BivalTyp

‘sympathise’

Argument frame: X (sympathise) with Y
Stimulus sentence: (P.’s mother is very ill.) P. sympathises with his mother .
Predicate label Ru: жалеть
Argument frame Ru: X (жалеть) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Мать П. очень больна). П. жалеет свою мать .

Abaza [ma-]rəcha

Valency pattern: JUD_ABS
X: JUD
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasúl j-an d-jə́-ma-rəcha-ṗ
pn 3 sg . m . io -mother 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io - jud -poor- npst . dcl
‘Rasul sympathises with his mother.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) gʷə ʁʷə

Valency pattern: NominalPossessor_ERG
X: NominalPossessor
Y: ERG
Locus: X
pŝaŝe-m č̣ʼale-xe-m ə-gʷ ja-ʁʷə
girl- obl guy- pl - obl 3 sg . pr -heart 3 pl . erg -gnaw
‘The girl sympathises with the guys.’
Note: Lit. ‘The guys are gnawing (at) the girl’s heart’.

Aghul ʜajif-tːi + ‘be’

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s uč.i-n baw ʜajif-tːi a
pn - dat self- gen mother pitiful- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Alik Kryz yazuq' ʕuxhric

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
terlan-iz ug umay yazuq' ʕuşxhva-ryu
pn - dat refl . m ( gen ) mother poor f .come_near. ipfv - prs . f
‘Terlan sympathises with his mother.’

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s žu-n-aru ijtːur tʼibir
pn - dat self. m - gen -<2> ptcl mother feel.pity
‘Pasha sympathises with his mother.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +xṭita atə

Valency pattern: BARE_BARE
X: BARE
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
aha naša +xṭit=ət yəmm-u bitay=əla
dem 1. sg person( m ) sin( f )= rel mother( f )- p .3 m come. prog =3 f
‘This man sympathizes with his mother.’

Avar gurħize

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ʕali gurħ-ula žindir-go ebel-alda
pn burn- ipf refl . gen -self mother- obl . loc
‘Ali sympathises with his mother.’

Azerbaijani yazığı gəlmək

Valency pattern: GEN_DATLAT
X: GEN
Y: DATLAT
Locus: XY
Aslan-ın öz ana-sı-na yazığ-ı gǝl-ir
pn - gen self mother- poss 3- dat / lat pity- poss 3 come- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan sympathises with his mother.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Bafut kô mᵼ̀lᵼ̀ŋə̂

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àmbɛ́ kô mᵼ̀lᵼ̀ŋə̂ ǹdì jì
pn sm catch sympathy mother his
‘Ambe sympathizes with his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Bambara hínɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù hínɛ-na Fántà lá
pn pity- pfv . intr pn in
‘Seku sympathizes with Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese estar triste

Valency pattern: SBJ_por
X: SBJ
Y: por
Locus: Y
Pedro está triste por sua mãe
pn ( m ) cop _ prog .3 sg . prs sad by poss .3. f mother( f )
‘Pedro feels sorry for his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Budugh

Valency pattern: DAT_LOC
X: DAT
Y: LOC
Locus: XY
aslan-ız ug-unda' dida' yozuğ-uvol ʕaşxar-i
pn - dat refl - hpl . loc mother. loc pitied- nmlz come. ipf - prs
‘Aslan sympathises with his mother.’

Catalan compadir-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere es compadeix de la seva mare
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg feel_sorry.3 sg . prs . ind of def . sg . f poss .3. f . sg mother( f )
‘Pere sympathises with his mother.’

Chirag jazuqːle b-a̰ħi

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i cin-na rucːe jazuqː-le r-a̰l-le
pn - obl - super self. sg - gen sister( abs ) sorry- adv f . sg -see: ipf - dur . prs .3
‘Ali feels sorry for his sister.’

Czech líto + COP

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Petr-ovi je líto matk-y
pn ( m )- dat . sg be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg sorry mother( f )- gen . sg
‘Petr sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Danish have medfølelse

Valency pattern: SBJ_for
X: SBJ
Y: for
Locus: Y
Peter ha-r medfølelse for sin mor
pn have- prs sympathy( c ). sg for poss . refl . c . sg mother( c )
‘Peter sympathises with his mother.’

