisl -3 sg . f . erg -take( aor )- dcl
‘The girl took the book.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) šte

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
pŝaŝe-m txəλə-r q-ə-šta-ʁ
girl- obl book- abs csl -3 sg . erg -take- pst
‘The girl took the book.’

Aghul ʁuš.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a kitab ʁuš.u-ne (aškːaf.i-as)
pn ( erg ) book take. pf - aor bookshelf-( in ) elat
‘Aslan took a book (from the bookshelf).’

Alik Kryz ğaynic

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir raf-ul-ar kitab ğayn-ic
pn - erg shelf- obl - inel book take. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan took a book from the shelf.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
patʼimat-li qʼonqʼ χːa
pn - obl ( erg ) book 4.take. pfv
‘Patimat took a book.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic šakəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata škəl-la ctava mən +ustol
girl( f ) take. pst - ls .3 f book( m ) from table( m )
‘The girl took the book from the table.’

Avar bosize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca t’ex b-os-ana polka-jal-dasa
pn - erg book n -take- aor shelf- obl - el
‘Ali took a book.’

Azerbaijani götürmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan rǝf-dǝn kitab götür-dü
pn shelf- abl book take- pst (3)
‘Aslan took a book from the shelf.’

Bambara tà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye gáfe` tà
pn pfv . tr book\ art take
‘Seku took a book.’

Brazilian Portuguese pegar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro peg-ou o livro
pn ( m ) take-3 sg . pst def . m book( m )
‘Pedro took a book.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır ref-il-a'r kita'b ğevin-ci
pn - erg shelf- obl - abl book( a ) a .take. pf - nar
‘Aslan took a book from the shelf.’

Catalan agafar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va agaf-ar un llibre
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind take- inf indf . sg . m book( m )
‘Pere took a book.’

Chirag ha-b-alči

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le ustːul-la qar-r-i-rka žuz ha-b-alč-un
pn - erg table- gen top- obl - super - elat book( abs ) up- n . sg -take: pf - aor .3
‘Ali took the book from the table.’

Czech vzít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr vza-l knih-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] take( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] book( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr took a book.’

Danish tage

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter tog en bog
pn take. pst indf . sg book( c )
‘Peter took a book.’

Dutch pakken

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft een boek ge-pak-t
pn (С) have.3 sg art . indf book( n ) ptcp -take- ptcp
‘Piet took a book.’

Eastern Maninka tà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà kafa` dó tà tàbali` kàn.
pn aor . tr book\ art indf take table\ art on
‘Seku took a book from the table.’

English take

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter took a book from the shelf.

Estonian võtma

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter võtt-is raamatu
pn . sg . nom take- pst .3 sg book. sg . gen
‘Peeter took a book.’

Finnish ottaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka ott-i kirja-n kirjahylly-ltä
pn . nom take- pst .3 sg book- gen bookshelf- abl
‘Pekka took a book from the shelf.’

Forest Enets mu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ kirba mu ɔ stɔl nʲi-z
i man- nom . sg .1 sg bread take( pfv ).3 sg . s table surface- abl
‘My friend took bread from the table’.

French prendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a pris un livre sur le rayon
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg take. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . m book( m ) on def . sg . m shelf( m )
‘Paul took a book from the shelf.’

Georgian a-Ø-i-γ-eb-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m taro-dan c'ign-i a-Ø-i-γ-o
pn - erg shelf- pstp : ins . abl book- nom prv :upward- do 3- ver : s -take- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre took a book from the shelf.’
Note: Upward motion is implied.

German nehmen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: TR
Karl nahm ein Buch aus dem Regal
pn [ nom . sg ] take. pst .3 sg indf [ n . acc . sg ] book[ acc . sg ] from def . n . dat . sg shelf[ dat . sg ]
‘Karl took a book from the shelf.’

Guinean Kpelle hěɣe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àa hɛ́ɓɛ̂ hèɣě dàɓálî ɲɛ́
pn 3 sg . prf book take def \table on3
‘Pepee took a book from the table.’

Icari Dargwa hatː-asː-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il žuz hatː-asː-ib
pn - erg book. abs up -take: pf - aor
‘Islam took a book.’

