BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘shoot at’

Argument frame: X (shoot) at Y
Stimulus sentence: P. shot at the bird . (He missed.)
Predicate label Ru: стрелять
Argument frame Ru: X (стрелять) в Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. выстрелил в птицу (Он не попал).

Abaza aj.χs

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
w-ʕa-s-m-aj.χsə-n
2 sg . m . abs - cisl -1 sg . io - neg -shoot- neg . imp
‘Dont shoot at me!’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-we

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
λ̣ə-r bzəwə-m je-wa-ʁ
man- abs bird- obl 3 sg . io + dat -strike- pst
‘The man shot at the bird.’

Aghul tufang.i-as jarʜ.u-

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a tufang.i-as jarʜ.u-ne ǯaq’ʷ.ala-s
pn ( erg ) gun-( in ) elat strike. pf - aor sparrow- dat
‘Aslan shot at the sparrow.’

Alik Kryz tufang saʕayc

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
terlan-ir ğuş-il-iz tufang saʕa-du
pn - erg bird- obl - dat gun( f ) throw. pfv - aor . f
‘Terlan shot at the bird.’

Archi

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
paša-mu nacʼa-s kammu, ammo bo-sːo-tʼu
pn - obl ( erg ) bird. o bl- dat throw. pfv but 3-catch. pfv - neg
‘Pasha shot at the bird but he missed’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic čarət

Valency pattern: SBJ_gu
X: SBJ
Y: gu
Locus: Y
sava črət-lə gu səprita
old. m fire. pst - ls .3 m in birdie( f )
‘The oldman shot at the bird.’

Avar reč’č’ize

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ʕali-ca ħanč’i-da reč’č’-ana
pn - erg sparrow. pl - loc smash- aor
‘Ali shot at the sparrows.’

Azerbaijani atəş açmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan quş-a atǝş aç-dı
pn bird- dat / lat fire open- pst (3)
‘Aslan shot at the bird.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ túmə̂ sᵼ́ŋ wá
pn sm p 2 shoot bird def
‘Ambe shot the bird.’

Bambara bón

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
dònso` ye kɔ̀nɔ` bón
hunter\ art pfv . tr bird\ art shoot
‘The hunter shot at the bird.’

Brazilian Portuguese atirar

Valency pattern: SBJ_em
X: SBJ
Y: em
Locus: Y
Pedro atir-ou no pássaro
pn ( m ) shoot-3 sg . pst in+ def . m bird( m )
‘Pedro shot at the bird.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan-ır ğuş-ula' ateş siʔir-ci
pn - erg bird- obl . loc shoot n .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan shot at the bird.’

Catalan disparar

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT
X: SBJ
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
en Pere va dispar-ar a l'ocell
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind shoot- inf to def . sg . m -bird( m )
‘Pere shot at the bird.’
Note: Cf. "en Pere li va disparar"

Chirag čejšʷi

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
awči-le buč’al-l-i če-jx-ub
hunter- erg deer- obl - super super -throw: pf - aor .3
‘Ali shot at the deer.’

Czech vystřelit

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr vystřeli-l na pták-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] shoot( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on bird( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr shot at the bird.’

Danish skyde

Valency pattern: SBJ_efter
X: SBJ
Y: efter
Locus: Y
Peter skød efter fugl-en
pn shoot. pst after bird( c )- def . sg
‘Peter shot at the bird.’

Dutch schieten

Valency pattern: SBJ_op
X: SBJ
Y: op
Locus: Y
Piet schoot op de vogel
pn ( c ) shoot. pst on art . def . c bird( c )
‘Piet shot at the bird.’

Eastern Maninka bón

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà kɔ̀nɔ` bón.
pn aor . tr bird\ art fling
‘Seku shot at the bird.’

English shoot

Valency pattern: SBJ_at
X: SBJ
Y: at
Locus: Y
Peter shot at the bird.

Estonian tulistama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter tulista-s lindu.
pn . sg . nom fire- pst .3 sg bird. sg . part
‘Peeter shot at the bird.’

Finnish ampua

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka ampu-i lintu-a
pn . nom shoot- pst .3 sg bird- part
‘Pekka shot at the bird.’

