BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘respect’

Argument frame: X (respect) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. respects M .
Predicate label Ru: уважать
Argument frame Ru: X (уважать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. уважает М .

Abaza χʷə [kʷ-]c̣a

Valency pattern: ERG_LOCkwe
X: ERG
Y: LOCkwe
Locus: Y
rasúl fatíma χʷə lə́-kʷə-j-c̣-əj-ṭ
pn pn price 3 sg . f . io - loc -3 sg . m . erg -put- prs - dcl
‘Rasul respects Fatima.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ŝheč̣ʼafe fe-ṣ̂ə

Valency pattern: ERG_BEN
X: ERG
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
dirjekterə-m č̣ʼelejeʁaǯʼe-m ŝheč̣ʼafe f-j-e-ṣ̂ə
director- obl teacher- obl respect( abs ) ben -3 sg . erg - dyn -do
‘The director respects the teacher.’

Aghul uwažat q’.a-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a meʜemed uwažat q’.a-a
pn ( erg ) pn <respect> do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan respects Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz hurmat aric

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
terlan-ir rasul-iz hurmat yi-re
pn - erg pn - dat respect do. ipfv - prs . n
‘Terlan respects Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
paša-mu marin-ni-n qʼimat b-a-r
pn - obl ( erg ) pn - obl - gen respect 3-do- ipfv
‘Pasha respects Marina.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level constituent.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic maɣɣəb

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+Ašur maɣɣub-u=l švav-u
pn like. prog - p .3 m =3 m neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur respects his neighbor.’

Avar adab habize

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
ʕali-ca aħmad-il adab hab-ula
pn - erg pn - gen politeness do. n - ipf
‘Ali respects Ahmad.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Azerbaijani hörmət etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a hörmǝt ed-ir
pn pn - dat / lat respect do- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan respects Rasul.’

Bambara bònya

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù Fùséni bònya
pn ipfv pn respect
‘Seku respects Fuseyni.’

Brazilian Portuguese respeitar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro respeit-a Miguel
pn ( m ) respect-3 sg . prs pn ( m )
‘Pedro respects Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-uz ħürmet siʔi-ri
pn - erg pn - dat esteem n .do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan respects Rasul.’

Catalan respectar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere respect-a en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) respect-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere respects Marc.’

Chirag ħurmat b-arq’i

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
ʡa̰li-le rasul-la ħurmat b-irq’-le
pn - erg pn - gen respect( abs ) n . sg -do: ipf - dur . res .3
‘Ali respects Rasul.’
Note: Arguably, the NP in the genitive is a clause-level dependent.

Czech vážit si

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Petr si váží Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat respect( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- gen . sg
‘Petr respects Michal.’

Danish respektere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter respektere-r Marie
pn respect- prs pn
‘Peter respects Marie.’

Dutch respecteren

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet respecteer-t Marie
pn ( c ) respect-3 sg pn ( c )
‘Piet respects Marie.’

Eastern Maninka mábònya

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé Fántà mábònya-la.
pn be pn respect- inf . la
‘Seku respects Fanta.’

English respect

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter respects Mary.

Estonian austama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter austa-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom respect- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter respects Maret.’

Finnish kunnioittaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka kunnioitt-aa Matti-a
pn . nom respect- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka respects Matti’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French respecter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul respecte Marie
pn ( m ) respect. prs .3 sg pn ( f )
‘Paul respects Marie.’

Georgian p'at'iv-s s-c-em-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s p'at'iv-s s-c-em-s
pn - nom pn - dat respect- dat io 3-give- r . ext - s 3 sg
‘Petre respects Masho.’

German respektieren

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl respektier-t Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] respect- prs .3 sg pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl respects Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle mǎa wǐe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul Màrí màa wíê
pn 3 sg . hab pn surface be_heavy
‘Paul respects Marie.’

