BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘sympathise’

Argument frame: X (sympathise) with Y
Stimulus sentence: (P.’s mother is very ill.) P. sympathises with his mother .
Predicate label Ru: жалеть
Argument frame Ru: X (жалеть) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Мать П. очень больна). П. жалеет свою мать .

Abaza [ma-]rəcha

Valency pattern: JUD_ABS
X: JUD
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasúl j-an d-jə́-ma-rəcha-ṗ
pn 3 sg . m . io -mother 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io - jud -poor- npst . dcl
‘Rasul sympathises with his mother.’

Aghul ʜajif-tːi + ‘be’

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s uč.i-n baw ʜajif-tːi a
pn - dat self- gen mother pitiful- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +xṭita atə

Valency pattern: BARE_BARE
X: BARE
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
aha naša +xṭit=ət yəmm-u bitay=əla
dem 1. sg person( m ) sin( f )= rel mother( f )- p .3 m come. prog =3 f
‘This man sympathizes with his mother.’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: SBJ_por
X: SBJ
Y: por
Locus: Y
Pedro está triste por sua mãe
‘Педру жалеет свою мать.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Czech líto + COP

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Petr-ovi je líto matk-y
pn ( m )- dat . sg be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg sorry mother( f )- gen . sg
‘Petr sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Finnish sääliä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka sääli-i äiti-ä-än
pn . nom feel.pity- prs .3 sg mother- part - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka feels pity for his mother.’

Forest Enets sɛr

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
kasa-jʔ ɛɛ-da aga-an sɛŋa-za
man- nom . sg .1 sg mother- obl . sg .3 sg big- prol . sg feel_sorry_for( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend sympathizes with his mother a lot’.

Latin miserescere

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
miseresc-ite reg-is et patri-as audi-te prec-es
have_pity- prs . imp . act .2 pl king( m )- gen . sg and father’s- acc . pl . f listen- prs . imp . act .2 pl prayer( f )- acc . pl
‘Have pity for the king and listen to the father’s prayers.’
Note: (Verg. Aen. VIII, 573)

Modern Hebrew meraxem

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
Pinχas meraxem al im-o
pn sympathise[ ptcp . sg . m ] on mother- poss .3 sg . m
‘Pinchas sympathises with his mother.’

Nanai guǯiəsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia ənim-bi guǯiə.si-ni
pn mother- p . refl . sg sympathise. ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia sympathises with his mother.’

Norwegian Bokmål å synes synd på

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per syne-s synd mor-en
pn show- pass . prs unfortunate on mother- def . m . sg
‘Per sympathises with his mother.’

Polish żałować

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Michał żałuje swoj-ej matk-i
pn [ nom . sg ] sympathise: pfv . prs .3 sg one’s_own- f . gen . sg mother- gen . sg
‘Michał sympathises with his mother.’

Russian žaletʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja žale-et svo-ju matʹ
pn ( m )- nom . sg sympathise( ipfv )- prs .3 sg one’s- f . acc . sg mother( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja sympathises with his mother.’

Rutul haˀjiw raɁara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a haˀjiw r-aɁa-r=a ǯʲu-du nin
pn - erg pity 2-do. ipfv - cvb =be self. m . obl - attr mother( nom )
‘Rasul sympathises with his mother.’

Skolt Saami žaʹllʼjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čuuʹt žaʹllʼj-i jieʹnn-es
pn . sg . nom very feel.pity- pst .3 sg mother. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete sympathised with his mother.’

Slovenian smiliti se

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u se mat-i smili
pn - dat . sg rfl mother- nom . sg pity: pfv . prs .3 sg
‘Peter sympathises with his mother.’

Swedish att känna med

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn känn-er med sin mamma
pn feel- prs with poss . refl . c . sg mother
‘Björn sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Phrasal verb (med is not a flagging device).

Turkish acımak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet anne-si-ne acı-yor
pn mother- p .3- dat feel_pity- prs
‘Mehmet feels sorry for his mother.’

Ulcha guǯələsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
min dāma-ŋgu-j mimbə tēs guǯələ-s-i bi-či-n
my grandfather- poss -1 sg i . acc very feel_sorry- ipfv - prs be- pst -3 sg
‘My grandfather sympathised with me a lot.’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Zilo Andi rok’o uzad.i-r

Valency pattern: GEN_SUPER.LAT
X: GEN
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: XY
pat’imati-tɬi rok’o uzad.i-r en-tɬi=ɡu baba-ʔo
pn - gen heart[ inan 2][ nom ] pity. pst - prog rfl - gen = emph mother- super . lat
‘Patimat feels sorry for her mother.’