BivalTyp

‘smell’

Argument frame: X (smell) like / of Y
Stimulus sentence: (I was mending my car.) My hands smell like / smell of gasoline .
Predicate label Ru: пахнуть
Argument frame Ru: X (пахнуть) Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Я чинил машину). Мои руки] пахнут [бензином .

Abaza fʕʷə́ qə-ha

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
s-náṗ-kʷa benzín–fʕʷə r-qə́-h-əj-d
1 sg . io -hand- pl gasoline–smell 3 pl . io - loc -smell- prs - dcl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as part of a nominal compound.

Adyghe (West Circassian) pə-wə

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
s-ʔe-me bjenzinə-me-r q-a-p-e-wə
1 sg . pr -hand- obl gasoline-smell- abs csl -3 pl . io - loc : tip - dyn -come
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as part of a nominal compound.

Aghul niʔ qa-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ze χil-ar.i-q binzin.i niʔ qa-a
i : gen hand- pl - post gasoline( gen ) smell { post }be- prs
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Alik Kryz neʕ ʕaxhric

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
za xab-rime-ğar benzin-ci neʕ ʕaşxha-re
1. gen hand- pl . obl - superel gazoline- gen smell come. ipfv - prs . n
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is arguably expressed as an NP-internal modifier. To be checked.

Archi

Valency pattern: SUP.EL_GEN
X: SUP.EL
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
is kurʁul-če-tːi-š bənzin-ni-n di carχa-r-ši
npl . i . gen hand. p l- obl . pl - sup - el gas- obl - gen smell 4.< ipfv >throw- ipfv - cvb . ipfv (4.be)
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic rexa atə

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
mən id-i rex=ət +nuyṭa bitay=əl
from hand( f )- p .1 sg smell( m )= rel oil( m ) come. prog =3 m
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Avar maħ buk’ize

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
dir kwer-az-da benzad-ul maħ b-ugo
my hand- pl . obl - loc oil- gen smell n - cop
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Azerbaijani qoxumaq

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
mənim əl-lər-im benzin qoxu-yur
1. gen hand- pl - poss 1 sg gasoline smell- ipfv (3)
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: With this verb, the second argument does not trigger agreement and is never marked for the accusative case even if it is referentially salient (unlike with canonical transitive verbs). This verb belongs to the literary language (the more common alternative does not meet the inclusion criteria).

Bafut lúm

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
m̀-bô má lúm ŋ̀kxì-mᵼ̀wúrᵼ̂
pl -hand my smell water-oil
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Bambara kasa` bɛ́/tɛ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pètɔrɔli kasa` bɛ́ bólo` nɔ̀fɛ̀
oil smell\ art be 1 sg hand\ art on.trace
‘My hands smell like oil.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Brazilian Portuguese cheirar

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
minha-s mão-s cheir-am a gasolina
poss .1 sg . f - pl hand( f )- pl smell-3 pl . prs to petrol( f )
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
za xabt'im-beʕar benzin-co neʕ ğaşxar-a'vi
1. obl hand- pl . abl oil- obl . gen smell come. ipf - prog
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Catalan fer olor

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
les meves man-s fan olor de benzina
def . pl . f poss .1 sg . f . pl hand( f )- pl make.3 pl . prs . ind smell( f ) of petrol( f )
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Chirag tːa̰ħ-le

Valency pattern: ABS_GEN
X: ABS
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
di-la na̰qː-be binzin-na tːa̰ħ-le
i - gen hand- pl ( abs ) gasoline- gen smell- adv . prs .3
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Czech smrdět

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ruc-e mi smrdí benzín-em
hand( f )- nom . pl i . dat smell( ipfv ). prs .3 pl gasoline( m )- ins . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Danish lugte

Valency pattern: SBJ_af
X: SBJ
Y: af
Locus: Y
Min-e hænder lugte-r af benzin
my- pl hand( c ). pl smell- prs of gasoline( c ). sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Dutch ruiken

Valency pattern: SBJ_naar
X: SBJ
Y: naar
Locus: Y
mijn hand-en ruik-en naar benzine
poss .1 sg hand( c )- pl smell-3 pl to gasoline( c )
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Eastern Maninka yé/tɛ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sánsi-suma` yé bólo` fɛ̀.
gasoline-smell\ art be 1 sg hand\ art by
‘My hands smell like gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because the intended meaning is expressed by a structurally discontinuous combination (predicate + root in a compound).