Dutch medelijden hebben

Valency pattern: SBJ_met
X: SBJ
Y: met
Locus: Y
Piet heeft medelijden met zijn moeder
pn ( c ) have.3 sg compassion( n ) with poss . c .3 sg mother( c )
‘Piet sympathises with his mother.’

Eastern Maninka kìninkinin

Valency pattern: SBJ_ma
X: SBJ
Y: ma
Locus: Y
Sékù yé kìninkinin-na ná mà.
pn be pity- inf . la 3 sg mother adr
‘Seku has pity for his mother.’

English sympathise

Valency pattern: SBJ_with
X: SBJ
Y: with
Locus: Y
Peter sympathises with his mother.

Estonian kaasa tundma

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Peeter tunne-b oma ema-le kaasa
pn . sg . nom feel- prs .3 sg poss . refl mother- all with
‘Peeter sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Phrasal verb (kaasa is not a flagging device).

Finnish sääliä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka sääli-i äiti-ä-än
pn . nom feel.pity- prs .3 sg mother- part - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka feels pity for his mother.’

Forest Enets sɛr

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
kasa-jʔ ɛɛ-da aga-an sɛŋa-za
man- nom . sg .1 sg mother- obl . sg .3 sg big- prol . sg feel_sorry_for( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend sympathizes with his mother a lot’.

French compatir

Valency pattern: SBJ_avec
X: SBJ
Y: avec
Locus: Y
Paul compatit avec sa mère
pn ( m ) sympathise. prs .3 sg with one’s. sg . f mother( f )
‘Paul sympathises with his mother.’

Georgian Ø-e-cod-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s deda-Ø Ø-e-cod-eb-a
pn - dat mother- nom io 3- ver : r -pity- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre sympathises with his mother.’

German leid tun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Karl tu-t sein-e Mutter leid
pn [ dat . sg ] do- prs .3 sg his- f . nom . sg mother[ nom . sg ] sorry
‘Karl is sorry for his mother.’

Guinean Kpelle ɲɛ́i mǎa wɛ́li káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Paul nèe ɲɛ́i màa wɛ́li káa mà
pn 3 sg \mother face surface love be 3 sg .on1
‘Paul sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Icari Dargwa urk'ec'i-či=d=ulq-anaj

Valency pattern: GEN_SUPLAT
X: GEN
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: XY
Islam-la ci-nna waba-j urk'ec'i-či=d=ulq-a-ca=d
pn - gen self- gen mother- suplat pity- on = npl = lv : ipf - prs - cop = npl
‘Islam sympathises with his mother.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Irish bí trua

Valency pattern: aige_le
X: aige
Y: le
Locus: XY
trua aige Pól le-na mháthair.
be. prs sympathy at pn with- poss .3 sg . m mother
‘Pól sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian provare pena

Valency pattern: SBJ_per
X: SBJ
Y: per
Locus: Y
Leo prova pen-a per su-a madr-e
pn ( m ) try.3 sg . prs pain- sg . f for poss .3 sg - sg . f mother- sg . f
‘Leo feels sorry for his mother.’

Kadar Dargwa maˤšt-CL-ar-es / maˤšt-CL-ir-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li cuni-ja neš maˤšt-r-ir-u
pn - erg self- gen mother spare- f -do. ipfv - th
‘Muhammad sympathises with his mother.’

Kalderash Romani mila

Valency pattern: DAT_ABL
X: DAT
Y: ABL
Locus: XY
le Murš-ahkə mila kata Marijk-a
art . m . obl pn - dat . sg sorry from pn - nom . sg
‘Murša sympathises with Marijka.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. With a pronominal Y argument, the structure with the ablative case (ABL) would be used.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPER
X: DAT
Y: SUPER
Locus: XY
rasul.i-z dad.ij-in jazuq-ǯi vu
pn - dat mother- super pity- adv cop ( prs )
‘Rasul sympathises with (his) mother.
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Karata gurħaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali gurħ-eda in-š:u-j da ilwa
pn pity- ipf refl - obl . m - obl ptcl mother. dat
‘Ali sympathises with his mother.’

