BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘speak’

Argument frame: X (speak) with Y
Stimulus sentence: (I am looking for P. When I enter the room I see that) P. is speaking with M .
Predicate label Ru: разговаривать
Argument frame Ru: X (разговаривать) с Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Я искал П. Когда я вошел в комнату, я увидел, что) П. разговаривает с М .

Abaza a(j).ĉaẑa

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
murád sará s-aχš’á d-l-á.ĉaẑ-əj-d
pn i 1 sg . io -sister 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io -talk- prs - dcl
‘Murad is speaking with my sister.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) de-gʷəšʼəʔe

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
č̣ʼelejeʁaǯʼe-r bzəλfəʁe–gʷere-m d-e-gʷəšʼəʔe
teacher- abs woman–some- obl com - dyn -speak
‘The teacher is speaking with some woman.’

Aghul raχ.a-

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-qaj raχ.a-a
pn pn - com speak. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is speaking with Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz acnic

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
terlan rasul-zina acan-aʕaca
pn pn - ins talk. ipfv - prog . m
‘Terlan is speaking with Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
paša marin-ni-ɬːu baˁbuˁ-r-ši w-i 
pn pn - obl - com talk- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be
‘Pasha is speaking with Marina.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic hamzəm

Valency pattern: SBJ_men
X: SBJ
Y: men
Locus: Y
+avvo sava hamzum=əl mən brat-u
dem 3. m old. m speak. prog =3 m from girl( f )- p .3 m
‘This oldman is speaking with a girl.’
Note: Some speakers use preposition am.

Avar gargadize

Valency pattern: NOM_gun
X: NOM
Y: gun
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmad gun gargad-ile-w w-uk’-ana
pn pn with chat- fut . ptcp - m m -be- aor
‘Ali is speaking with Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani danışmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ile
X: NOM
Y: ile
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-la danış-ır
pn pn -with talk- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is speaking with Rasul.’
Note: The suffix "-la" is a contracted form of the postposition "ilǝ".

Bafut

Valency pattern: SBJ_ni
X: SBJ
Y: ni
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ ɣàâ-nᵼ̀ nᵼ̀ sùù
pn sm speak- ipfv with1 pn
‘Ambe is speaking with Suh.’

Bambara bàro

Valency pattern: SBJ_fe
X: SBJ
Y: fe
Locus: Y
Sékù bɛ́_kà bàro Fántà fɛ̀
pn prog talk pn by
‘Seku speaks with Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese conversar

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro está convers-ando com Miguel
pn ( m ) cop _ prog .3 sg . prs talk- prog with pn ( m )
‘Pedro is talking to Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_zin
X: NOM
Y: zin
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-u-zin ħaraq'ar-a'vi
pn pn - obl -with ( m )talk. ipf - prog
‘Aslan is speaking with Rasul.’

Catalan parlar

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere està parl-ant amb en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind talk- ger with def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere is speaking with Marc.’

Chirag b-uši

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le rasul-li-cːille ux-le
pn ( abs ) pn - obl - com ( m . sg )talk- dur . prs .3
‘Ali is speaking with Rasul.’

Czech mluvit

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr mluví s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] speak( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr is speaking with Michal.’

Danish tale

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Peter stå-r og tale-r med Marie
pn stand- prs and talk- prs with pn
‘Peter stands and speaks with Marie.’

Dutch praten

Valency pattern: SBJ_met
X: SBJ
Y: met
Locus: Y
Piet praa-t met Marie
pn ( c ) speak-3 sg with pn ( c )
‘Piet is speaking with Marie.’

Eastern Maninka bàdo

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé Fántà bàdo` lá jìn` kɔ́nɔ.
pn be pn talk\ art at yard\ art in
‘Seku is speaking with Fanta in the yard.’

English speak

Valency pattern: SBJ_with
X: SBJ
Y: with
Locus: Y
Peter is speaking with Mary.

