BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘resemble’

Argument frame: X (resemble) Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. is P.'s grandfather) P. resembles M .
Predicate label Ru: быть похожим
Argument frame Ru: X (быть похожим) на Y (-а)
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. — дедушка П.) П. похож на М .

Abaza apš

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
wará s-aχš’á w-l-apš-ṗ
you. m 1 sg . io -sister 2 sg . m . abs -3 sg . f . io -similar- npst . dcl
‘You resemble my sister.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-hšʼər

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
wə-s-e-hšʼər-ep
2 sg . abs -1 sg . io - dat -similar- neg
‘You do not resemble me.’

Aghul uχšar + ‘be’

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-s uχšar a-a
pn pn - dat similar { in }be- prs
‘Aslan resembles Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Alik Kryz uxşamiş xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_EQU.ADJ.SUBST
X: NOM
Y: EQU.ADJ.SUBST
Locus: Y
terlan murad-ğan-a-d uxşamiş şe-re
pn pn - equ - adj - subst . nn . nom resemble be. ipfv - prs . m
‘Terlan resembles Murad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUP.LAT
Locus: Y
paša ɬːʷaːna moħommad-li-tː-ik
pn be.similar pn - obl - sup - lat
‘Pasha resembles Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (so-called "stative").

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic damə

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
+avvo yala bədmay=əl +al savun-u
dem 3. m boy( m ) resemble. prog =3 m on grandfather( m )- p .3 m
‘This boy resembles his grandfather.’

Avar reɬɬine

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ʕali ħažidada-da raɬɬ-ara-w w-ugo
pn h - loc resemble- pf . ptcp - m m - cop
‘Ali resembles Hajidada.’

Azerbaijani oxşamaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Mixail-ǝ oxşa-yır
pn pn - dat / lat look_like- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan resembles Mikhail.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ fíì sùù
pn sm resemble pn
‘Ambe resembles Suh.’

Bambara bɔ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_fe
X: SBJ
Y: fe
Locus: Y
Sékù bɔ́-len bɛ́ Fùseni fɛ̀
pn go.out- ptcp . res be pn by
‘Seku resembles Fuseyni.’

Brazilian Portuguese parecer-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro se parec-e com Miguel
pn ( m ) refl look_like-3 sg . prs with pn ( m )
‘Pedro resembles Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan mixayil-a' uxşami yıxhar-i
pn pn - loc resemble ( m )be. ipf - prs
‘Aslan resembles Mikhail.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan assemblar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
en Pere s'assembla a en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg -look.like-3 sg . prs . ind to def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere resembles Marc.’
Note: Cf. "en Pere s'hi assembla"

Chirag mišize b-uχi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
gal-e datːi-l-i miši-ze b-urχ-ar
boy- pl ( abs ) father- obl - super similar- atr h . pl -become: ipf - fut .3
‘Sons usually resemble their father.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Czech podobat se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr se podobá dědečk-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc resemble( ipfv ). prs .3 sg grandfather( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr resembles his grandfather.’

Danish ligne

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter ligne-r Marie
pn resemble- prs pn
‘Peter resembles Marie.’

Dutch lijken

Valency pattern: SBJ_op
X: SBJ
Y: op
Locus: Y
Piet lijk-t op Marie
pn (С) resemble-3 sg on pn (С)
‘Piet resembles Marie.’

Eastern Maninka bɔ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Séku` bɔ́-nin Fónbà lá
pn exit- ptcp . res pn at
‘Seku resembles Fomba.’

English resemble

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter resembles Mary.

Estonian meenutama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter meenuta-b Madis-t
pn . sg . nom resemble- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter resembles Madis.’

Finnish näköinen + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pekka on Mati-n / hänen näköinen
pn . nom be. prs .3 sg pn - gen / he. gen similar.looking
‘Pekka resembles Matti / him.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Forest Enets ŋa

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLdez
X: NOM
Y: OBLdez
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ ɛse-da dʲez ŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg father- obl . sg .3 sg in_the_direction be( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend resembles his father’.

French ressembler

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul ressemble à Marie
pn ( m ) look_like. prs .3 sg to pn ( f )
‘Paul resembles Marie.’

Georgian h-gav-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mamia-s h-gav-s
pn - nom pn - dat io 3-be_alike- s 3 sg
‘Petre resembles Mamia.’

German ähnlich sein

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Karl ist sein-em Vater ähnlich
pn [ nom . sg ] be. prs .3 sg his- m . dat . sg father[ dat . sg ] similar
‘Karl resembles his father.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Guinean Kpelle kǔlo

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe kùlo-á-ì Hèhee ɓà
pn go_out- stat - pred pn on1
‘Pepee resembles Hehee.’