Forest Enets dʲɔza

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ ŋaʔu dʲɔza-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg duck shoot( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend shot at the duck’.

French tirer

Valency pattern: SBJ_sur
X: SBJ
Y: sur
Locus: Y
Paul a tiré sur l’ oiseau
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg shoot. pst . ptcp . m on def . sg . m bird( m )
‘Paul shot at the bird.’

Georgian Ø-e-srvr-i-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-m čit'-s Ø-e-sr-ol-a, magram a-Ø-a-cil-a
pn - erg bird- dat io 3- ver : r -shoot- r . ext - s 3 sg . pst but prv :upward- do 3- fact -avoid- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre shot at the bird, but he missed.’

German schießen

Valency pattern: NOM_aufACC
X: NOM
Y: aufACC
Locus: Y
Karl schieß-t auf den Vogel
pn [ nom . sg ] shoot- prs .3 sg on def . m . acc . sg bird[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl shot at the bird.’

Guinean Kpelle gbɛ́náà tǒo

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Hwáahuɣû àa gbɛ́naa tòo ŋwɛ̀ni ɓâ
pn 3 sg . prf gun fall def \bird on
‘Hwaahughu shot at the bird.’

Icari Dargwa tupang ix-uj

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPLAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam-il ʕaˤħliq'aˤn-nij tupang ix-ub
pn - erg bird- suplat gun throw: pf - aor
‘Islam shot at the bird.’

Irish scaoil

Valency pattern: SBJ_faoi
X: SBJ
Y: faoi
Locus: Y
Scaoil Pól fé-n éan.
shoot( pst ) pn under- def bird
‘Pól shot at the bird.’

Italian sparare

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Leo ha sparato a un uccell-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs shoot. pst . ptcp to indf . sg . m bird- sg . m
‘Leo shot a bird.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-aˤq-es / CL-irq-es

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad-li č'ik'a-li-ke b-aˤq-ib
pn - erg bird- obl - super n -beat. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad shot at the bird.’

Kalderash Romani del jag

Valency pattern: NOM_ande
X: NOM
Y: ande
Locus: Y
o Murš-a ď-a jag ande ćirikl-i
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg give- pst .3 sg fire in bird- nom . sg
‘Murša shot at the bird.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maˁhaˁmad-ǯi žaq’.li-z ʁ-iv-nu
pn - erg bird- dat pf -hit- pst
‘Mahamad shot at the bird. (He missed.)

Karata torč’č’anɬa

Valency pattern: ERG_CONT
X: ERG
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
ʕali-l š:akibo-č’o torč’č’-en
pn - erg bird- cont strike- pf
‘Ali shot at the bird.’

Kaytag Dargwa č:iixwara

Valency pattern: ERG_DATLAT
X: ERG
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja-l č:akva-j č:iʔiš-ur
pn - erg bird- datlat shoot. pf - aor
‘Petja shot at the bird.’

Kazakh at

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya qus-tï at-tï
pn bird- acc shoot- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya shot at the bird.’

Kazym Khanty pǒškan ewǝλt ԑsǝλti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en pǒškan ewǝλt tǒχλǝŋ_woj εsλ-ǝs pa an χɔj-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg gun from bird let_out- pst [3 sg ] add neg hit- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja shot at the bird, but he missed.’

Khoekhoe ǂnoa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ani-s-a go ǂnoa
pn -3 m . sg decl bird-3 f . sg - obl rpst shoot
‘Peter shot at the bird.’

Khwarshi coƛa

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN2
X: ERG
Y: GEN2
Locus: Y
šamil-i cojƛa beła-lo
pn - erg throw\ pst . w deer( iii )- gen 2
‘Shamil shot at the deer.’

Kina Rutul tufang wijiraj

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB
X: ERG
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul-a tufang w-iji-r=a-j šurk-u-χda
pn - erg gun( nom ) 3-shoot. pfv - cvb =be- pst bird- obl - sub
‘Rasul shot at the bird.’

Kumyk atɨšmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir žɨmčɨq-ʁa at-ɨš-d-ɨ
pn sparrow- dat throw- rec - pst -3 sg
‘Basir shot at the sparrow.’