Icari Dargwa ħurmat b=irq'-uj

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Islam-il Nadir-ra ħurmat b=irq'-u
pn - erg pn - gen respect. abs n =do: ipf - hab
‘Islam respects Nadir.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Irish bí meas

Valency pattern: aige_ar
X: aige
Y: ar
Locus: XY
meas aig Pól air Máire.
be. prs respect at pn on pn
‘Pól respects Máire.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian rispettare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo rispett-a Maria
pn ( m ) respect-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo respects Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa si CL-ar-es / si CL-ir-es

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
meħamad-li rasu-wa si b-ir-u
pn - erg pn - gen respect n -do. ipfv - th
‘Muhammad respects Ashura.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Kalderash Romani thol laźav

Valency pattern: NOM_pe
X: NOM
Y: pe
Locus: Y
o Murš-a tho-l laźav pe Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg set- prs .3 sg shame on pn - nom . sg
‘Murša respects Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: GEN_DAT
X: GEN
Y: DAT
Locus: XY
rasul.i-n maˁhaˁmad.a-z uvaženije a
pn - gen pn - dat respect ( in ) cop ( prs )
‘Pasul respects Mahamad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Karata adab gahaɬa

Valency pattern: ERG_POSS
X: ERG
Y: POSS
Locus: Y
ʕali-l aħmat’-i-b adab ge-da
pn - erg pn - obl - n politeness do- ipf
‘Ali respects Ahmat.’
Note: The possessor NP displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Kaytag Dargwa hurmatbarara

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
petja-l miša-la c’aq’-li hurmat b-ir-u
pn - erg pn - gen power- erg respect n -do. ipf - evt
‘Petja respects Misha.’

Kazakh sïyla

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï sïyla-ydï
pn pn - acc respect- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya respects Masha.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe ǃgôa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a ǃgôa
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl respect pfv
‘Peter respects Maria.’

Khwarshi adab buwa

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN1
X: ERG
Y: GEN1
Locus: Y
c'aldoq'an-e učitele-s adab b-u-ho
pupil- erg teacher- gen 1 respect( iii ) iii -make- prs
‘The pupil respects the teacher.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Kina Rutul huˁrmaˁt waɁara

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a huˁrmaˁt w-aɁa-r=a asijet-ɨ-s
pn - erg respect 3-do. ipfv - cvb =be pn - obl - dat
‘Rasul respects Asijat.’

Kumyk hürmetlek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat musa-nɨ hürmet-le-j
pn pn - acc respect- vblz -3 sg
‘Patimat respects Musa.’

Latin vereor

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
vere-mur quidem vos… et, si ita vultis, etiam time-mus: sed plus et vere-mur et time-mus de-os
respect[ prs . ind ]- mid .1 pl indeed you. acc and if so want[ prs . ind ]. act .2 sg even fear[ prs . ind ]- act .1 pl but more and respect[ prs . ind ]- mid .1 pl and fear[ prs . ind ]- act .1 pl god( m )- acc . pl
‘We indeed respect you… and, if you prefer, even fear: but we respect and fear the gods even more.’
Note: (Liv. XXXIX, 37, 17)

Laz uǯ-ap-a

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Fatma-s n-u-uǯ-am-s
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : o -listen- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim respects Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese zūnjìng

Valency pattern: SBJ_dui
X: SBJ
Y: dui
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān duì Lǐsì zūnjìng
pn towards pn respect
‘Zhangsan respects Lisi.’

Mano ɓɛ̀lɛ̄ yà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ dàā ɓɛ̀lɛ̄ yà
3 sg . ipfv 3 sg . refl father respect sit: ipfv
‘S/he respects his father.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

Mehweb

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Islam-ini ħurmat b-iq'-an Nadir-la
pn - erg respect n -do: ipfv - hab pn - gen
‘Islam respects Nadir.’

Mingrelian Ø-a-pas-en-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-Ø anučia-s Ø-a-pas-en-s
pn - nom pn - dat do 3- val -value- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo holds Anuchia in high esteem.’
Note: This verb is a recent borrowing from Georgian.

Modern Hebrew meχabed

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas meχabed et Menaχem
pn respect[ ptcp . sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas respects Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul huˤrmet uˤvuˤχuˤn

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-dı huˤrmet uˤvuˤχuˤ-re
pn - erg pn - gen respect( a ) a .keep. ipf - hab
‘Murad respects Kurban.’
Note: The structure is tentatively classified as involving a clause-level genitive (by analogy with other languages). To be checked.

