BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘see’

Argument frame: X (see) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. sees a house _y.
Predicate label Ru: видеть
Argument frame Ru: X (видеть) Y (-а)
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. видит дом .

Abaza ba

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-phʷə́spa a-tʒə́ l-b-ə́j-ṭ
def -girl def -house 3 sg . f . erg -see- prs - dcl
‘The girl sees the house.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) λeʁʷə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
pŝaŝe-m wəne-r j-e-λeʁʷə
girl- obl house- abs 3 sg . erg - dyn -see
‘The girl sees the house.’

Aghul agʷ.a-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s χal agʷ.a-a
pn - dat house see. ipf - prs
‘Aslan sees a house.’

Alik Kryz ipqhayc

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
terlan-iz k'ul iurqhvar-yu
pn - dat house( f ) f .see. ipfv - prs . f
‘Terlan sees a house.’

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
patʼimat-li-s noʟʼ akːu-r-ši
pn - obl - dat house 4.see- ipfv - cvb . ipfv (4.be)
‘Patimat sees a house.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic xazə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata xzi-la beta
girl( f ) see. pst - ls .3 f house( m )
‘The girl saw the house.’

Avar bixize

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-da ruq’ b-ix-ule-b b-ugo
pn - loc house n -see- ipf . ptcp - n n - cop
‘Ali sees a house.’

Azerbaijani görmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan ev gör-ür
pn house see- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan sees a house.’

Bambara yé

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù só` yé
pn ipfv house\ art see
‘Seku sees a house.’

Brazilian Portuguese ver

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro a casa
pn ( m ) see.3 sg . prs def . f house( f )
‘Pedro sees a house.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız k'ul ürqhü-rü
pn - dat house( a ) a .see. ipf - prs
‘Aslan sees a house.’

Catalan veure

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere veu un-a casa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) see.3 sg . prs . ind indf - sg . f house( f )
‘Pere sees a house.’

Chirag b-a̰ħḭ

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i sːika b-a̰ħ-un
pn - obl - super bear( abs ) n . sg -see: pf - aor .3
‘Ali saw a bear.’

Czech vidět

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr vidí dům
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] see( ipfv ). prs .3 sg house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr sees a house.’

Danish se

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter se-r et hus
pn see- prs indf . sg house( n )
‘Peter sees a house.’

Dutch zien

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet zie-t een huis
pn (С) see-3 sg art . indf house( n )
‘Piet sees a book.’

Eastern Maninka yé

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé bón` yé-la.
pn be house\ art see- inf . la
‘Seku sees the house.’

English see

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter sees a house.

Estonian nägema

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter näe-b maja
pn . sg . nom see- prs .3 sg house. sg . part
‘Peeter sees a house.’

Finnish nähdä

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka näke-e talo-n
pn . nom see- prs .3 sg house- gen
‘Pekka sees a house.’

Forest Enets mɔdee

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
kasa-jʔ kamozo-da mɔdee-za
man- nom . sg .1 sg house- obl . sg .3 sg see( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend sees his house’.

French voir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul voit une maison
pn ( m ) see. prs .3 sg indf . sg . f house( f )
‘Paul sees a house.’

Georgian Ø-xed-av-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-Ø saxl-s Ø-xed-av-s
pn - nom house- dat do 3-see- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre sees a house.’

German sehen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl sieht ein Haus
pn [ nom . sg ] see. prs .3 sg indf [ n . acc . sg ] house[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl sees a house.’

Guinean Kpelle káa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe káa pɛ́lɛ káa-ì
pn cop house see- inf
‘Pepee sees a house.’

Icari Dargwa či=b=ig-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il qal či=b=ig-a-ca=b
pn - erg house. abs on = n =see: ipf - prs - cop = n
‘Islam sees a house.’

Irish feic

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Cí-onn Pól an tigh.
see- prs pn def house
‘Pól sees the house.’

Italian vedere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ved-e un-a cas-a
pn ( m ) see-3 sg . prs indf . sg - f house- sg . f
‘Leo sees a house.’

Kadar Dargwa ke-CL-a-es / ki-CL-i-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li qali ki-b-iʔ-u
pn - erg home on - n -see. pfv - th
‘Muhammad sees a house.’

Kalderash Romani dikhəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a dikh-əl o khər
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg see- prs .3 sg art . m . dir . sg house[ acc . sg ]
‘Murša sees a house.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fatima.ji-z maˁhaˁmаd raˁqːuˁ-ra
pn - dat pn ( abs ) ( h . sg )see- prs
‘Fatima sees Mahamad.’

Karata haʔanɬa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja misja haʔ-indja idja
pn . dat house see- ipf cop
‘Ali sees a house.’

Kaytag Dargwa č:ibigara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l č:ibig-ulca qali
pn - erg n .see. ipf - prs house
‘Petja sees a house.’

Kazakh kör

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya üy kör-іp tur
pn house see- cvb stand.3 sg
‘Petya sees the house.’

Kazym Khanty kǎλti

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pet’a-j-en-a χɔt kǎλ-λ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg - dat house be.visible- npst [3 sg ]
‘The house is visible to Petja.’

Khoekhoe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Sara-s ge om-s-a ra
pn -3 f . sg decl house-3 f . sg - obl ipfv see
‘Sara sees a house.’

Khwarshi j/akʷa

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
šamile-l l-akʷa-ha aq
pn - dat iv -see- prs house( iv )
‘Shamil sees a house.’

Kina Rutul ʁargᵂara

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ʁ-argᵂa-r=a χal
pn - obl - dat pv -4.see. ipfv - cvb =be house( nom )
‘Rasul sees a house.’