Latin iaculor

Valency pattern: NOM_inACC
X: NOM
Y: inACC
Locus: Y
si rapid-us Mavors ign-es iacula-tur in ill-um
if fast- nom . sg . m pn ( m ). nom . sg fire( m )- acc . pl throw[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg in that- acc . sg . m
‘... if swift Mars shoots flames at him.’
Note: (Man. Astronomica. IV, 500)

Laz o-il-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k k'inč-i do-Ø-il-u
pn - b - erg bird- nom do 3-hit- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim shot at the bird.’

Mandarin Chinese kāiqiāng

Valency pattern: SBJ_chao
X: SBJ
Y: chao
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān cháo niǎo kāiqiāng le
pn facing bird fire pfv
‘Zhangsan shot at the bird.’

Mano bṵ̄ dà

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
māà bṵ̄ dà mīī mɔ̀
1 sg . prf gun fall person on
‘I has shot at a person.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

Mehweb

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER.LAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
Islam-ini ih-ub čiqʷaˤ-li-če
pn - erg throw: pfv - aor bird- obl - super ( lat )
‘Islam shot at the bird.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-ʔot-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k čit'-i-s k-Ø-a-ʔot-u
pn - erg bird- b - dat aff - io 3- ver : sup -throw- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo shot at the bird.’

Modern Hebrew jara

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Pinχas jara be tsipor
pn shoot[ pst .3 sg . m ] in bird
‘Pinchas shot at the bird.’

Mukhad Rutul gülle sıˤvχıˤn

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad-a šuruk-uu gülle sıˤvχıˤ-ri
pn - erg bird- super bullet( a ) a .shoot. pf - aor
‘Murad shot at the bird.’

Nanai meočala-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia niəčə-mbə meoča-la-xa-ni
pn bird- obl gun- pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia shot at the bird.’

Nivkh χad

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik pujŋa + χatu-d
pn bird + shoot- ind
‘Kaskazik shot at the bird.’

Northern Akhvakh ƛ’ƛ’wahunuƛa

Valency pattern: ERG_AD
X: ERG
Y: AD
Locus: Y
pataħi-de ššakiba-qqe ƛ’ƛ’wah-ani
pn - erg bird. obl - ad shoot- aor
‘Patahi shot at the bird.’

Northern Mansi pātamtas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
jēn’a wās pātamt-as-t-e, at xoj-as
pn duck shoot- pst - sg . o -3 sg . s neg hit- pst [3 sg ]
‘Eugene shot at the duck but missed.’

Northern Yukaghir aji=

Valency pattern: NOM_langudeng
X: NOM
Y: langudeng
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn ujǝ-nˈǝ-j-rukun lа-ŋudǝŋ аji-m
pn wing- prop - ptcl -thing side- dir shoot- tr .3 sg
‘Semien shot at the bird.’

Norwegian Bokmål å skyte

Valency pattern: SBJ_mot
X: SBJ
Y: mot
Locus: Y
Per skjøt mot en fugl
pn shoot. pst towards indf . m . sg bird
‘Per shot at the bird.’

Polish strzelić

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Paweł strzeli-ł do ptak-a
pn [ nom . sg ] shoot: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] at bird- gen . sg
‘Paweł shot at the bird.’

Russian vystrelitʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja vystreli-l v ptic-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg shoot( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] in bird( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja shot at the bird.’

Serbian pući

Valency pattern: NOM_uACC
X: NOM
Y: uACC
Locus: Y
Petar je puka-o u ptic-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg shoot- part . perf . m . sg in bird- acc . sg
‘Petar shot at the bird.’

Shinaz Rutul v-ihi-n

Valency pattern: ERG_APUD
X: ERG
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
basir v-ihi-r šurku-χda
pn ( erg ) a -throw. pf - aor bird. obl - apud
‘Basir shot at the bird.’

Shughni poθ weδdow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Šamil=i wam wiδič-ti poθ weδd at wam-ti na-angix-t
pn =3 sg d 3. f . sg . obl bird- sup shooting put. pst add d 3. f . sg d 3. f . sg . obl - sup neg -hit- pst
‘Shamil shot (let a bullet go) at the bird, but it (the bullet) did not hit it.’

