BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘remember’

Argument frame: X (remember) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. remembers the house (where he grew up) well.
Predicate label Ru: помнить
Argument frame Ru: X (помнить) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. хорошо помнит дом (в котором вырос) .

Abaza dər.χ

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád bzə́j-ta j-də́r-χ-əj-d a-tʒə́ d-ʕa-ʒə.n-gə́lə-z
pn good- adv 3 sg . n . abs +3 sg . m . erg -know- re - prs - dcl def -house 3 sg . h . abs - cisl - loc -rise- pst . nfin
‘Murad remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) qe-ṣ̂e.žʼə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
χʷəλfəʁe-m wəne-r deʁʷ-ew q-j-e-ṣ̂e-žʼə
man- obl house- abs good- adv csl -3 sg . erg - dyn -know- re
‘The man remembers the house well.’

Aghul jurk’.ura-l alme-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan.a-n jurk’.ura-l alme-a χal
pn - gen heart- super { super }remains- prs house
‘Aslan remembers the house well.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Alik Kryz k'iyiğ ghala xhiyic

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ug buʔu-d xhiyi k'ul terlan k'iy-iğ ghala ipkun-cu
refl . m ( nom ) big- subst . nn . nom be. pfv . ptcp house( f ) pn ( gen ) heart. obl - super good f .remain. pfv - perf . f
‘Terlan remembers the house where we grew up well.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The structure is tentatively classified as involving a clause-level genitive (by analogy with other languages). To be checked.

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s mu-ši ikʼm=i žu-n-tʼu noʟʼ
pn - dat be.good- cvb . ipfv heart. loc =4.be self. m - gen -4. ptcl house
‘Pasha remembers the house well.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic taxər

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sava +spay bətxar=ələ bet=ət gan-u
old. m good remember. prog =3 m house( m )= rel refl ( f )- p .3 m
‘The oldman remembers his house well.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar rak’alda buk’ine

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-da ruq’ c’aq’ ɬik’ rak’-alda b-ugo
pn - loc house very good heart- obl . nm . loc n - cop
‘Ali remembers the house well.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Azerbaijani yadında qalmaq

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
böyü-düy-ü ev Aslan-ın yaxşı yad-ı-nda qal-ıb
grow- ptcp . pst - poss 3 house pn - gen good memory- poss 3- loc remain- perf (3)
‘Aslan remembers the house where we grew up well.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Bambara hákili` jìgin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù hákili` jìgin-na ka dùgu` lá
pn reason\ art descend- pfv . intr 3 sg poss village\ art in
‘Seku remembers his village.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Brazilian Portuguese lembrar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro se lembr-a bem da casa
pn ( m ) refl remember-3 sg . prs well of+ def . f house( f )
‘Pedro remembers the house well.’

Catalan recordar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere record-a la casa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) remember-3 sg . prs . ind well def . sg . f house( f )
‘Pere remembers the house well.’

Chirag urč’ili elgi

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i taˤ-tːa-la qale ʡa̰χː-le urč’i-l-i elg-un-ne
pn - obl - super dist - pl - gen house( abs ) good- adv heart- obl - super stay: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali remembers their house well.’

Czech pamatovat si

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr si dobře ten dům pamatuje
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat well this. m . acc . sg house( m )[ acc . sg ] remember( ipfv ). prs .3 sg
‘Petr remembers this house well.’

Danish huske

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter huske-r hus-et meget godt
pn remember- prs house( n )- def . sg very well
‘Peter remembers the house very well.’

Dutch herinneren

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet herinner-t het huis goed
pn ( c ) remember-3 sg art . def . n house( n ) good
‘Piet remembers the house well.’

Eastern Maninka NEG ɲìna

Valency pattern: SBJ_ko
X: SBJ
Y: ko
Locus: Y
Sékù má ɲìna só` kɔ́.
pn aor . neg forget village\ art behind
‘Seku remembers the village.’

English remember

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter remembers the house where he grew up well.

Estonian mäletama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter mäleta-b maja hästi
pn . sg . nom remember- prs .3 sg house. sg . part well
‘Peeter remembers the house well.’

