BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘smell’

Argument frame: X (smell) like / of Y
Stimulus sentence: (I was mending my car.) My hands smell like / smell of gasoline .
Predicate label Ru: пахнуть
Argument frame Ru: X (пахнуть) Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Я чинил машину). Мои руки] пахнут [бензином .

Abaza fʕʷə́ qə-ha

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
s-náṗ-kʷa benzín–fʕʷə r-qə́-h-əj-d
1 sg . io -hand- pl gasoline–smell 3 pl . io - loc -smell- prs - dcl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as part of a nominal compound.

Aghul niʔ qa-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ze χil-ar.i-q binzin.i niʔ qa-a
i : gen hand- pl - post gasoline( gen ) smell { post }be- prs
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic rexa atə

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
mən id-i rex=ət +nuyṭa bitay=əl
from hand( f )- p .1 sg smell( m )= rel oil( m ) come. prog =3 m
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Brazilian Portuguese cheirar

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
minha-s mão-s cheir-am a gasolina
poss .1 sg . f - pl hand( f )- pl smell-3 pl . prs to petrol( f )
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Catalan fer olor

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
les meves man-s fan olor de benzina
def . pl . f poss .1 sg . f . pl hand( f )- pl make.3 pl . prs . ind smell( f ) of petrol( f )
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Czech smrdět

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ruc-e mi smrdí benzín-em
hand( f )- nom . pl i . dat smell( ipfv ). prs .3 pl gasoline( m )- ins . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Danish lugte

Valency pattern: SBJ_af
X: SBJ
Y: af
Locus: Y
Min-e hænder lugte-r af benzin
my- pl hand( c ). pl smell- prs of gasoline( c ). sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Dutch ruiken

Valency pattern: SBJ_naar
X: SBJ
Y: naar
Locus: Y
mijn hand-en ruik-en naar benzine
poss .1 sg hand( c )- pl smell-3 pl to gasoline( c )
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Estonian lõhnama

Valency pattern: NOM_GENjarele
X: NOM
Y: GENjarele
Locus: Y
mu käe-d lõhna-vad bensiini järele
1 sg . gen hand- pl . nom smell- prs .3 pl gasoline. sg . gen after
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Finnish haista

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
käte-ni hais-e-vat bensiini-ltä
hand. nom . pl - poss .1 sg smell- prs -3 pl gasoline- abl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Forest Enets ɔtis

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
modʲi uzi-nʲiʔ kare-xon ɔtiʔɛ-ʔ
i hand- pl .1 sg fish- loc . sg smell( ipfv )-3 pl . s
‘My hands smell of fish’.

German riechen

Valency pattern: NOM_nachDAT
X: NOM
Y: nachDAT
Locus: Y
mein-e Hände riech-en nach Benzin
my- nom . pl hand. nom . pl smell- prs .3 pl after gasoline[ dat . sg ]
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Italian sapere

Valency pattern: SBJ_di
X: SBJ
Y: di
Locus: Y
le mi-e man-i sanno di benzin-a
def . pl . f poss .1 sg - pl . f hand- pl . f smell.3 pl . prs . of gasoline- sg . f
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Kazakh sas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Menіŋ qol-ïm benziyn sas-ïp tur
i . gen hand- poss 1 sg gasoline smell- cvb stand.3 sg
‘My hands smell of this gasoline.’

Kazym Khanty awti

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
maša-j-en jɔš-ŋəλ ԑsǝm jiŋ(k)-ǝn awə-λ-əŋən
pn - ep - poss .2 sg hand- poss [ du ] udder water- loc smell- npst -3 du
‘Maša’s hands smell of gasoline.’