Skolt Saami pääččad

Valency pattern: NOM_GENvuastta
X: NOM
Y: GENvuastta
Locus: Y
Peâtt pääčča-i lååʹdd vuâstta
pn . sg . nom shoot- pst .3 sg bird. sg . gen towards
‘Pete shot at the bird.’

Slovak strieliť

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Peter streli-l na vták-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] shoot( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on bird( m )- acc . sg
‘Peter shot at the bird.’

Slovenian ustreliti

Valency pattern: NOM_vACC
X: NOM
Y: vACC
Locus: Y
Pavel je ustreli-l v ptic-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg shoot: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] in bird- acc . sg
‘Pavel shot at the bird.’

Sorani Kurdish teqe kirdin

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa teqe=î le baɫinde-ke-î kird-Ø
pn shoot=3 sg . pc from bird- def - obl do. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa shot at the bird.’

Southern Rutul gülle yihin

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a şurku-s gülle vihi-r
pn - erg bird. obl - dat bullet( a ) a .throw. pf - aor
‘Murad shot at the bird.’

Spanish disparar

Valency pattern: SBJ_contra
X: SBJ
Y: contra
Locus: Y
Pedro dispar-ó contra un pájaro
pn [ sg . m ] shoot- aor .3 sg against art . ndef . sg . m bird[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro shot at a bird.’

Standard Arabic Ɂaṭlaqa nāran

Valency pattern: NOM_alaaGEN
X: NOM
Y: alaaGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un Ɂaṭlaqa nār-a-n ʕalā ṭ-ṭayr-i
pn - nom shoot. pf .3 m fire- acc - indef on def -bird- gen
‘Badr shot at the bird.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-d näp'ol-s a-x-pišwd
pn - erg bird- dat prv : dist - io 3-shoot
‘Maizer shot at the bird.’

Swedish att skjuta

Valency pattern: SBJ_mot
X: SBJ
Y: mot
Locus: Y
Björn sköt mot fågel-n
pn shoot. pst against bird- def . c . sg
‘Björn shot at the bird.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
B<in>aril ni Pedro ang ibon
< pv > pfv .shoot pers . gen pn subj bird
‘Pedro shot the bird.’

Telugu kālcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ pakṣi-ni kālcāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom bird( n ). sg . obl - acc shoot. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen shot at the bird.’

Tsakhur tifang avhiy

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPERLAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPERLAT
Locus: Y
murad-ee šit’-ı-lqha tifang avhu
pn - erg bird- obl - superlat gun( a ) a .shoot. pf
‘Murad shot at the bird.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa iš-iz/irš-iz

Valency pattern: ERG/LOC(LAT)_DAT
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
uršːi-le χʷaˤ-li-z ix-ub
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) dog- obl - dat throw. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy shot at the dog.’

Tsugni Dargwa tupang ix-i / irx-i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li χʷe-j tupang ix-ub
boy- erg dog- dat gun throw. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy shot at the dog.’

Turkish ateş etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet kuş-a ateş et-ti
pn bird- dat fire make- pst
‘Mehmet shot at the bird.’

Turoyo moḥe

Valency pattern: SBJ_m
X: SBJ
Y: m
Locus: Y
Gabriyel mḥe-le m-u safruno
pn hit. pfv - ls .3 m from- art . m bird( m )
‘Gabriyel shot at the bird.’

Ulcha mewtila-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama čiŋdə-wə mewti-la-xa, [čor-la-xa]
father bird- acc gun- vblz - pst -3 sg [outside- vblz - pst ]
‘Father shot at the bird, [he missed].’

Uzbek otmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya quš-ni ot-ti
pn bird- acc shoot- pst .3 sg
‘Petja shot at the bird.’

West Central Oromo ɗukaasa

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
obsaa-n simbirroo sana-tti ɗukaas-e
pn - nom bird. abs that- loc shoot-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa shot at the bird.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a quș-ra-z gülle aqhaa-na
pn - erg bird- obl - dat bullet open- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib shot at the bird.’

Zilo Andi qχ’ʷaʁ.unn

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER.LAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali-di ʃːekibo-ʔo qχ’ʷaʁ.unn-ij
pn - erg bird. obl - super . lat shoot. pst - pf
‘Ali shot at the bird.’