English smell

Valency pattern: SBJ_like
X: SBJ
Y: like
Locus: Y
My hands smell like gasoline.

Estonian lõhnama

Valency pattern: NOM_GENjarele
X: NOM
Y: GENjarele
Locus: Y
mu käe-d lõhna-vad bensiini järele
1 sg . gen hand- pl . nom smell- prs .3 pl gasoline. sg . gen after
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Finnish haista

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
käte-ni hais-e-vat bensiini-ltä
hand. nom . pl - poss .1 sg smell- prs -3 pl gasoline- abl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Forest Enets ɔtis

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
modʲi uzi-nʲiʔ kare-xon ɔtiʔɛ-ʔ
i hand- pl .1 sg fish- loc . sg smell( ipfv )-3 pl . s
‘My hands smell of fish’.

French sentir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
mes main-s sentent l’ essence
my. pl hand( f )- pl smell. prs .3 pl def . sg . f gasoline( f )
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Georgian Ø-q'ar-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
čem-i xel-eb-i benzin-it Ø-q'ar-s
my- nom hand- pl - nom gasoline- ins s 3-reek- s 3 sg
‘My hands reek of gasoline.’

German riechen

Valency pattern: NOM_nachDAT
X: NOM
Y: nachDAT
Locus: Y
mein-e Hände riech-en nach Benzin
my- nom . pl hand. nom . pl smell- prs .3 pl after gasoline[ dat . sg ]
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Guinean Kpelle kúŋ káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
èsáns kùŋ gáa ɲée-ɣáà dìê
gazoline smell\ l be 1 sg \hand- pl 3 pl .on1
‘My hands smell of gazoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Icari Dargwa kːʷaˤʕ b=u:h-araj

Valency pattern: POSTtti_GEN
X: POSTtti
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
di-la naˤqː-b-a-ha tːi=b binzin-na kːʷaˤʕ le=b
i - gen hand- pl - obl - post post = n gasoline- gen smell. abs exist = n
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Irish bí boladh

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
boladh gásailín ó mo láimh.
be. prs smell fuel( gs ) from poss .1 sg hand. pl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Italian sapere

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
le mi-e man-i sanno di benzin-a
def . pl . f poss .1 sg - pl . f hand- pl . f smell.3 pl . prs . of gasoline- sg . f
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Kadar Dargwa waʡ CL-ik-es / CL-irk-es

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
dija naˤq'-b-a-zaka binzi-ja waʡ b-irk-ur
i . gen hand- pl - obl . pl - el petrol- gen smell n -fall. ipfv - th
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Kalderash Romani khandel

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
muř-ə vast khand-en kata binzin-o
my- pl hand. nom smell- prs .3 pl from gasoline- nom . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the structure with the ablative case (ABL) would be used.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: POST_GEN
X: X
Y: Y
Locus: XY
χl-ar.i-q benzin.ǯi-n niʔ q-a
hand- pl - post bezine- gen smell( abs ) post -be( prs )
‘(My) hands smell of benzine.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Karata xwanj bik’waɬa

Valency pattern: EL_POSS
X: EL
Y: POSS
Locus: XY
di-raj reƛ’a-ba-gal binzin-i-ƛ xwanj idja
1. obl - attr . pl hand- pl . obl - el gasoline- obl - gen smell cop
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The possessor NP displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Kaytag Dargwa k:vaˁʕdik’wara

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
dila naˁq:-bi k:vaˁʕdik’-ulca binzin-ni
my hand- pl . nom npl .smell. ipf - prs oil- erg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Kazakh sas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Menіŋ qol-ïm benziyn sas-ïp tur
i . gen hand- poss 1 sg gasoline smell- cvb stand.3 sg
‘My hands smell of this gasoline.’