Latin oleo

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
per-que lac-us alt-os et ole-nt-ia sulphur-e fer-tur stagn-a Palic-orum
through-and lake( m )- acc . pl deep- acc . pl . m and smell- ptcp . prs . act - acc . pl . n sulphur( n )- abl . sg carry[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg swamp( n )- acc . pl p alici( m )- gen . pl
‘... and through deep lakes and sulphur-smelling swamps of the Palici...’
Note: (Ov. Met. V, 405)

Modern Hebrew meriχ-ot

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
ha jad-ajim ʃel-i meriχ-ot mi delek
def hand- pl poss -1 sg smell[ ptcp ]- pl . f from gasoline
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Nanai puni ənə-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
mi ŋaala-ǯea-i benzin pu-ni ənə-j-ni
1 sg hand- abl - p . refl . sg gasoline smell- p .3 sg go- npst - p .3 sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Nivkh nоʁd

Valency pattern: SBJ_INS
X: SBJ
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ɲ-ramk-ɣun bеnzin-ɣir̥ nоʁ-d
1 sg . poss -hand- pl gasoline- ins smell- ind
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Norwegian Bokmål å lukte

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
hend-ene mine lukte-r bensin
hand- def . pl my. pl smell- prs gasoline
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Polish pachnąć

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
moj-e ręc-e pachną benzyn-ą
my- f . nom . pl hand- nom . pl smell: ipfv . prs .3 pl gasoline- ins . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Russian paxnutʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
mo-i ruk-i paxn-ut benzin-om
my- nom . pl hand( f )- nom . pl smell( pfv )- prs .3 pl gasoline( m )- ins . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Rutul il rɨˁχaˁra

Valency pattern: INTER.EL_ATTR
X: INTER.EL
Y: ATTR
Locus: XY
ɨz-dɨ χɨla-bɨr-mɨ-k-la benzin-ad il rɨˁχaˁ-r=a
i - attr hand- pl - obl . pl - inter - el petrol- attr smell( nom ) 4.go. ipfv - cvb =be
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Serbian mirišu

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
moj-e ruk-e miriš-u na benzin
мой- nom . pl . f рука- nom - pl пахнуть- prs .3 pl на бензин. acc . sg
‘Мои руки пахнут бензином.’

Shughni bůy δêdow2

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
wi δust-en benzin bůy δiy-en
d 3. m . sg . obl hand- pl oil smell fall-3 pl
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Skolt Saami âʹpssed

Valency pattern: NOM_mate
X: NOM
Y: mate
Locus: Y
muu ǩiõđ âʹpsse mâte beʹnsin
1 sg . gen hand. pl . nom smell. prs .3 pl like gasoline. sg . nom
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Slovenian dišati

Valency pattern: NOM_poLOC
X: NOM
Y: poLOC
Locus: Y
moj-e rok-e dišijo po bencin-u
my- nom . pl . f hand- nom . pl smell: ipfv . prs .3 pl by gasoline- loc . sg
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Spanish oler

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
mi-s mano-s huele-n a gasolina
my- pl hand[ sg . f ]- pl smell- prs .3 pl to gasoline[ sg . f ]
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Swedish att lukta

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
mina händ-er lukta-r bensin
my. pl hand- pl smell- prs gasoline
‘My hands smell of gasoline.’

Turkish kokmak

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
el-ler-im bu benzin-den kok-uyor
hand- pl - p .1 sg this gasoline- abl smell- prs
‘My hands smell of this gasoline.’

Ulcha waqisi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
tara əsi min ŋāla-j benzin-ǯi waqis-i-ni
then now my hand-1 sg petrol- ins stink- prs -3 sg
‘And now my hands stink of gasoline.’

Zilo Andi ʃan (<b>-aχ-o)

Valency pattern: CONT.EL_GEN
X: CONT.EL
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
di-r-ul reʔoba-tʃ’u-kːu benzinu-tɬi zolo ʃan (b-aχ.o)
i . obl - inan 2( gen )- pl hand. pl . obl - cont - el benzine. obl - gen very odour[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-end_up. pst ( aor )
‘My hands smell of benzine very strongly.’