BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘surround’

Argument frame: X (surround) Y
Stimulus sentence: Walls surround the city .
Predicate label Ru: окружать
Argument frame Ru: X (окружать) Y (стена город)
Stimulus sentence Ru: Стены окружают город .

Abaza ʕa-q̇ʷ-r.ša

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-bɮə́n-kʷa a-gorad ʕá-ḳʷ-də-r-š-əj-d
def -wall- pl def -city cisl - loc -3 pl . erg - caus -divide- prs - dcl
‘The walls surround the city.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) wəχʷərejahə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
depqə-xe-m qale-r q-a-wə.χʷəreja.hə
wall- pl - obl town- abs csl -3 pl . erg -encircle
‘Walls surround the city.’

Aghul aldark.u-naa

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
šahar (jaq’u pːatː.a-k-as) cil-ar.i-l-di aldark.u-naa
town four side- sub / cont - elat wall- pl - super - lat encircle. pf - prf
‘Walls surround the city.’ (lit. ‘The city is circled by the walls from four sides.’)

Alik Kryz xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_GENgara7ali
X: NOM
Y: GENgara7ali
Locus: Y
şahar-ci ğaraʕali duvar-bi-ya
town- gen around wall- pl . nom - cop . n
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
šahru čʼel-li kʷe<b>kdə-li
town wall- obl ( erg ) <3>spin. pfv - cvb ( evid )
‘Walls surround the city.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Avar swerun baze

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
šahar swer-un q’ed b-a-n b-ugo
town turn- seq wall n -hang- seq n - cop
‘The wall surrounds the city,’ lit. ‘Having turned around the city (they) hung a wall.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Azerbaijani əhatə etmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
divar-lar şǝhǝr-i ǝhatǝ ed-ir
wall- pl town- acc encircle do- ipfv (3)
‘Walls surround the city.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
bɨ̀-wùgə̀-ndâ kárə̀-sᵼ̀ mûmə̀láʔà
pl -wall-house surround- ipfv village_center
‘Walls surround the village center.’

Bambara lámini

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
kógo` só` lámini
wall\ art ipfv house\ art surround
‘A wall surrounds the house.’

Brazilian Portuguese cercar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
o-s muro-s cerc-am a cidade
def . m - pl wall( m )- pl surround-3 pl . prs def . f city( f )
‘The walls surround the city.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
diva'r-beri şeher ehate süʔü-rü
wall- pl . erg town( a ) surround a .do. ipf - prs
‘Walls surround the city.’

Catalan envoltar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
les paret-s envolt-en la ciutat
def . pl . f wall( f )- pl surround-3 pl . prs . ind def . sg . f city( f )
‘Walls surround the city.’

Chirag alaw b-uci

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
χːʷala-ze lac-apːa-d šahru alaw b-uc-ub-le
big- atr wall- pl - erg city( abs ) around n . sg -catch: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘High walls surround the city.’
Note: Here, "alaw" functions as an adverb.

Czech obklopovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
měst-o obklopují hradb-y
city( n )- acc . sg surround( ipfv ). prs .3 pl wall( f )- nom . pl
‘Walls surround the city.’

Danish omgive

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Mur-e omgive-r borg-en
wall( c )- indf . pl surround- prs city( c )- def . sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

Dutch omringen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
de muur omring-t de stad
art . def . c wall( c ) surround-3 sg art . def . c city( c )
‘The wall surrounds the city.’

Eastern Maninka lámini

Valency pattern: la_SBJ
X: la
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Lú` lámini-nin yíri`-lu lá.
compound\ art surround- ptcp . res tree\ art - pl at
‘The compound is surrounded with trees.’

English surround

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Walls surround the city.

Estonian ümbritsema

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
müüri-d ümbritse-vad linna
wall- pl . nom surround- prs .3 pl city. sg . part
‘Walls surround the city.’

Finnish ympäröidä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
muuri-t ympäröi-vät kaupunki-a
wall- nom . pl surround-3 pl city- part
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: The transitive pattern is also possible with this verb.

