BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘surround’

Argument frame: X (surround) Y
Stimulus sentence: Walls surround the city .
Predicate label Ru: окружать
Argument frame Ru: X (окружать) Y (стена город)
Stimulus sentence Ru: Стены окружают город .

Abaza ʕa-q̇ʷ-r.ša

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-bɮə́n-kʷa a-gorad ʕá-ḳʷ-də-r-š-əj-d
def -wall- pl def -city cisl - loc -3 pl . erg - caus -divide- prs - dcl
‘The walls surround the city.’

Aghul aldark.u-naa

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
šahar (jaq’u pːatː.a-k-as) cil-ar.i-l-di aldark.u-naa
town four side- sub / cont - elat wall- pl - super - lat encircle. pf - prf
‘Walls surround the city.’ (lit. ‘The city is circled by the walls from four sides.’)

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
os muros cercam a cidade
‘Стены окружают город.’

Czech obklopovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
měst-o obklopují hradb-y
city( n )- acc . sg surround( ipfv ). prs .3 pl wall( f )- nom . pl
‘Walls surround the city.’

Finnish ympäröidä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
muuri-t ympäröi-vät kaupunki-a
wall- nom . pl surround-3 pl city- part
‘Walls surround the city.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Latin cingo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(dom-us) quae non ea est quam paret-es nostr-i cing-unt
house( f )- nom . sg which. nom . sg . f not that. nom . sg . f be. prs . ind . act .3 sg which. acc . sg . f wall( m )- nom . pl our- nom . pl . m encircle[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl
‘... (the house) that is not that what our walls encircle.’
Note: (Cic. Rep. I, 19)

Modern Hebrew makif-ot

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
χom-ot makif-ot et ha ir
wall- pl surround[ ptcp ]- pl . f do def city
‘Walls surround the city.’

Nanai elisi-

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLkendeli
X: NOM
Y: OBLkendeli
Locus: Y
xoto-mba kəndəli paǯeran ele-si-ni
town- obl around wall stand_up- ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

Norwegian Bokmål å være omgitt

Valency pattern: av_SBJ
X: av
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
by-en er omgitt av mur-er
town- def . m . sg be. prs surround. ptcp of wall- pl
‘Walls surround the city.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Polish otaczać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
miast-o otacza mur
city- acc . sg surround: ipfv . prs .3 sg wall[ nom . sg ]
‘Walls surround the city.’

Russian okružatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
sten-y okruža-jut gorod
wall( f )- nom . pl surround( ipfv )- prs .3 pl city( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Walls surround the city.’

Rutul ara ewira

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
masal-mɨ-ra ara e-w-i-r=a šeher
wall- obl . pl - erg around pv -1-close. pfv - cvb =be town( nom )
‘Walls surround the city.’

Skolt Saami pirrõõttâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
uur pirrâʹtte gåårad
wall. pl . nom surround. prs .3 pl city. sg . acc
‘Walls surround the city.’

Slovenian obdajati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
mest-o obdaja obzidj-e
city- acc . sg surround: ipfv . prs .3 sg wall- nom . sg
‘Walls surround the city.’

Swedish att omge

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
mur-arna omge-r stad-en
wall- def . pl surround- prs city- def . c . sg
‘The walls surround the city.’

Turkish çevrelemek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
duvar şehr-i çevreli-yor
wall city- acc encircle- prs
‘Walls surround the city.’

Ulcha bi-

Valency pattern: dooLOC_NOM
X: dooLOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
bāča dō-la-n bī-n
island water inside- loc -3 sg be. prs -3 sg
‘The island is surrounded by (lit. is in) the water.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Zilo Andi hinni <b>-iʃ-oɬ.i-j

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
qχ’enada-di hinni b-iʃ-oɬ.i-j ʃahar
wall. pl . obl - erg inside. lat inan 1-return- caus . pst - pf town[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘The walls surround the town.’