Irish tóg

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=thóg Pól leabhar do-n seilf.
pst =take pn book for- def shelf
‘Pól took a book from the shelf.’

Italian prendere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha preso un libr-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs take. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m book- sg . m
‘Leo took a book.’

Kadar Dargwa ar-as-es / ir-is-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li kitap ar-as-ib
pn - erg book away -take. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad took a book.’

Kalderash Romani lel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a ľ-a ə knišk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg take- pst .3 sg art . f . dir . sg book- acc . sg
‘Murša took a book.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
maˁhaˁmed-ǯi polka.ji-l-a pul ʁada<b>ʁ-nu
pn - erg shelf- super - elat money( abs ) < n . sg >take- pst
‘Mahamad took money from the shelf.’

Karata bahaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l polk-agal qoča b-eh-e
pn - erg shelf- el book n -take- pf
‘Ali took a book from the shelf.’

Kaytag Dargwa has:ara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l kiniga has:-iv q’as:e-jt:ar
pn - erg book take. pf - aor shelf. obl - superel
‘Petja took a book from the shelf.’

Kazakh al

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya kіtap-tï al-dï
pn book- acc take- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya took the book.’

Kazym Khanty wŭti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
petˊa-j-en (nŏrǝm ewǝλt) kinška wŭ-s
pn - ep - poss .2 sg (shelf from) book take- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja took a book from the shelf.’

Khoekhoe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Sara-s ge tā-b-a xu ǂkhani-s-a go
pn -3 f . sg decl shelf-3 m . sg - obl from book-3 f . sg - obl rpst take
‘Sara took a book from the shelf.’

Khwarshi j/aha

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šamil-i b-ajsa hĩše ƛen-ƛ'o-žo
pn - erg iii -take\ pst . w book( iii ) shelf( iv )- super - el
‘Shamil took a book from the shelf.’

Kina Rutul lešur

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a l-ešu-r kitab
pn - erg pv -1.take. pfv - cvb book( nom )
‘Rasul took a book.’

Kumyk almaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir kitap-nɨ al-d-ɨ taχča-dan
pn book- acc take- pst -3 sg shelf- abl
‘Basir took the book from the shelf.’

Latin capio

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(Attis) nive-is citat-a cep-it man-ibus leve typan-um
pn ( f )[ nom . sg ] white- abl . pl fast- nom . sg . f take[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg hand( f )- abl . pl lightly tambour( n )- acc . sg
‘(Attis) hastily took a lightweight tambour with her white hands.’
Note: (Cat. Carm. 63,8)

Laz o-zd-im-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k ferd-išen kitab-i k-e-Ø-zd-u
pn - b - erg shelf- abl book- nom aff - prv - do 3-take- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim took a book from the shelf.’

Mandarin Chinese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān cóng jiàzi shàng le yì-běn shū
pn from shelf on take pfv one- clf book
‘Zhangsan took a book from the shelf.’

Mano sí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé sɛ́ɓɛ̀ sí
pn 3 sg . pst book take
‘Pe took a book.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Pajzula-ni pоlka-li-če-la kung as-ib
pn - erg shelf- obl - super - e l book take: pfv - pst
‘Pajzula took a book from the shelf.’

Mingrelian gil-Ø-i-γ-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k c'ing-i ge-gl-Ø-i-γ-u
pn - erg book- nom pfv - prv - do 3- ver : s -take- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo took a book from the shelf.’
Note: The book is either at Chelo's eye level or above.

Modern Hebrew lakaχ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas lakaχ sefer
pn take[ pst .3 sg . m ] book
‘Pinchas took a book.’

Mukhad Rutul lešuˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a kitab lešuˤ-ri
pn - erg book ( n )take. pf - aor
‘Murad took a book.’

Nanai ǯapa-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia polka-ǯea daŋsa-wa ǯapa-xa-ni
pn shelf- abl book- obl take- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia took a book from the shelf.’

Nivkh ɣеd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik pitɣəŋ ɣе-d
pn book take- ind
‘Kaskazik took a book.’

Northern Akhvakh beχuruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
patħudi-de ʁoča b-eχ-ari
pn - erg book n -take- aor
‘Pathudi took a book.’

Northern Mansi wis

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
āji-riɕ wi-s nēpak pasan-əl
girl- dim take- pst .3 sg book table- el
‘The girl took a book from the table.’