Kazym Khanty awti

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
maša-j-en jɔš-ŋəλ ԑsǝm jiŋ(k)-ǝn awə-λ-əŋən
pn - ep - poss .2 sg hand- poss [ du ] udder water- loc smell- npst -3 du
‘Maša’s hands smell of gasoline.’

Khoekhoe ham

Valency pattern: SBJ_khami
X: SBJ
Y: khami
Locus: Y
Ti ǃom-di ge petrol-i khami ra ham
1 sg . poss hand-3 f . pl decl petrol-3 c . sg like ipfv smell
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Khwarshi muša gołe

Valency pattern: INTER.EL_GEN1
X: INTER.EL
Y: GEN1
Locus: XY
di-lo leła-za-š-šo lija-s muša gołe
1 sg . o - gen 2 hand( iv )- pl . o - inter - el garlic( iv )- gen 1 smell( iii ) be. prs
‘My hands smell of garlic.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Kina Rutul il rɨˁχaˁra

Valency pattern: INTER.EL_ATTR
X: INTER.EL
Y: ATTR
Locus: XY
ɨz-dɨ χɨla-bɨr-mɨ-k-la benzin-ad il rɨˁχaˁ-r=a
i - attr hand- pl - obl . pl - inter - el petrol- attr smell( nom ) 4.go. ipfv - cvb =be
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Kumyk ijis gelmek

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
qol-lar-ɨm-dan ot ijis gel-e
hand- pl -1 sg - abl grass smell come-3 sg
‘My hands smell of grass.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Latin oleo

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
per-que lac-us alt-os et ole-nt-ia sulphur-e fer-tur stagn-a Palic-orum
through-and lake( m )- acc . pl deep- acc . pl . m and smell- ptcp . prs . act - acc . pl . n sulphur( n )- abl . sg carry[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg swamp( n )- acc . pl p alici( m )- gen . pl
‘... and through deep lakes and sulphur-smelling swamps of the Palici...’
Note: (Ov. Met. V, 405)

Laz o-l-u

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
xe-čkim-i-s benzin-iš šu(r)-i Ø-a-l-em-s
hand- poss 1- b - dat gasoline- gen smell- nom io 3- ver : r -go- sm - s 3 sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mandarin Chinese wén qǐlái

Valency pattern: SBJ_xiang
X: SBJ
Y: xiang
Locus: Y
wǒ-de shǒu wén qǐlái xiàng qìyóu
i - de hand smell up like gasoline
‘My hands smell like gasoline.’

Mano gḭ̄ḭ̄ be

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
tíéyíí gḭ̄ḭ̄ lɛ̄ ŋ̄ kɔ̀ mɔ̀
gasoline smell 3 sg . exi 1 sg arm on
‘My arms smell of gazoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
di-la nuʁ-e benzi-ja deħ-le le-r
i . obl - gen hand- pl gaz. g en smell- obl . in be- npl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Mingrelian šur-i Ø-u-ntx-an-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
čkim xe-s benʒil-iš šur-(i) Ø-u-ntx-an-s
my hand- dat gasoline- gen smell- nom io 3- ver : o -smell- sm - s 3 sg
‘My hands smell like gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Modern Hebrew meriχ-ot

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
ha jad-ajim ʃel-i meriχ-ot mi delek
def hand- pl poss -1 sg smell[ ptcp ]- pl . f from gasoline
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Mukhad Rutul il jišin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
iz-dı χıl-abırmı-k benzin-e-d il ki
my- attr hand- pl . obl - cont oil- obl - gen smell be_at
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Nanai puni ənə-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
mi ŋaala-ǯea-i benzin pu-ni ənə-j-ni
1 sg hand- abl - p . refl . sg gasoline smell- p .3 sg go- npst - p .3 sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Nivkh nоʁd