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French entourer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
des mur-s entourent la ville
indf . pl wall( m )- pl surround. prs .3 pl def . sg . f city( f )
‘Walls surround the city.’

Georgian gars Ø-a-rt'q'-i-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
galavan-i kalak-s gars Ø-a-rt'q'-i-a
town.wall- nom city- dat around io 3- ver : sup -strike- stat - s 3 sg . inact
‘The wall surrounds the city.’
Note: The linear position of gars is flexible.

German umgeben

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
die Mauern umgeben die Stadt
def . nom . pl wall. nom . pl surround. prs .3 pl def . f . acc . sg city[ acc . sg ]
‘The walls surround the city.’

Guinean Kpelle mǎa tínɛŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
tínɛŋ bɛ́lɛ-ɣàa dàá gwèlí màa tínɛŋ
turn house- pl 3 pl . prf def \yard surface turn
‘The huts surround the yard.’

Icari Dargwa alawg=b=arq'-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šahar lic-r-a-lli alawg=b=aˤrq'-ib-ca=b
town. abs wall- pl - obl - erg around= n =do- aor - cop = n
‘Walls surround the city.’

Irish bí timpeall

Valency pattern: SBJ_ar
X: SBJ
Y: ar
Locus: Y
fall-aí timpeall air an gcathair.
be. prs wall- pl around on def town
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian circondare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
le mur-a circond-ano la città
def . pl . f wall- pl . f surround-3 pl . prs def . sg . f city. sg . f
‘The walls surround the city.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-uc-es / CL-urc-es

Valency pattern: ERG_GENalawla
X: ERG
Y: GENalawla
Locus: Y
šaha-la alaw-la b-uc-i-le b-0-ar čir-m-a-ni
city- gen around- gen n -catch. pfv - pret - cvb n -be. ipfv - th wall- pl - obl . pl - erg
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Alawla is the nominalized form of the postposition "alaw" around. A literal translation is "The walls seize the things that are around the city".

Kalderash Romani ankolil

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
le zyd-uri ankoli-n o for-o
art . pl wall- nom . pl surround- prs .3 pl art . m . dir . sg city- acc . sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
cal-ar-i ʁul qaˁl.aˁ-ʔ t’ap’-ra
wall- pl - erg village( abs ) middle- in ( n . sg )drive- prs
‘Walls surround the village.’

Karata bik’waɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_ssoreq
X: NOM
Y: ssoreq
Locus: Y
šagar ssoreq q’in-di idja
town around wall- pl cop
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kaytag Dargwa alawcadarara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
šahar alavcabar-ivca baˁʕrumal-li
town n .surround. pf - perf wall. pl . obl - erg
‘Walls surround the city.’

Kazakh qorša

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Qala-nï qabïrɣa-lar qorša-ydï
city- acc wall- pl surround- prs 2.3 sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe ǂnami

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
ǂnuwiǂgoa-gu ge ǃā-s-a ǂnami
wall-3 m . pl decl town-3 f . sg - obl surround pfv
‘Walls surround the city.’

Khwarshi giłеl j/uƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šed-za muk'o giłе-l b-uƛ-o:χa
wall- pl . erg place( iii ) inside- lat iii -whirl- caus . gnt
‘Walls surround the city.’

Kina Rutul ara ewira

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
masal-mɨ-ra ara e-w-i-r=a šeher
wall- obl . pl - erg around pv -1-close. pfv - cvb =be town( nom )
‘Walls surround the city.’

Kumyk ajlanɨp almaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
tam-lar šahar-nɨ ajlan-ɨp al-ʁan
wall- pl town- acc turn- cvb take- pf
‘Walls surround the city.’

Latin cingo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(dom-us) quae non ea est quam paret-es nostr-i cing-unt
house( f )- nom . sg which. nom . sg . f not that. nom . sg . f be. prs . ind . act .3 sg which. acc . sg . f wall( m )- nom . pl our- nom . pl . m encircle[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl
‘... (the house) that is not that what our walls encircle.’
Note: (Cic. Rep. I, 19)

Laz go-γob-ap-a

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
noγa-s duvai-Ø go-γobe(r)-i=Ø-[r]-en-Ø
town- dat wall- nom prv -fence- nom = s 3-[be]- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘The wall fences the town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (participle).