Kumyk görmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat üj-nü gör-e
pn house- acc see-3 sg
‘Patimat sees the house.’

Latin video

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ille qui sanguin-em su-um vid-it
that. nom . sg . m which. nom . sg . m blood( f )- acc . sg one’s_own- acc . sg . m see[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘One who saw his own blood.’
Note: (Sen. Ep. 13, 2)

Laz o-ʒir-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s oxo(r)-i Ø-a-ʒi(r)-en-Ø
pn - b - dat house- nom io 3- pot -see- pot - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim sees a house.’

Mandarin Chinese kànjiàn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān kànjiàn yī-dòng fángzi
pn see one- clf house
‘Zhangsan sees a house.’

Mano gɛ̰̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pèé lɛ́ɛ̀ ká gɛ̰̀
pn 3 sg . ipfv house see: ipfv
‘Pe sees a house.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: CONT.LAT_NOM
X: CONT.LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pajzula-ze g-ub qali
pn - cont ( lat ) see: pfv - aor house
‘Pajzula sees a house.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-rc'q'-en-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø ʔude-s Ø-o-rc'q'-e(n)-Ø
pn - nom house- dat io 3- ver : sup -see- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo sees a house.’

Modern Hebrew ro-e

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas ro-e bajt
pn see[ ptcp ]- sg . m house
‘Pinchas sees a house.’

Mukhad Rutul hagun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s χal hagva-ra
pn - obl - dat house ( n )see. ipf - hab
‘Murad sees a house.’

Nanai icə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia ǯoo-wa icə-j-ni
pn house- obl see- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia sees a house.’

Nivkh idəd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik taf idə-d
pn house see- ind
‘Kaskazik sees a house.’

Northern Akhvakh hariguruƛa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
patħudi-ƛa č’ili harigw-ere godi
pn - dat house see- simul n . cop
‘Pathudi sees a house.’

Northern Mansi kasali

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
am kāsal-ej-um kol
i see- npst -1 sg house
‘I see a house.’

Northern Yukaghir juo=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn nimǝ-lǝ juo-mǝ-lǝ
pn house- acc see- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien sees a house.’

Norwegian Bokmål å se

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per se-r et hus
pn see- prs indf . n . sg house
‘Per sees a house.’

Polish widzieć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Paweł widzi dom
pn [ nom . sg ] see: ipfv . prs .3 sg house[ acc . sg ]
‘Paweł sees a house.’

Russian videtʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja vid-it dom
pn ( m )- nom . sg see( ipfv )- prs .3 sg house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja sees a house.’

Serbian videti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar vidi kuć-u
pn . nom . sg see. prs .3 sg house- acc . sg
‘Petar sees a house.’

Shinaz Rutul hagu-n

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ɨs hagu-j χal
pn - dat ( n )see. pf - aor . n house
‘Basir sees a house.’

Shughni wīntow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim čīd wīn-t
pn house see-3 sg
‘Azim sees a house.’

Skolt Saami vueiʹnned

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vuäinn põõrt
pn . sg . nom see. prs .3 sg house. sg . acc
‘Pete sees a house.’

Slovak vidieť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter vidí dom
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] see( ipfv ). prs .3 sg house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter sees a house.’

Slovenian videti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pavel vidi hiš-o
pn [ nom . sg ] see: ipfv . prs .3 sg house- acc . sg
‘Pavel sees a house.’

Sorani Kurdish dîtin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa maɫ-êk de-bîn-ê
pn house- indf ind -see. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa sees a house.’

Southern Rutul ğagun

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s xal ğagva-r
pn - obl - dat house n .see. ipf - prs
‘Murad sees a house.’

Spanish ver

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ve una casa
pn [ sg . m ] see[ prs .3 sg ] art . ndef . sg . f house[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro sees a house.’

Standard Arabic raɁā

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un yarā bayt-a-n
pn - nom see. ipf .3 m house- acc - indef
‘Badr sees a house.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø kor-s x-o-sgd-i
pn - nom house- dat io 3- ver : o -see- prs
‘Maizer sees a house.’

Swedish att se

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn se-r ett hus
pn see- prs indf . n . sg house
‘Björn sees a house.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Na-ki~kita ni Pedro ang bahay
pot . pv - ipfv ~see pers . gen pn subj house
‘Pedro sees a house.’

Telugu cūcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ oka iṁṭi-ni cūstunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom one house( n ). sg . obl - acc see. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen sees a house.’

Tsakhur q:adžiy

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-k’le хav q:edži vo-d
pn - obl - aff house ( n )see. ipf cop - n
‘Murad sees a house.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa če-b-až-iz/če-b-iž-iz

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-z qali če-b-ig-ule=sab
boy- dat home on - n -see. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy sees a house.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-ag-i / b-ig-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j qali če-b-ag-ib
boy- dat home on - n -see. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy sees a house.’

Turkish görmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet ev-i gör-üyor
pn house- acc see- prs
‘Mehmet sees the house.’

Turoyo ḥoze

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel ḥze-le bayto
pn see. pfv - ls .3 m house( m )
‘Gabriyel saw a house.’

Ulcha ičə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə dāi xagdu-wa ič-i-ni
male child big house- acc see- prs -3 sg
‘The boy sees a big house.’

Uzbek ko’rmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya uy-ni ko’r-ib tur-ib-ti
pn house- acc see- cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja sees a house.’

West Central Oromo arga

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n mana arg-a
pn - nom house. abs see-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa sees a house.’

Zilo Andi haʔ.o

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<b>o haʔ.o-r milki
pn - aff < inan 1> see. pst - prog house[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat sees a house.’