Estonian rääkima

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peeter räägi-b Mareti-ga
pn . sg . nom speak- prs .3 sg pn - com
‘Peeter is speaking with Maret.’

Finnish puhua

Valency pattern: NOM_GENkanssa
X: NOM
Y: GENkanssa
Locus: Y
Pekka puhu-u Mati-n kanssa
pn . nom speak- prs .3 sg pn - gen with
‘Pekka is speaking with Matti.’

Forest Enets dʲɔrir

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ vasʲa-xane-da dʲɔriŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - loc . sg - obl . sg .3 sg talk( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is speaking with Vasja’.

French parler

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul parle à Marie
pn ( m ) talk. prs .3 sg to pn ( f )
‘Paul is speaking to Marie.’

Georgian Ø-e-lap'arak'-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s Ø-e-lap'arak'-eb-a
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : r -talk- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre is speaking with Masho.’

German sprechen

Valency pattern: NOM_mitDAT
X: NOM
Y: mitDAT
Locus: Y
Karl sprich-t mit Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] speak- prs .3 sg with pn [ dat . sg ]
‘Karl is speaking with Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle lóno kɛ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe dà Hɛ́ni dì káa lóno kɛ́-ì
pn 3.and pn 3 pl cop speech make- inf
‘Pepee is speaking with Heni.’
Note: Not included in the database because X and Y are expressed as a coordinate NP.

Icari Dargwa ʁaj-ik'ʷ-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_ILL.COM
X: ABS
Y: ILL.COM
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-ri-cːi-lli ʁaj-ik'ʷ-il-ca=w
pn . abs pn - obl - ill - com conversation-( m ) lv : ipf - conv - cop = m
‘Islam is speaking with Nadir.’

Irish caintigh

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pól ag caint le Máire.
be. prs pn at speak. nmlz with pn
‘Pól is speaking with Máire.’

Italian parlare

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo parl-a con Maria
pn ( m ) talk-3 sg . prs with pn ( f )
‘Leo talks to Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa ʁaj-CL-uk'-as (IPFV)

Valency pattern: NOM_AD
X: NOM
Y: AD
Locus: Y
meħamad ʁaj-0-uk'-u-le w-0-ar ʡašura-li-ču
pn speech- m -say. ipfv - prs - cvb m -be. ipfv - th pn - obl - ad
‘Muhammad is speaking with Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani divinil

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
o Murš-a divini-l la Marijk-asa
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg speak- prs .3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - ins . sg
‘Murša is speaking with Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ERG_POST.DIR
X: ERG
Y: POST.DIR
Locus: Y
dadi-ji fatima.jj-q-ǯi gaf-ar ap’-ura
mother- erg pn - post - dir word- pl do- prs
‘The mother is speaking with Fatima’.

Karata ʁwaaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmat’-i-k’el ʁoda idja
pn pn - obl - com talk. ipf . cv cop
‘Ali is speaking with Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa ʁajkik’wara

Valency pattern: NOM_INTEREL
X: NOM
Y: INTEREL
Locus: Y
petja miša-c:ir ğajkik’-ul
pn pn - interel talk. ipf -evt
‘Petja is speaking with Misha.’

Kazakh söyles

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-men söyle-s-іp žatïr
pn pn - ins talk- rec - cvb lie.3 sg
‘Petya is speaking with Masha.’

Kazym Khanty pǒtǝrtti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMpila
X: NOM
Y: NOMpila
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en maša-j-en piλa pǒtǝrt-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg with speak- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is speaking with Maša.’

Khoekhoe ǃhoa

Valency pattern: SBJ_kha
X: SBJ
Y: kha
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge Maria-s ǀkha ra ǃhoa
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg with ipfv speak
‘Peter is speaking with Maria’

Khwarshi una

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
habsaʕаt šamil maduʁale:=ge una-ha gołe
now pn neighbor= com speak- prs aux . prs
‘Now Shamil is speaking with a neighbor.’