Northern Yukaghir mǝnˈ=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn kinigǝ-lǝ mǝnˈ-mǝ-lǝ
pn book- acc take- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien took a book.’

Norwegian Bokmål å ta

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per tok ei bok fra hyll-a
pn take. pst indf . f . sg book from shelf- def . f . sg
‘Per took a book from the shelf.’

Polish wziąć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Ewaryst wzią-ł książk-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] take: pfv \ m - pst [ m .3 sg ] book- acc . sg
‘Ewaryst took a book.’

Russian vzjatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja vzja-l knig-u s polk-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg take( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] book( f )- acc . sg from shelf( f )- gen . sg
‘Petja took a book from the shelf.’

Serbian uzeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je uze-o knjig-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg take- part . perf . m . sg book- acc . sg
‘Petar took a book.’

Shinaz Rutul lijši-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir lijši-r kitab
pn ( erg ) n .take. pf - aor book
‘Basir took a book.’

Shughni zêx̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i kitob as tažerka-ti zox̌-t
pn =3 sg book el shelf- sup take- pst
‘Azim took a book from the shelf.’

Skolt Saami väʹldded

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vaaʹld-i ǩeeʹrj
pn . sg . nom take- pst .3 sg book. sg . acc
‘Pete took a book.’

Slovak zobrať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter zobra-l knih-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] take( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] book( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter took a book.’

Slovenian vzeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je vze-l knjig-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg take: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] book- acc . sg
‘Peter took a book.’

Sorani Kurdish heɫ girtin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa kitêb-êk=î le-ser taq-eke heɫ-girt-Ø
pn book- indf =3 sg . pc from-head shelf- def prev -catch. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa took a book from the shelf.’
Note: The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the subject of the transitive clause in the past tense.

Southern Rutul laˤşuˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a kitab laˤşuˤ-r
pn - erg book ( n )take. pf - aor
‘Murad took a book.’

Spanish coger

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha cogi-do un libro de=l estante
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg take- ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . m book[ sg . m ] from= art . def . sg . m shelf[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro took a book from the shelf.’

Standard Arabic Ɂaḫaḏa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un Ɂaḫaḏa kitāb-a-n
pn - nom take. pf .3 m book- acc - indef
‘Badr took a book.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d taro-xen lǝir-Ø än-Ø-k'id
pn - erg shelf- abl book- nom prv : prox - do 3-take
‘Maizer took a book from the shelf.’

Swedish att ta

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn tog en bok från hylla-n
pn take. pst indf . c . sg book from shelf- def . c . sg
‘Björn took a book from the shelf.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
K<um>uha si Pedro ng libro
< av > pfv .take pers . subj pn gen book
‘Pedro took a book.’

Telugu tīsukōnu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ oka pustakamu tīsukunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom one book( n ). sg . nom take. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen took a book.’

Tsakhur alyaat’iy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee kitab alyaat’u
pn - erg book( a ) a .take. pf
‘Murad took a book.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa h-asː-iz/h-ajsː-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le kniža h-asː-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) book up -take. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy took a book.’

Tsugni Dargwa k-asː-i / ka-jsː-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li žuz ka-sː-ib
boy- erg book down -take. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy took a book.’

Turkish almak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet kitab-ı raf-tan al-dı
pn book- acc shelf- abl take- pst
‘Mehmet took the book from the shelf.’

Turoyo moyəd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel məd-le u kṯowo m-u rafo
pn take. pfv - ls .3 m art . m book( m ) from- art . m shelf( m )
‘Gabriyel took the book from the shelf.’

Ulcha ǯapa-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
əj xusə piktə pēŋga-ǯi daŋsa-wa ǯapa-xa-ni
this male child shelf- ins book- acc take- pst -3 sg
‘This boy took a book from the shelf.’

Uzbek olmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya kitob-ni ol-di
pn book- acc take- pst .3 sg
‘Petja took a book.’

West Central Oromo fuɗata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n kitaaba fuɗat-e
pn - nom book. abs take-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa took a book.’

Zilo Andi <r>-iχ.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di χutʃa r-iχ.i
pn - erg book[ inan 2][ nom ] inan 2-take. pst ( aor )
‘Ali took a book.’