Kaytag Dargwa ihaˁrli vihara

Valency pattern: DATLAT_NOM
X: DATLAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
petja-j cinna aba ihaˁrli-ca
pn - datlat refl . sg . gen mother pitiable. adv - cop
‘Petja sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kazakh aya

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya öz ana-sï-n aya-ydï
pn one’s mother- poss 3- acc feel_pity- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya feels sorry for his mother.’

Kazym Khanty šalitti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
petr-en aŋke-λ šalit-λ-ǝλλe
pn - poss .2 sg mother- poss .3 sg sympathise- npst -3 sg . so
‘Petja sympathises with his mother.’

Khoekhoe tsâbaǁhao

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge mama-s-a ra tsâbaǁhao
pn -3 m . sg decl mother-3 f . sg - obl ipfv sympathise
‘Peter sympathises with his mother.’

Khwarshi lok'ʷa urʁida

Valency pattern: GEN1_SUB
X: GEN1
Y: SUB
Locus: XY
di-ja išate-ƛ lok'ʷa urʁida-ha
1 sg . o - gen 1 mother- sub heart( iv ) think- prs
‘I sympathise with my mother.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Kina Rutul haˀjiw raɁara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a haˀjiw r-aɁa-r=a ǯʲu-du nin
pn - erg pity 2-do. ipfv - cvb =be self. m . obl - attr mother( nom )
‘Rasul sympathises with his mother.’

Kumyk jazɨq gilmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
patimat anas-ɨn-a jazɨq gil-e
pn mother-3 sg - dat compassionate come-3 sg
‘Patimat sympathises with his mother.’

Latin miseresco

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
miseresc-ite reg-is et patri-as audi-te prec-es
have_pity- prs . imp . act .2 pl king( m )- gen . sg and father’s- acc . pl . f listen- prs . imp . act .2 pl prayer( f )- acc . pl
‘Have pity for the king and listen to the father’s prayers.’
Note: (Verg. Aen. VIII, 573)

Laz gur-iš o-nč'-el-u

Valency pattern: DAT_ABL
X: DAT
Y: ABL
Locus: XY
Käzim-i-s nana-muš-išen gu(r)-i d-Ø-a-nč'-en-Ø
pn - b - dat mother- poss 3- abl heart- nom prv - io 3- ver : sup -worry- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim sympathizes with his mother.’

Mandarin Chinese tóngqíng

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān tóngqíng tā-mǔqīn
pn sympathise he-mother
‘Zhangsan sympathises his mother.’

Mano yéŋ̀ kɛ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ yéŋ̀ kɛ̀
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg pity do: ipfv
‘S/he sympathizes with me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-is inag d-urh-an sune-la-l abaj
pn - dat pitiable f -become: ipfv - hab self. obl - gen - emph mother
‘Islam sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian Ø-e-cod-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
čelo-s dia-muš-(i) Ø-o-cod-(un)-Ø
pn - dat mother- refl . poss -( nom ) io 3- ver : sup -pity- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo sympathizes with his mother.’
Note: This verb phrase is a recent calque from Georgian.

Modern Hebrew meraxem

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
Pinχas meraχem al im-o
pn sympathise[ ptcp . sg . m ] on mother- poss .3 sg . m
‘Pinchas sympathises with his mother.’

Mukhad Rutul jazuqh hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad-a džuˤ-dı nin-ı-χda jazuqh haʔa-ra
pn - erg refl . h . obl - attr mother- obl - apud pity n .do. ipf - hab
‘Murad sympathises with his mother.’

Nanai guǯiəsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia ənim-bi guǯiə.si-ni
pn mother- p . refl . sg sympathise. ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia sympathises with his mother.’

Nivkh оŋard

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik pʰ-əmk + оŋar-d
pn rfl -mother + sympathise- ind
‘Kaskazik sympathises with his mother.’