Valency pattern: SBJ_INS
X: SBJ
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ɲ-ramk-ɣun bеnzin-ɣir̥ nоʁ-d
1 sg . poss -hand- pl gasoline- ins smell- ind
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Northern Akhvakh šwani bik’uruƛa

Valency pattern: EL_POSS
X: EL
Y: POSS
Locus: XY
di-re reƛ’i-li-gune bizi-ƛƛi koša šwani godi
1. gen - npl hand- pl - el oil- gen bad smell n . cop
‘My hands smell badly of gasoline.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Northern Mansi at pasi

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
am kāt-aɣ-um xūl at pas-ē-ɣ
1 sg hand- du - poss .1 sg fish smell smell- npst -3 du
‘My hands smell of fish.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Northern Yukaghir pödˈǝlnˈǝ=

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
mǝt čаldˈǝ-pul bjenzin pödˈǝl-nˈǝ-ŋi
1 sg . poss hand- pl gasoline smell- prop - intr .3 pl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Norwegian Bokmål å lukte

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
hend-ene mine lukte-r bensin
hand- def . pl my. pl smell- prs gasoline
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Polish pachnąć

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
moj-e ręc-e pachną benzyn-ą
my- f . nom . pl hand- nom . pl smell: ipfv . prs .3 pl gasoline- ins . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Russian paxnutʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
mo-i ruk-i paxn-ut benzin-om
my- nom . pl hand( f )- nom . pl smell( pfv )- prs .3 pl gasoline( m )- ins . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Serbian mirisati

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
moj-e ruk-e miriš-u na benzin
my- nom . pl . f hand- nom . pl smell- prs .3 pl on gasoline. acc . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Shinaz Rutul il h-iši-n

Valency pattern: CONTEL_ATTR
X: CONTEL
Y: ATTR
Locus: XY
iz-dɨ χɨlab-a-kila il ruʔu-j benzin-a-d
my- attr hand. pl - obl - contel smell ipf .go- evt . n oil- obl - attr
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Shughni bůy δêdow2

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
wi δust-en benzin bůy δiy-en
d 3. m . sg . obl hand- pl oil smell fall-3 pl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Skolt Saami âʹpssed

Valency pattern: NOM_mate
X: NOM
Y: mate
Locus: Y
muu ǩiõđ âʹpsse mâte beʹnsin
1 sg . gen hand. pl . nom smell. prs .3 pl like gasoline. sg . nom
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Slovak smrdieť

Valency pattern: NOM_poLOC
X: NOM
Y: poLOC
Locus: Y
Moj-e ruk-y smrdia po benzín-e
my- nom . pl hand( f )- nom . pl smell( ipfv ). prs .3 pl after gasoline( m )- loc . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Slovenian dišati

Valency pattern: NOM_poLOC
X: NOM
Y: poLOC
Locus: Y
moj-e rok-e dišijo po bencin-u
my- nom . pl . f hand- nom . pl smell: ipfv . prs .3 pl by gasoline- loc . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Sorani Kurdish bon lêhatin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
dest-ek-an=im bon-î gazoɫ=yan lê-d-ê
hand- def - pl =1 sg . pc smell- izf gasoline=3 pl . pc prev - ind -come. prs .3 sg
‘My hands smell like gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul il yidq’ın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
xıl-amı-kla benzin-e-d il aˤğuˤ-r
hand- pl . obl - contel gas- obl - n smell ( n )go. ipf - prs
‘The hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Spanish oler

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
mi-s mano-s huele-n a gasolina
my- pl hand[ sg . f ]- pl smell- prs .3 pl to gasoline[ sg . f ]
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Standard Arabic fāḥa rāɁiḥatu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
tafūḥu min yad-ay-ya rāɁiḥat-u l-banzīn-i
emanate. ipf .3 f from hands( f )- gen . du - p .1 sg smell( f )- nom def -gasoline- gen
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
mišgu ši-är-s benzin-i kwin-Ø x-o-qan
poss 1 hand- pl - dat gasoline- gen smell- nom io 3- ver : o -hit
‘My hands reek of gasoline.’