Mandarin Chinese huánrào

Valency pattern: SBJ_sizhou
X: SBJ
Y: sizhou
Locus: Y
chéngshì-sìzhōu huánrào zhe wéiqiáng
city-around surround dur wall
‘The walls surround the city.’
Note: Here, "sìzhōu" is treated as an argument-marking device, but it can alternatively be viewed as a locative noun meaning ‘surrounding part’.

Mano nìà

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
óò nìà mɔ̀
3 pl . ipfv turn: ipfv 3 pl on
‘They surround them.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMarsum
X: NOM
Y: NOMarsum
Locus: Y
baˤʜ-aˤne le-r šahar aršːum
wall- pl be- npl town around
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian go-Ø-ʔ-un-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
noγa-s zγuder-i go-Ø-ʔ-un-s=u
town- dat town.wall- nom prv - io 3-accompany- sm - s 3 sg = ev
‘The wall surrounds the town.’

Modern Hebrew makif-ot

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
χom-ot makif-ot et ha ir
wall- pl surround[ ptcp ]- pl . f do def city
‘Walls surround the city.’

Mukhad Rutul a

Valency pattern: NOM_GENaa7uu
X: NOM
Y: GENaa7uu
Locus: Y
šeher-di-d aaʔuu mas-bır a
town- obl - gen around wall- pl . nom be_in
‘Walls surround the city.’

Nanai elisi-

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLkendeli
X: NOM
Y: OBLkendeli
Locus: Y
xoto-mba kəndəli paǯeran ele-si-ni
town- obl around wall stand_up- ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh ssore bixuruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
šaha q’q’enda-lede ssore b-ix-e godi
town wall- pl . erg turn. seq n -hold- seq n . cop
‘Walls surround the city.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir lˈǝ=

Valency pattern: NOM_pomniir
X: NOM
Y: pomniir
Locus: Y
gorod pömnīr stjenǝ-lǝŋ (lˈǝ-l)
town around wall- foc be- sf
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Norwegian Bokmål å være omgitt

Valency pattern: av_SBJ
X: av
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
by-en er omgitt av mur-er
town- def . m . sg be. prs surround. ptcp of wall- pl
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Polish otaczać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
miast-o otacza mur
city- acc . sg surround: ipfv . prs .3 sg wall[ nom . sg ]
‘Walls surround the city.’

Russian okružatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
sten-y okruža-jut gorod
wall( f )- nom . pl surround( ipfv )- prs .3 pl city( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Walls surround the city.’

Serbian biti opasan

Valency pattern: INS_NOM
X: INS
Y: NOM
Locus: X
grad je opasan zidin-ama
city. nom . sg be. prs .3 sg surround. part . pass . nom . sg . m city_wall- ins . pl
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Shinaz Rutul juq'sur-u-la χaqhɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
masal-mɨ-ra juq'sur-u-la χavqhɨ-r a šeher
wall- pl . obl - erg four.sides- obl - el a .catch. pf - seq exist city( a )
‘Walls surround the city.’

Shughni vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLgarginuxa
X: NOM
Y: OBLgarginuxa
Locus: Y
burǰ-en x̌ār garginūx̌ā
wall- pl city around
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

Skolt Saami pirrõõttâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
uur pirrâʹtte gåårad
wall. pl . nom surround. prs .3 pl city. sg . acc
‘Walls surround the city.’