Finnish muistaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka muist-aa talo-n hyv-in
pn . nom remember- prs .3 sg house- gen good- adv
‘Pekka remembers the house well.’

Forest Enets biis

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ sɔja-j-da kamozo-da sɔjza-an biiʔɛ-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg be_born( pfv )- ptcp . ant - obl . sg .3 sg house- obl . sg .3 sg good- prol . sg remember( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend remembers well the house where he was born’.

French se souvenir

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul se souvient de la maison il a passé son enfance
pn ( m ) refl remember. prs .3 sg of def . sg . f house( f ) where he have. prs .3 sg pass. pst . ptcp . m one’s. sg . m childhood( m )
‘Paul remembers the house where he spent his childhood .’

Georgian Ø-a-xs-ov-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s is saxl-i k'arg-ad Ø-a-xs-ov-s
pn - dat dem . dist _ nom house- nom good- adv io 3- ver : sup -remember- r . ext - s 3 sg
‘Petre remembers that house well.’

German sich erinnern

Valency pattern: NOM_anACC
X: NOM
Y: anACC
Locus: Y
Karl erinner-t sich an das Haus, in dem er aufgewachsen ist
pn [ nom . sg ] remember- prs .3 sg refl at def . n . acc . sg house[ acc . sg ] in which. n . dat . sg he. nom grow_up. ptcp 2 be. prs .3 sg
‘Karl remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Icari Dargwa han=b=ug-araj

Valency pattern: SUPLAT_ABS
X: SUPLAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
Islam-lij qal ʕaˤħ-il han=b=ig-al
pn - suplat house. abs good- adv remember= n = lv : ipf - prs
‘Islam remembers the house well.’

Irish cuimhnigh

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Cuimhn-íonn Peter an tigh d’´=fhag suas go_maith.
remember- prs pn def house pst =grow he up well
‘Pól remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Italian ricordare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ricord-a bene la cas-a
pn ( m ) remember-3 sg . prs well def . sg . f house- sg . f
‘Leo remembers the house well.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li žawga-le b-al-a qali ca-j χugi w-aʁ-ib-il
pn - erg beautiful- adv n -know. ipfv - th home cop - m big m -reach. pfv - pret - atr
‘Muhammad remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Kalderash Romani sərəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a mišto sərə-l khər
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg well remember- prs .3 sg house[ acc . sg ]
‘Murša remembers the house well.’

Karata

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja misa c’aq’a rak’wa-č’o idja
pn . dat house well heart- cont cop
‘Ali remembers the house well.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kaytag Dargwa гьанбиххяра

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l ši ʕaˁħ-li hanbiχχ-aˁv-di
pn - erg village good- adv n .remember. pf - aor - pst
‘Petja remembers the house well.’

Kazakh es-і-nde saqta

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya üy-dі žaqsï es-і-nde saqta-ɣan
pn house- acc good memory- poss 3- loc keep- pst 2.3 sg
‘Petya remembers the house good.’

Kazym Khanty nǫmti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en rǫt χɔt-ǝλ jǎma nǫm-λ-ǝλλe
pn - ep - poss .2 sg native house- poss .3 sg well remember- npst -3 sg . so
‘Petja remembers his native home well.’

Khoekhoe ǂâihō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge om-s-a ǃamkuse ra ǂâihō
pn -3 m . sg decl house-3 f . sg - obl properly ipfv remember
‘Peter remembers the house well.’

Khwarshi liqa

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
di-l k'ʷet' li:qe aq
1 sg - dat well remember\ gnt house( iv )
‘I remember the house well.’

Kina Rutul jik’i ʁamada

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s hɨχa-na jik’-i ʁa-ma<d>a juǯ q’ɨxe jiši-d χal
pn - obl - dat well heart- obl ( sup ) pv -<4>remain self big 1.become- attr home( nom )
‘Rasul remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Kumyk esPOSS.LOC turmaq

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
mahammat-nɨ öz-ü ös-gen üj-ü es-in-de
pn - gen self-3 sg grow- pf house-3 sg memory-3 sg - loc
‘Muhammad remembers the house where he grew up.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Latin memini

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
numer-os memin-i, nisi verb-a tenere-m
melody( m )- acc . pl remember[ prf . ind ]- act .1 sg not_if word( n )- acc . pl recall[ ipfv . sbjv . act ]-1 sg
‘I remember the melody, even if I couldn’t recall the words.’
Note: (Verg. Ecl. 9, 45)

Laz o-š-un-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s oxo(r)-i ko-Ø-š-um-s
pn - b - dat house- nom aff - io 3-remember- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim remembers the house.’