Icari Dargwa meš-il w=ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-rij meš-ci-ca=w
pn . abs pn - suplat similar- atr - cop = m
‘Islam resembles Nadir.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Irish bí cosúil

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pól cosúil le Máire.
be. prs pn similar with pn
‘Pól resembles Máire.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian assomigliare

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Leo assomigli-a a Maria
pn ( m ) look_like-3 sg . prs to pn ( f )
‘Leo resembles Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa mušu-CL-uk'-as (IPFV)

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad rasu-j-ke mušu-0-uk'-ar
pn pn - obl - super alike- m -say. ipfv - th
‘Muhammad resembles Rasul.’

Kalderash Romani mʼa(zo)l

Valency pattern: NOM_pe
X: NOM
Y: pe
Locus: Y
o Murš-a mʼa-l pe les-te
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg resemble- prs .3 sg on he- loc
‘Murša resembles him.’
Note: The preposition is obligatory with pronouns. With nominal Y’s the binominative construction is possible.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.LAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.LAT
Locus: Y
fatima ča-n mama.ji-q-na ʁ-uš-ur=u
pn ( abs ) 3. sg . refl - gen mother- post - lat pf -( h . sg )go- part = cop ( prs )
‘Fatima resembles her mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (participle).

Karata baɬɬanɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali ħažja w-aɬɬ-on-w idja
pn pn . dat m -resemble- ipf . ptcp - m cop
‘Ali resembles Hajji.’

Kaytag Dargwa mešul wihara

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
petja mešu-l-ca miχail-ži
pn resembling- adv - cop pn - super
‘Petja resembles Mikhail.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kazakh uqsa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Mixail-ɣa uqsa-ydï
pn pn - dat be_similar- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya resembles Michael.’

Kazym Khanty maŋǝn tăjti

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
petˊa-j-en śat'śaś-ǝλ maŋǝn tăj-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg grandfather- poss .3 sg outlook have- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja resembles his grandfather.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Khoekhoe

Valency pattern: SBJ_khami
X: SBJ
Y: khami
Locus: Y
Sara-s ge ouma-s khami
pn -3 f . sg decl grandmother-3 f . sg like look
‘Sara resembles her grandmother.’
Note: “khami” is a postposition.

Khwarshi ajłа gołe

Valency pattern: ABS_AD
X: ABS
Y: AD
Locus: Y
di-ja uža di-lo juq'uči-ho ajłа gołe
1 sg . o - gen 1 son( i ) 1 sg . o - gen 2 old.woman( ii )- ad [ i ]similar be. prs
‘My son resembles my grandma.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kina Rutul kikara

Valency pattern: NOM_INTER
X: NOM
Y: INTER
Locus: Y
rasul k-ika-r=a ramazan-ɨ-k
pn ( nom ) pv -1.be.similar. ipfv - cvb =be pn - obl - inter
‘Rasul resembles Ramazan.’

Kumyk ošamaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir musa-ʁa oša-j
pn pn - dat be.similar-3 sg
‘Basir resembles Musa.’

Latin imitor

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
lampadi-as arde-nt-es imita-tur fac-es
comet( m )- nom . sg burn- prs . ptcp . act - acc . pl imitate[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg torch( f )- acc . pl
‘The comet resembles burning torches.’
Note: (Plin. NH II, 90). Lampadias is a type of comet.

Laz n-u-ngam-s

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i baba-muš-i-s n-u-ngam-s
pn - nom father- poss 3- b - dat io 3- ver : o -be_alike- s 3 sg
‘Käzim resembles his father.’

Mandarin Chinese zhǎng

Valency pattern: SBJ_xiang
X: SBJ
Y: xiang
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān zhǎng de xiàng tā-yéye
pn grow de like he-grandpa
‘Zhangsan resembles his grandpa.’

Mano ɓɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_ba
X: SBJ
Y: ba
Locus: Y
Pèé lɛ́ɛ̀ ɓɔ̄ dàā
pn 3 sg . ipfv leave: ipfv 3 sg . refl father in
‘Pe resembles his father.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Pajzula il-li-ču mešu-l le-w
pn this- obl - com similar- attr be- m
‘Pajzula resembles him.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian Ø-g-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø bondo-s ko-Ø-g-u(n)-Ø
pn - nom pn - dat io 3-resemble- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo resembles Bondo.’

Modern Hebrew dome

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas dome le Menaχem
pn similar to pn
‘Pinchas resembles Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul kikın

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
murad q'urban-ı-k kika-ra
pn pn - obl - cont resemble. ipf - hab
‘Murad resembles Kurban.’

Nanai bi-

Valency pattern: NOM_mat
X: NOM
Y: mat
Locus: Y
Petia Vasia=mat bi
pn pn =like be. npst
‘Petia resembles Vasia.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nivkh vоcid

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Largun + bоci-d
pn pn + resemble- ind
‘Kaskazik resembles Largun.’

Northern Akhvakh enɬɬunuƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
patħudi enɬɬ-ene gudi musa-ga
pn resemble- simul m . cop pn - lat
‘Pathudi resembles Musa.’