Northern Akhvakh rak’wa guħiluruƛa

Valency pattern: POSS_EL
X: POSS
Y: EL
Locus: XY
pataħi-ƛƛi rak’wa guħil-eri inssu da ila-ɬɬi-gune
pn - gen heart pity- ipf 3 refl. m . gen even mother- obl - el
‘Patahi sympathises with his mother.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Northern Mansi sāl’ ōlēj

Valency pattern: LAT_ACC
X: LAT
Y: ACC
Locus: XY
anum-n sāl’ rum-ēkwa-m
1 sg . obl - lat pity friend-woman- poss .1 sg
‘I pity my female friend.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Northern Yukaghir juolwijuori=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn tudǝ ǝnˈiǝ-ɣаnǝ juolwij-uo-ri-m
pn 3 sg . poss mother- acc sympathize- res - caus - tr .3 sg
‘Semien sympathises with his mother.’

Norwegian Bokmål å synes synd på

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per syne-s synd mor-en
pn show- pass . prs unfortunate on mother- def . m . sg
‘Per sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Phrasal verb ( is not a flagging device).

Polish żałować

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Michał żałuje swoj-ej matk-i
pn [ nom . sg ] sympathise: pfv . prs .3 sg one’s_own- f . gen . sg mother- gen . sg
‘Michał sympathises with his mother.’

Russian žaletʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja žale-et svo-ju matʹ
pn ( m )- nom . sg sympathise( ipfv )- prs .3 sg one’s- f . acc . sg mother( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja sympathises with his mother.’

Serbian biti žao

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Petr-u je žao svoj-e majk-e
pn - dat . sg be. prs .3 sg pity one’s- gen . sg . f mother- gen . sg
‘Petar sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shinaz Rutul jazuqh hɨʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: ERG_ATTR
X: ERG
Y: ATTR
Locus: Y
basir jazuqh haʔa-j džu-du nin-dɨ
pn ( erg ) pity( n ) n .do. ipf - evt . n refl . obl - attr mother- attr
‘Basir sympathises with his mother.’
Note: The possessor NP displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Shughni rām čīdow

Valency pattern: LAT_EL
X: LAT
Y: EL
Locus: XY
Azim-ard as wi nān rām kix̌-t
pn - lat el d 3. m . sg . obl mother pity do-3 sg
‘Azim sympathises with his mother.’

Skolt Saami žaʹllʼjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čuuʹt žaʹllʼj-i jieʹnn-es
pn . sg . nom very feel.pity- pst .3 sg mother. sg . acc - poss .3 sg
‘Pete sympathised with his mother.’

Slovak súcitiť

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Peter súcití so svoj-ou matk-ou
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] sympathise( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with one’s- f . ins . sg mother( f )- ins . sg
‘Peter sympathises with his mother.’

Slovenian smiliti se

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u se mat-i smili
pn - dat . sg rfl mother- nom . sg pity: pfv . prs .3 sg
‘Peter sympathises with his mother.’

Sorani Kurdish hawderd bûn

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hîwa hawderd-î dayk=î-tî
pn sympathizer- izf mother=3 sg . pc -be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa sympathies with his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul yazux vişin

Valency pattern: DAT_ATTR
X: DAT
Y: ATTR
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s nin-di yazux aˤvğuˤ-r
pn - obl - dat mother- attr pity( a ) a .come. ipf - prs
‘Murad sympathises with his mother.’
Note: The Y argument can be separated from the word for ‘pity’.

Spanish compadecer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro compadec-e a su madre
pn [ sg . m ] sympathise- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm one’s[ sg . f ] mother[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro sympathises with his mother.’

Standard Arabic šaʕara bi=l-Ɂasā

Valency pattern: NOM_alaaGEN
X: NOM
Y: alaaGEN
Locus: Y
Aḥmad-u yašʕuru bi=l-Ɂasā ʕalā wālidat-i-hi
pn - nom feel. ipf .3 m with= def -sadness on mother- gen - p .3 m
‘Ahmad sympathises with his mother.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s di-Ø x-o-žr-i
pn - dat mother- nom io 3- ver : o -pity- prs
‘Maizer sympathizes with (his) mother.’