Mandarin Chinese jìde

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān hái qīngchǔ-de jìde nè-dòng fángzi
pn still clear- de remember that- clf house
‘Zhangsan still remembers the house clearly.’

Mano ŋwɔ̀míní sí

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ŋ̄ ŋwɔ̀míní sí
3 sg . pst 1 sg memory take
‘S/he remembered me.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

Mehweb

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-is urče-b le-b sa<w>i χʷala w-aʔ-ib-i qali
pn - dat heart. in - n ( ess ) be- n self< m > big m -arrive: pfv - pst - attr house
‘Islam remembers the house where he grew up.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian Ø-š-u(n)-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
čelo-s muš-(i) ʔude-Ø Ø-š-u(n)-Ø
pn - dat refl . poss -( nom ) house- nom io 3-remember- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo remembers his house.’

Modern Hebrew zoχer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas zoχer tov et ha bajt
pn remember[ ptcp . sg . m ] good do def house
‘Pinchas remembers the house well.’

Mukhad Rutul jik'ıı ʁadgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s jıχ-ana jik'-ıı ʁa χal
pn - obl - dat good- adv heart- super be_on house
‘Murad remembers the house well.’

Nanai əǯəčə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia mənə urə-xəm-bə ǯoo-wa ulə əǯə-čə-j-ni
pn refl grow- pst - obl house- obl good remember- res - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Nivkh hujvud

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik ur-gur̥ pʰ-raf + hujvu-d
pn good- adv :3 sg rfl -house + remember- ind
‘Kaskazik remembers his house well.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-ge č’ili šweq’e rak’wa-ro-ge godi
pn - loc house very_well heart- obl - loc n . cop
‘Patahi remembers the house well.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Northern Mansi nomite

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
am nom-i-l-um kol-um xot jānij-m-as-um
1 sg remember- npst - sg . o -1 sg . s house- poss .1 sg where big- vbz - pst -1 sg
‘I remember the house where I grew up.’

Northern Yukaghir lǝjrī=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn nimǝ-lǝ аm-u-tnǝ lǝjrī-m
pn house- acc good- stat - adv remember- tr .3 sg
‘Semien remembers the house well.’

Norwegian Bokmål å huske

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per huske-r godt hus-et hvor han voks-te opp
pn remember- prs well house- def . n . sg where he grow- pst up
‘Per remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Polish pamiętać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Staszek dobrz-e pamięta dom
pn [ nom . sg ] good- adv remember: ipfv . prs .3 sg house[ acc . sg ]
‘Staszek remembers the house well.’

Russian pomnitʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_oLOC
X: NOM
Y: oLOC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja xorošo pomn-it dom, v kotor-om vyros
pn ( m )- nom . sg well remember( ipfv )- prs .3 sg house( m )[ acc . sg ], in which- m . loc . sg grow_up( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petja remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Serbian sećati se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Petar se dobro seća kuć-e
pn . nom . sg refl well remember. prs .3 sg house- gen . sg
‘Petar remembers the house well.’

Shinaz Rutul hik'i-j ʁatkɨ-n

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ɨs hɨχan hik'i-j ʁa-mad χal
pn - dat well heart. obl - super be_on- contin house
‘Basir remembers the house well.’

Shughni fāmtow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Saida di čīd xipaδ fam-t
pn d 2. m . sg . obl house well know-3 sg
‘Saida remembers the house well.’

Skolt Saami mošttjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt moštt tõn põõrt puârast
pn . sg . nom remember. prs .3 sg dist . sg . acc house. sg . acc well
‘Pete remembers that house well.’