Kina Rutul halgara

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
rasul nadir-ɨ-kan halga-r=a
pn ( nom ) pn - obl - com 1.talk. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is speaking with Nadir.’

Kumyk söjlemek

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMbulan
X: NOM
Y: NOMbulan
Locus: Y
patimat musa bulan söj-le-j
pn pn with (talk)- vblz -3 sg
‘Patimat is speaking with Musa.’

Latin colloquor

Valency pattern: NOM_cumABL
X: NOM
Y: cumABL
Locus: Y
Socrates in eo libr-o colloqui-tur cum Critobul-o
pn ( m ). nom . sg in this. abl . sg . m book( m )- abl . sg converse[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg with pn ( m )- abl . sg
‘Socrates talks (about it) with Critobulus in this book.’
Note: (Cic. Cato Maior de Senectute. 59, 6)

Laz o-sinap-u

Valency pattern: ERG_SOC
X: ERG
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k Fatma-k'ala Ø-i-sinap-am-s
pn - b - erg pn - pstp : soc s 3- ver : s -talk- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is talking with Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese tánhuà

Valency pattern: SBJ_he
X: SBJ
Y: he
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān zhèngzài Lǐsì tánhuà
pn prog with pn speak
‘Zhangsan is speaking with Lisi.’

Mano mɛ́ŋ́ ɓō

Valency pattern: SBJ_lee
X: SBJ
Y: lee
Locus: Y
ŋ́ŋ̀ mɛ́ŋ́ ɓō lɛ̀ɛ̄
1 sg . ipfv judgement remove: ipfv 2 sg to
‘I speak with you.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Islam uʜaˤq'-uwe le-w Nadir-li-ču
pn m .talk: ipfv - cvb be- m pn - obl - com
‘Islam is speaking with Nadir.’

Mingrelian Ø-u-ragad-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-s Ø-u-ragad-u(n)-Ø
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : r -talk- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo is talking to Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew medaber

Valency pattern: SBJ_im
X: SBJ
Y: im
Locus: Y
Pinχas medaber im Menaχem
pn speak[ ptcp . sg . m ] with pn
‘Pinchas is speaking with Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul halgın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-xvan halga-ra a
pn pn - obl - com m .speak. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is speaking with Kurban.’

Nanai gusərəndu-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-ǯi gusərə-ndu-j-ni
pn pn - ins tell- soc - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is speaking with Masha.’

Nivkh qlajd

Valency pattern: SBJ_COM
X: SBJ
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Kaskazik Ajsana-ɣin qlaj-d
pn pn - com . sg talk- ind
‘Kaskazik is speaking with Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh ʁuruƛ

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pataħi musa-k’ena ʁw-ere wuč-ani
pn pn - com speak- simul m .find- aor
‘Patahi is speaking with Musa.’

Northern Mansi potǝrti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMjot
X: NOM
Y: NOMjot
Locus: Y
jēn’a potǝrt-i mārja jot
pn speak- npst [3 sg ] pn com
‘Eugene speaks to Mary.’

Northern Yukaghir nˈiǝdˈi=

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-nˈǝŋ nˈiǝdˈi-nu-j
pn pn - com speak- ipf - intr .3 sg
‘Semien is speaking with Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å snakke

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Per snakke-t med Ola
pn speak- pst with pn
‘Per is speaking with Ola.’

Polish rozmawiać

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Staszek rozmawia z Adam-em
pn [ nom . sg ] speak: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Staszek is speaking with Adam.’

Russian razgovarivatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja razgovariva-et s Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg speak( ipfv )- prs .3 sg with pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja is speaking with Maša.’

Serbian pričati

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petar priča sa Marij-om
pn . nom . sg speak. prs .3 sg with pn - ins
‘Petar is speaking with Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul halgɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
basir halga-r a karam-ɨxvan
pn m .talk. ipf - simul exist pn - com
‘Basir is speaking with Karam.’