Swedish att lukta

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
mina händ-er lukta-r bensin
my. pl hand- pl smell- prs gasoline
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_BARE
X: ACT
Y: BARE
Locus: Y
na-nga~ngamoy gasolina ang kamay ko
av . stem . ipfv ~ ipfv -smell gasoline subj hands 1. sg . gen
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: The label BARE is used because there is no overt flagging associated with this argument.

Telugu vaccu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
cētu-la-nuṁci gyās vāsana vastuṁdi
1 sg . obl hand( n )- pl . obl - abl gas( n ). sg . obl smell( n ). sg . nom come. npst .3 sg . nm
‘The gasoline smell comes from my hands.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as part of a nominal compound.

Tsakhur evaхhay

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
yizdi хulyoppu-šı-k benzin-in eva vo-d
my. obl hand. pl . nom - pl . obl - cont oil- n smell cop - n
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Tsudakhar Dargwa kːʷaˤʡ b-ič'-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
dila nuqbe benzin-na kːʷaˤʡ d-ik'-ule=sade
1. gen hand. pl . obl oil- gen smell npl -say- prog . cnv = cop . npl (3)
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Tsugni Dargwa kːʷaˤʡ + COP

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
nuqba-cːe-rka nabt-la kːʷaˤʡ leb
hand. pl . obl - inter - abl : down oil- gen smell cop . exst : n (3)
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Turkish kokmak

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
el-ler-im bu benzin-den kok-uyor
hand- pl - p .1 sg this gasoline- abl smell- prs
‘My hands smell of this gasoline.’

Turoyo oṯe reḥo

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
k-oṯe reḥ-e d-u banzin me iḏ-oṯ-i
prs -come. ipfv .3 m smell- p .3 m rel - art . m gasoline( m ) from hand( f )- pl - p .1 sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Twi hwa

Valency pattern: SBJ_tese
X: SBJ
Y: tese
Locus: Y
me nsa hwa tesε fagoo
1 sg ( poss ) hands smell like gasoline
‘My hands smell like gasoline.’

Ulcha waqisi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
tara əsi min ŋāla-j benzin-ǯi waqis-i-ni
then now my hand-1 sg petrol- ins stink- prs -3 sg
‘And now my hands stink of gasoline.’

Uzbek hidi kelmoq

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
meniŋ kol-lar-im-dan benzin-niŋ hid-i kel-yab-ti
my hand- pl - poss .1 sg - abl gasoline- gen smell- poss .3 sg come- prs 1-3 sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

West Central Oromo dʒeɗa

Valency pattern: NOM_RDP
X: NOM
Y: RDP
Locus: Y
hark-i=koo benzina benzina dʒeɗ-a
hand- nom =1 sg . poss gasoline gasoline say-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘My hands smell like gasoline.’

Wolof xeeñ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
robb bii sama parfoŋ-u yaay la-y xeeñ
dress( b / y ) cl b - dem my perfume-of mother( j / y ) f oc o - incpl smell
‘This dress smells of my mother’s perfume.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
zu ǧil-er-i-kaa benzin-di-n ni qve-zva
1 sg . gen hand- pl - obl - sub / postel gasoline- obl - gen smell come. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Zazaki

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
boj-a ɡaz-i jɛ-n-a dɛst-an-e mɨ=ra
smell- ez . f gas- m . obl come. prs - aug -3 sg . f hand- pl . obl - ez . pl 1 sg . obl =from
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Zilo Andi ʃan (<b>-aχ-o)

Valency pattern: CONT.EL_GEN
X: CONT.EL
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
di-r-ul reʔoba-tʃ’u-kːu benzinu-tɬi zolo ʃan (b-aχ.o)
i . obl - inan 2( gen )- pl hand. pl . obl - cont - el benzine. obl - gen very odour[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-end_up. pst ( aor )
‘My hands smell of benzine very strongly.’