Slovak pamätať si

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter si dobre pamätá tento dom
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat well remember( ipfv ). prs .3 sg this. m . acc . sg house( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter remembers this house well.’

Slovenian spominjati se

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Peter se dobro spominja dom-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl well remember: ipfv . prs .3 sg house- gen . sg
‘Peter remembers the house well.’

Sorani Kurdish lebîr bûn

Valency pattern: EXT_SBJ
X: EXT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Hîwa maɫ-eke=î le bîr-e
pn house- def =3 sg . pc from thought-be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa remembers the house.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Southern Rutul yik'i yidq’ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s xal yıxane yik'-i aˤğuˤ-r
pn - obl - dat house well heart- super ( n )go. ipf - prs
‘Murad remembers the house well.’

Spanish recordar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro recuerd-a muy bien la casa en que se cri-ó
pn [ sg . m ] remember- prs .3 sg very well art . def . sg . f house[ sg . f ] in which[ sg . f ] refl .3 sg grow- aor .3 sg
‘Pedro remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Standard Arabic taḏakkara

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
badr-u-n yataḏakkaru l-bayt-a ǧayyidan
pn - nom - indef remember. ipf .3 m def -house- acc well
‘Badr remembers the house well.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s kor-Ø xoča-Ø a-Ø-mt'q'ašq'id
pn - dat house- nom good- nom prv : dist - io 3-remember
‘Maizer remembers the house well.’

Swedish att komma ihåg

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn komm-er ihåg sitt barndomshem väl
pn come- prs to_mind poss . refl . n . sg childhood_home well
‘Björn remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Na-a~alala pa ni Pedro ang bahay na kinalakihan niya
pot . pv - ipfv ~remembers still pers . gen pn subj house lin place_where_one_grew_up 3. sg . gen
‘Pedro still remembers the house where he grew up.’

Telugu gurtu uṁḍu

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pravīṇ-ki iḷḷu bāgā gurt' uṁdi
pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat house( n ). sg . nom well mark( n ). sg . nom be. prs .3 sg . nm
‘Praveen remembers the house well.’

Tsakhur yik’ely qhıхhay

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s vudž хaˁr qhıхha-yn хav yik’-e-ly vo-d
pn - obl - dat m .self big. h re .( m )be. pf - ptcp . n house heart- obl - super cop - n
‘Murad remembers the house where he grew up.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-z šːi ʡaˤħ-le han b-irk-ule=sab
boy- dat village good- adv mind n -get. ipfv - prog . cnv = cop . exst : n -3
‘The boy remembers the village well.’

Tsugni Dargwa han + COP

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j šːi han=leb-ala
boy- dat village mind= cop . exst : n -3
‘The boy remembers the village well.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish hatırlamak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet büyü-düğ-ü ev-i iyi hatırlı-yor
pn grow- ptcp . pst - p .3 house- p .3 good remember- prs
‘Mehmet remembers the house where he grew up well.’

Turoyo oṯe l bol-

Valency pattern: BARE_SBJ.SS
X: BARE
Y: SBJ.SS
Locus: X
Gabriyel k-oṯe u bayto l bol-e
pn prs -come. ipfv .3 m art . m house( m ) to mind( m )- p .3 m
‘Gabriyel remembers the house.’

Ulcha əǯəči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama ulən-ǯi əǯə-č-i-ni mə̄n bi-čim xagdu-wa
father good- adv remember- iter - prs -3 sg self be- pst . refl . sg house- acc
‘Father remembers the house where he lived well.’

Uzbek eslab qolmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya uy-ni yaxši esla-b qol-di
pn house- acc good remember- cvb leave- pst .3 sg
‘Petja remembers the house well.’

West Central Oromo jaadata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n man-ittʃa sirrii-tti jaadat-a
pn - nom house- def . abs right- loc remember-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa remembers the house well.’

Zilo Andi rok’or-ʔa <r>-iʁ.i

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<r>o haqχ’u ʃu-r rok’or-ʔa r-iʁ.i
pn - aff < inan 2> house[ inan 2][ nom ] good- inan 2 heart- super inan 2-stop. pst ( aor )
‘Patimat remembers the house well.’