Slovak obkolesovať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Múr-y obkolesujú mest-o
wall( f )- nom . pl surround( ipfv ). prs .3 pl city( n )- acc . sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

Slovenian obdajati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
mest-o obdaja obzidj-e
city- acc . sg surround: ipfv . prs .3 sg wall- nom . sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

Sorani Kurdish dewre dan

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
dîwar-ek-an dewre-î ŝar=yan da-Ø-we
wall- def - pl surrounding- izf city=3 pl . pc give. pst -3 sg - asp
‘Walls surrounded the city.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul laˤşuˤn

Valency pattern: NOM_ATTRyiqa
X: NOM
Y: ATTRyiqa
Locus: Y
şeher maslımı-dı yıˤq'-aˤ laˤvşuˤ-r v-i
town( a ) wall. pl . obl - attr middle_back- in a .take. pf - seq a - cop
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Lit. ‘The town is taken in the middle of walls’.

Spanish rodear

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
la-s muralla-s rode-an la ciudad
art . def . sg . f - pl wall[ sg . f ]- pl surround- prs .3 pl art . def . sg . f city[ sg . f ]
‘The walls surround the city.’

Standard Arabic Ɂaḥāṭa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Ɂal-Ɂaswār-u tuḥīṭu l-madīnat-a
def -wall. pl - nom surround. ipf .3 f def -city( f )- acc
‘Walls surround the city.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
xäzw-s gǝrkäːnd qwila-Ø x-aː-r
yard- dat around stone_fence- nom io 3- ver : sup -have
‘The stone wall surrounds the yard (lit. ‘The yard has a stone wall around’).’
Note: This root is used to mark alienable possession.

Swedish att omge

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
mur-arna omge-r stad-en
wall- def . pl surround- prs city- def . c . sg
‘The walls surround the city.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Na-pali~libut-an ng pader ang lungsod
ipfv . mod - man - ipfv ~surround- lv gen wall subj city
‘Walls surround the city.’

Telugu cuṭṭumuṭṭu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
goḍa-lu nagarānni cuṭṭumuṭṭāyi
wall( n )- pl . nom city( n ). sg . acc surround. pst .3 pl . n
‘Walls surround the city.’

Tsakhur ıхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_heqhiyalla
X: NOM
Y: heqhiyalla
Locus: Y
šahar-ni heqhiyalla barug-bı vo-d
town- attr . obl around wall- pl . nom cop - n
‘Walls surround the city.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa alaw ka-b-arq'-iz/b-irq'-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
quli lucra-le alaw ka-b-arq'-ible=sab
home wall. pl . obl - erg / loc ( lat ) around down - n -do. pfv - pret . cnv = cop . n (3)
‘Walls surround the house.’

Tsugni Dargwa alaw b-uc-i / b-urc-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
qali lucra-li alaw b-uc-ib
home wall. pl . obl - erg around n -catch. pfv - pret (3)
‘Walls surround the house.’

Turkish çevrelemek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
duvar şehr-i çevreli-yor
wall city- acc encircle- prs
‘Walls surround the city.’

Turoyo COP

Valency pattern: SBJ_heder
X: SBJ
Y: heder
Locus: Y
šur-one ḥeḏər i walaye ne
art . pl wall- pl around art . f city( f ) cop .3 pl
‘The walls are around the city.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Ulcha bi-

Valency pattern: dooLOC_NOM
X: dooLOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
bāča dō-la-n bī-n
island water inside- loc -3 sg be. prs -3 sg
‘The island is surrounded by (lit. is in) the water.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Uzbek o’rab olmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
devor-lar šahar-ni o’ra-b ol-di
wall- pl city- acc surround- cvb take- pst .3 sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

West Central Oromo marsa

Valency pattern: INS_NOM
X: INS
Y: NOM
Locus: X
magaal-ittʃ-i keeɲɲan-iin marf-am-ee dʒir-a
city- def - nom wall- ins circle- pass - conv aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘The walls surround the city.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: GENyuqva_NOM
X: GENyuqva
Y: NOM
Locus: X
șeher cilar-i-n yuqˈv-a ava
town wall. pl - obl - gen middle- in be.in
‎‎‎‘Walls surround the city.’

Zilo Andi hinni <b>-iʃ-oɬ.i-j

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
qχ’enada-di hinni b-iʃ-oɬ.i-j ʃahar
wall. pl . obl - erg inside. lat inan 1-return- caus . pst - pf town[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘The walls surround the town.’