Northern Mansi xurip

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pājel āɕ-e xurip
pn father- poss .3 sg similar
‘Pasha resembles his father.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is (arguably) expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Northern Yukaghir ban=

Valency pattern: NOM_langudeng
X: NOM
Y: langudeng
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ lа-ŋudǝ bаn-i
pn pn side- dir be- intr .3 sg
‘Semien resembles Akulina.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Norwegian Bokmål å ligne

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Per ligne-r Ola
pn resemble- prs on pn
‘Per resembles Ola.’

Polish podobny + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Ann-a podobn-a jest do Magd-y
pn ( f )- nom . sg similar- f . nom . sg be[ prs .3 sg ] at pn - gen . sg
‘Anna resembles Magda.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Russian poxož + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja poxož na Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg similar[ pred . m . sg ] on pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja resembles Maša.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Serbian ličiti

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petar liči na Marij-u
pn . nom . sg resemble. prs .3 sg on pn - acc . sg
‘Petar resembles Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul kejkɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
basir kejkɨ-j karam-ɨkj
pn n .resemble. pf - aor . m pn - cont
‘Basir resembles Karam.’

Shughni mūnand vidow

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Ahmat tar xu bob mūnand
pn eq refl grandfather similar
‘Ahmat resembles his grandfather.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

Skolt Saami leeʹd

Valency pattern: NOM_GENvuakka
X: NOM
Y: GENvuakka
Locus: Y
päʹrnn lij ääʹjj-es vuâkka
boy. sg . nom be. prs .3 sg grandfather. sg . gen - poss .3 sg like
‘The boy resembles his grandfather.’

Slovak podobať sa

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Peter sa podobá na Mark-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc resemble( ipfv ). prs .3 sg on pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Peter resembles Marek.’

Slovenian biti podoben

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
An-a je podobn-a Katarin-i
pn - nom . sg be. prs .3 sg similar- nom . sg . f pn - dat . sg
‘Ana resembles Katarina.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Sorani Kurdish çûn

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa le Selîm-î de-ç-ê
pn from pn - obl ind -go. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa resembles Selim.’

Southern Rutul kiykın

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
murad rahman-ı-k kiyirka-r
pn pn - obl - cont m .resemble. ipf - prs
‘Murad resembles Rahman.’

Spanish parecerse

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Pedro se parec-e a María
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg resemble- prs .3 sg ndir . obj pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro resembles Maria.’

Standard Arabic šabiha

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un yašbahu Maryam-a
pn - nom be_similar. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr resembles Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø gegi-s x-a-ǯeš
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : sup -resemble
‘Maizer resembles Gegi.’

Swedish att likna

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn likna-r Mikael
pn resemble- prs pn
‘Björn resembles Mikael.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Ka-hawig ni Pedro ang kaniya-ng lolo
com -resemblance pers . gen pn subj 3. sg . dat - lin grandfather
‘Pedro resembles his grandfather.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Telugu uṁḍu

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLlaga
X: NOM
Y: OBLlaga
Locus: Y
pravīṇ maheṣ lāgā uṁṭāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl like be. npst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen resembles Mahesh.’

Tsakhur akar ıхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
murad rasul-ı-k vo-r akar
pn pn - obl - cont cop - h ( m )resemble. ipf
‘Murad resembles Rasul.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa miši b-iχ-iz/b-irχ-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi tːutːes-li-ja miši-le=saj
boy father- obl - super ( lat ) similar- adv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy resembles his father.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsugni Dargwa miši-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ tːati-ge miši-le=caj
boy father- super ( lat ) similar- adv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy resembles his father.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish benzemek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet dede-si Kemal-e benzi-yor
pn grandfather- p .3 pn - dat be_similar- prs
‘Mehmet resembles his grandfather Kemal.’

Turoyo šobəh

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_IO
X: SBJ.SS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-šobəh l Yuḥanən
pn prs -resemble. ipfv .3 m to pn
‘Gabriyel resembles Yuḥanən.’

Ulcha bi-

Valency pattern: NOM_CMPR
X: NOM
Y: CMPR
Locus: Y
əj xusə piktə dām-bi=məčilə bī-n
this male child grandfather- refl . sg = cmpr be. prs -3 sg
‘This boy resembles his grandfather.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Uzbek o’xšamoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Miša-ga o’xša-y-di
pn pn - dat resemble- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja resembles Miša.’

West Central Oromo fakkaata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n tolaa fakkaat-a
pn - nom pn . abs resemble-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa resembles Tolaa.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-z uxșar ya
pn pn - obl - dat like cop
‎‎‎‘Sahib resembles Eldar.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Zilo Andi a<w>ɬin

Valency pattern: NOM_AFF
X: NOM
Y: AFF
Locus: Y
ali a<w>ɬin muħammadi-<w>o
pn [ m ][ nom ] resemblant< m > pn - aff < m >
‘Ali resembles Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.