BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘remain’

Argument frame: X (have) Y left
Stimulus sentence: (P. had 100 euro, but he bought a TV, so now) P. has 10 euros left.
Predicate label Ru: оставаться
Argument frame Ru: у X -а (оставаться) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (У П. было 100 долларов, но он купил телевизор и теперь) у П. осталось 10 долларов .

Abaza [zə-]ʕa-n-χa

Valency pattern: BEN_ABS
X: BEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
rasúl ẑa–dollar-ḳ j-zə́-ʕa-n-χa-d
pn ten–dollar- unit 3 pl . abs +3 sg . m . io - ben - cisl - loc -become( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul has ten dollars left.’

Aghul fame-

Valency pattern: APUD_ABS
X: APUD
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-w ic’u manat fame-a
pn - apud 10 ruble { apud }remain- prs
‘Aslan has 10 rubles left.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic payəš

Valency pattern: ces_SBJ
X: ces
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
cəs yala sura pəš-lə əmma +manət zuzə
near boy( m ) small. m remain. pst - ls .3 m hundred rouble( m ) money( pl )
‘The boy has one hundred roubles left.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Brazilian Portuguese ficar

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro fic-ou com dez dólar-es
pn ( m ) get-3 sg . pst with 10 dollar( m )- pl
‘Pedro has ten dollars left.’

Catalan quedar

Valency pattern: a_SBJ
X: a
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere li qued-en deu euro-s
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) dat .3 sg remain-3 pl . prs . ind ten euro( m )- pl
‘Pere has ten euros left.’

Czech zůstat

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-ovi zůsta-l-o deset dolar-ů
pn ( m )- dat . sg remain( pfv )- pst - n . sg ten[ nom ] dollar( m )- gen . pl
‘Petr has ten dollars left.’

Danish have tilbage

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter ha-r ti euro tilbage
pn have- prs ten euro( c ) left
‘Peter has 10 euros left.’

Dutch overhebben

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft nog tien dollar over
pn ( c ) have.3 sg still ten dollar( c ) over
‘Piet has ten dollars left.’

Estonian alles olema

Valency pattern: ADESS_NOM
X: ADESS
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peetri-l on kümme euro-t alles
pn - adess be. prs .3 sg ten. sg . nom euro- sg . part left
‘Peeter has ten euros left.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Finnish jäädä

Valency pattern: ALL_NOM
X: ALL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peka-lle jä-i yksi euro
pn - all remain- pst .3 sg one. nom euro. nom
‘Pekka has 1 euro left.’

Forest Enets kaji

Valency pattern: TOP_NOM
X: TOP
Y: NOM
Locus: X
modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲuʔ bɛse-za kaja
i man- nom . sg .1 sg hundred iron- nom . sg .3 sg stay_behind( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend has one hundred roubles left’.

Italian rimanere

Valency pattern: a_SBJ
X: a
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo sono rimast-i dieci dollar-i
to pn ( m ) aux .3 pl . prs stay. pst . ptcp - pl . m 10 dollar- pl . m
‘Leo has ten dollars left.’

Kazakh qal

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petya-da on dollar qal-dï
pn - loc ten dollar remain- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya has 10 dollars left.’

Kazym Khanty χǎjǝλti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en jaŋ šɔjt-at χǎjλ-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg ten rouble- pl leave- pst
‘Petja has ten roubles left.’
Note: It is not (yet) certain that this translation is semantically accurate.

Latin supersum

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
quamvis null-a me-i superest tibi cur-a
although no- nom . sg . f my- dat . sg . m remain. prs . ind . act .3 sg you. dat care( f )- nom . sg
‘Although you have no thought of me anymore.’
Note: (Lygd. 6)

Modern Hebrew niʃar-u

Valency pattern: le_SBJ
X: le
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
niʃar-u le Pinχas asara juro
be.left-3 pl to pn ten[ m ] euro
‘Pinchas has ten euro left.’

Nanai osigo-

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pətjə-du ǯoan tiəsə ose-go-xa-ni
pn - dat ten rouble become- rep - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia has ten roubles left.’

Norwegian Bokmål å ha igjen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ha-r Per 10 dollar igjen
now have- prs pn 10 dollar again
‘Per has ten dollars left.’

Polish zostać

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
zosta-ł-o Anni-e dziesięć dolar-ów
remain: pfv - pst - n .3 sg pn - dat . sg ten[ nom ] dollar- gen . pl
‘Anna has ten dollars left.’

Russian ostatʹsja

Valency pattern: uGEN_NOM
X: uGEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
u Pet-i osta-l-o-sʹ desjatʹ dollar-ov
at pn ( m )- gen . sg remain( pfv )- pst - n . sg - refl ten[ nom ] dollar( m )- gen . pl
‘Petja has ten dollars left.’

Rutul χamabani wiɁi

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-da χa-ma<b>a-ni w-iɁi jic’ɨ-d manud
pn - apud pv -<3>remain- cvb 3- cop ten-4 rouble( nom )
‘Rasul has 10 roubles left.’

Skolt Saami leeʹd teänab

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peâtt-ast lie teänab pâi 10 eurr-âd
pn - sg . loc be. prs .3 pl (any)more only 10 euro- part
‘Pete has only 10 euros left.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The Y argument (‘10 euros’) is in the nominative case, the use of the partitive case is determined by the numeral.

Slovenian ostati

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
An-i je osta-l-o deset dolarj-ev
pn - dat . sg aux .3 sg remain: pfv - lpt - n . sg 10[ nom ] dollar- gen . pl
‘Ana has 10 dollars left.’

Spanish quedar

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Pedro le ha-n queda-do diez dólar-es
ndir . obj pn [ sg . m ] he. ndir . obj aux .3- pl remain- ptcp : prf ten dollar[ sg . m ]- pl
‘Pedro has ten dollars left.’

Swedish att ha kvar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn ha-r 10 euro kvar
pn have- prs 10 euro left
‘Björn has ten euro left.’

Turkish kalmak

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Mehmed-in şimdi on lira-sı kal-dı
pn - gen now ten lira- p .3 remain- pst
‘Now Mehmet has 10 liras left.’

Ulcha puləǯu-

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ama-du um taŋgu gumasaka-kən pulə-ǯu-xə-n
father- dat one hundred rouble- rstr be_redundant- rep - pst -3 sg
‘Father has one hundred roubles left.’

Zilo Andi <b>-ekː.u-j

Valency pattern: CONT_NOM
X: CONT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-tʃ’u hots’o-ɡu som b-ekː.u-j
pn - cont ten- card rouble[ inan 1][ nom ] inan 1-stay. pst - pf
‘Ali has ten roubles left.’