Swedish att känna med

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn känn-er med sin mamma
pn feel- prs with poss . refl . c . sg mother
‘Björn sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Phrasal verb (med is not a flagging device).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
na-ki-ki~simpatya si Pedro sa kaniya-ng nanay
av - soc - ipfv ~sympathize pers . subj pn dat 3. sg . dat - lin mother
‘Pedro sympathises with his mother.’
Note: The GEN encoding of the Y is not possible.

Telugu bādha(ni) paṁcukōnu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pravīṇ tana amma bādha-ni paṁcukuṁṭunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom own mother( f ). sg . obl pain( n ). sg . obl - acc share. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen sympathises with his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. This translation is probably semantically inaccurate.

Tsakhur yazuх qhabiy

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPERLAT
X: DAT
Y: SUPERLAT
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s maˁ-nq:-ılqha yazuх qhooˁ
pn - obl - dat med - obl - superlat pity( a ) a .come. ipf
‘Murad sympathises with him/her.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa jazuq b-icː-iz/b-ilcː-iz

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-z juldaš jazuq ilc-unne=saj
boy- dat friend poor ( m )appear. pfv - prog . cnv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy sympathises with his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa jazuq b-icː-i / b-ilcː-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j tatːi jazuq w-ilcː-unne=caj
boy- dat father poor m -appear. pfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy sympathises with his father.’

Turkish acımak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet anne-si-ne acı-yor
pn mother- p .3- dat feel_pity- prs
‘Mehmet feels sorry for his mother.’

Turoyo yoqəḏ leb-

Valency pattern: BARE_7al
X: BARE
Y: 7al
Locus: XY
Gabriyel leb-e ko-yoqəḏ ʕal i emo
pn heart- p .3 m prs -burn. ipfv .3 m on art . f mother
‘Gabriyel has sympathy/pity for his mother.’

Twi wᴐ tema

Valency pattern: SBJ_ma
X: SBJ
Y: ma
Locus: Y
Kofi wᴐ tema ma ne maame
pn have(3 sg . prs ) sympathy for 3 sg ( poss ) mother
‘Kofi sympathises with his mother.’.
Note: CV. Although most adpositions are used as postpositions, here, “ma” is used a preposition.

Ulcha guǯələsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
min dāma-ŋgu-j mimbə tēs guǯələ-s-i bi-či-n
my grandfather- poss -1 sg i . acc very feel_sorry- ipfv - prs be- pst -3 sg
‘My grandfather sympathised with me a lot.’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Uzbek iči ačinmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya o’z-i-niŋ ona-si-ga iči ačin-a-di
pn own- poss .3 sg - gen mother- poss .3 sg - dat inside sympathize- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja sympathises with his mother.’

West Central Oromo gadda

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
obsaa-n haaɗa isaa-f in gadd-a
pn - nom mother. abs 3 sg . m . poss - dat foc be_pity-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa feels sorry for his mother.’

Wolof yërëm

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
dama yërëm Rama ndax doom-am j-i gaañu démb
f oc v .s i :1 sg symathize pn because.of child( j )- poss :3 sg cl j - rel pass.away yesterday
‘I sympathize with Rama because of her child who passed away yesterday.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
Sahib-a-z viç-i-n dide-di-n yuzux qve-zva
pn - obl - dat self- obl - gen mother- obl - gen poor come. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib sympathises with his mother.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Zazaki

Valency pattern: SBJ.INTR_ver.PSTP
X: SBJ.INTR
Y: ver.PSTP
Locus: Y
a kɛw-ɛn-a maj-a xo vɛr
3 sg . f . abs fall. prs - aug -3 sg . f mother- ez . f refl front
‘She sympathises with her mother.’

Zilo Andi rok’o uzad.i-r

Valency pattern: GEN_SUPER.LAT
X: GEN
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: XY
pat’imati-tɬi rok’o uzad.i-r en-tɬi=ɡu baba-ʔo
pn - gen heart[ inan 2][ nom ] pity. pst - prog rfl - gen = emph mother- super . lat
‘Patimat feels sorry for her mother.’