Nanai *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Nivkh urd

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT/ADD
X: SBJ
Y: DAT/ADD
Locus: Y
Kaskazik Ajsana-rоχ nеf ur-d
pn pn - dat / add face be_good- ind
‘Kaskazik respects Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh q’q’imate guruƛa

Valency pattern: ERG_POSS
X: ERG
Y: POSS
Locus: Y
pataħi-de musa-ƛƛi q’q’imate gw-iri
pn - erg pn - gen esteem do- ipf 3
‘Patahi respects Musa.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir čamarī=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ čаmаrī-m
pn pn - acc aff respect- tr .3 sg
‘Semien respects Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å respektere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per respektere-r Ola
pn respect- prs pn
‘Per respects Ola.’

Polish szanować

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Krystyn-a szanuje Ann-ę
pn - nom . sg respect: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Krystyna respects Anna.’

Russian uvažatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja uvaža-et Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg respect( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja respects Maša.’

Serbian poštovati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar poštuje Marij-u
pn . nom . sg respect. prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar respects Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul hɨχan χaqhɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir hɨχan χaqhɨ-j karam
pn ( erg ) well ( m )catch. pf - aor . m pn
‘Basir respects Karam.’

Shughni urmat čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Šamil Azim urmat kix̌-t
pn pn respect do-3 sg
‘Shamil respects Azim.’

Skolt Saami ciʹsttjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt ciʹsttai Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom respect. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete respects Maria’

Slovak vážiť si

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter si váži Mári-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat respect( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( f )- gen . sg
‘Peter respects Maria.’

Slovenian spoštovati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Katarin-a spoštuje An-o
pn - nom . sg respect: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Katarina respects Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish r̂êz girtin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hîwa r̂êz-î Marî-î de-gir-ê
pn respect- izf pn - obl ind -catch. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa respects Marie.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul hürmet havʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a aydın-ı-s hürmet vaʔa-r
pn - erg pn - obl - dat honour( a ) a .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad respects Aydin.’

Spanish respetar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro respet-a a María
pn [ sg . m ] respect- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro respects Maria.’

Standard Arabic Ɂiḥtarama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un yaḥtarimu Maryam-a
pn - nom respect. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr respects Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-Ø lile-s a-l-gwen-i
pn - nom pn - dat prv : dist - s 3-value- prs
‘Maizer respects Lile (lit. ‘Maizer values Lile’).’

Swedish att respektera

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn respektera-r Maja
pn respect- prs pn
‘Björn respects Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
<Ni>re~respeto ni Pedro si Maria
< pv > ipfv ~respect pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro respects Maria.’

Telugu ādariṁcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni ādaristāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc respect. npst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen respects Mahesh.’

Tsakhur huˁrmaˁt havʔıy

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aˁlee murad-ı-s huˁrmaˁt haaʔa
pn . erg pn - obl - dat respect( a ) a .do. ipf
‘Ali respects Murad.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa q'imat b-arq'-iz/b-irq'-iz

Valency pattern: ERG/LOC(LAT)_GEN
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
uršːi-le juldaš-la q'imat b-irq'-u
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) friend- gen respect n -do. ipfv -3 hab . prs
‘The boy respects his neighbor.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Tsugni Dargwa ħurmat b-arq'-i / b-irq'-i

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li zumra-la ħurmat b-irq'-u
boy- erg neighbor- gen respect n -do. ipfv -3 hab . prs . tr
‘The boy respects his neighbor.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

Turkish saygı göstermek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a saygı göster-ir
pn pn - dat respect show- aor
‘Mehmet respects Orhan.’

Turoyo kit- iqoro

Valency pattern: OBJAGR_l
X: OBJAGR
Y: l
Locus: XY
Gabriyel kət-le iqoro l Yuḥanən
pn exi - ls .3 m respect to pn
‘Gabriyel respects Yuḥanən.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Ulcha uləsi-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ti ńī rəbalka-du=də ulə tamata gursəl-bə uləs-i bi-či-t=gun
that human fishing- dat = emph good such people- acc love- prs be- pst -3 pl = ptcl
‘... whoever was good at fishing, [everyone] liked such people.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate. This example is taken from natural texts.

Uzbek hurmat qilmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni hurmat qil-a-di
pn pn - acc respect do- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja respects Maša.’

West Central Oromo kabadʒa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n tolaa kabadʒ-a
pn - nom pn . abs respect-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa respects Tola.’

Zilo Andi <j>-etʃ’uχa-jd.i-r

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di j-etʃ’uχa-jd.i-r marjam
pn - erg f -big- fct . pst - prog pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat respects Mariam.’