Shughni naqli čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Azim Lola=qati naqli kix̌-t
pn pn = ins conversation do-3 sg
‘Azim is speaking with Lola.’

Skolt Saami mainsted

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt maainast Määrja-in
pn . sg . nom speak. prs .3 sg pn - sg . com
‘Pete is speaking with Maria’

Slovak hovoriť

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Peter hovorí s Mark-om
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] speak( ipfv ). prs .3 sg with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Peter is speaking with Marek.’

Slovenian pogovarjati se

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter se pogovarja s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl speak: ipfv . prs .3 sg with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter is speaking with Pavel.’

Sorani Kurdish qise kirdîn

Valency pattern: SBJ_legel
X: SBJ
Y: legel
Locus: Y
Hîwa xerîk-e legeɫ Perî-î qise de-k-a
pn busy-be. prs .3 sg with pn - obl talking ind -do. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa is speaking with Peri.’

Southern Rutul halgın

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ı-xhvan halga-r
pn pn - obl - com m . ipf .talk- prs
‘Murad is speaking with Aydin.’

Spanish hablar

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Pedro habla-ba con María
pn [ sg . m ] speak- impf .3 sg with pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro was talking to Maria.’

Standard Arabic taḥaddaṯa

Valency pattern: NOM_maaGEN
X: NOM
Y: maaGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un yataḥaddaṯu maʕa Maryam-a
pn - nom talk. ipf .3 m with pn - gen
‘Badr is speaking with Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø lile-s x-a-gǝrg-äl-i
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : sup -talk- vpl - prs
‘Maizer is talking to Lile.’

Swedish att prata

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Björn prata-r med Maja
pn speak- prs with pn
‘Björn is speaking with Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Na-ki~ki-pag-usap si Pedro kay Miguel
av - soc ~ ipfv - nom -communicate pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro is speaking with Miguel.’

Telugu māṭlāḍu

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pravīṇ maheṣ-tō māṭlāḍutunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - com speak. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is speaking with Mahesh.’

Tsakhur yušan haʔiy

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ı-kva yušan vo-r haʔa
pn pn - obl - com word cop - h n .do. ipf
‘Murad is speaking with Aydin.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa ʁaj b-ič'-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
uršːi juldaš-li-c:ila ʁaj ik'-ule=saj
boy friend- obl - com speech ( m )say- prog . cnv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is speaking with his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa ʁaj b-ik'-i

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-сːala ʁaj w-ik'-ule=caj
boy neighbor- com speech m -say- cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is speaking with his neighbor.’

Turkish konuşmak

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-la konuş-uyor
pn pn - com talk- prs
‘Mehmet is speaking with Orhan.’

Turoyo məǧġəl

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_7am
X: SBJ.SS
Y: 7am
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-məǧġəl ʕam Yuḥanən
pn prs -speak. ipfv .3 m with pn
‘Gabriyel is speaking with Yuḥanən.’

Ulcha určulun-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ama əńi-ǯi určulun-di-ni
father mother- ins talk- prs -3 sg
‘Father is speaking with mother.’

Uzbek gaplašmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_bilan
X: NOM
Y: bilan
Locus: Y
Petya Maša bilan gaplaš-ib o’tir-ib-ti
pn pn with talk- cvb sit- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja is speaking with Maša.’

West Central Oromo odeessa

Valency pattern: NOM_ABSwaddzin
X: NOM
Y: ABSwaddzin
Locus: Y
obsaa-n tolaa waddʒin odeess-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom pn . abs with speak- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is speaking with Tola.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB/POSTgalaz
X: NOM
Y: SUB/POSTgalaz
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a galaz lükˈven-zva
pn pn - obl ( sub / post ) with speak- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib is speaking with Eldar.’

Zilo Andi j-edːo-mado

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pat’imati marjam=lojɡu j-edːo-mado
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn = com f -talk. pst - prog
‘Patimat is talking with Mariam.’