BivalTyp

‘reach’

Argument frame: X (reach) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. was crossing the river in a boat.) P. reached the bank .
Predicate label Ru: достичь
Argument frame Ru: X (достичь) Y -а (берега)
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. плыл на лодке через речку). П. достиг берега .

Abaza [z-]na-ʒa

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
murád a-nə́rĉ d-a-zə-na-ʒá-d
pn def -bank 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - ben - tral -reach( aor )- dcl
‘Murad reached the river bank.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ne-sə

Valency pattern: ABS_LOC.TO
X: ABS
Y: LOC.TO
Locus: Y
λ̣ə-r psə-nepqə-m ne-sə-ʁ
man- abs water-bank- obl loc : to -reach- pst
‘The man reached the bank.’

Aghul ruq’.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.LAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.LAT
Locus: Y
aslan nac’.u-n saje qːireʁ.i-q-tːi ruq’.u-ne
pn river- gen other edge- post - lat reach. pf - aor
‘Aslan reached the other bank of the river.’

Alik Kryz surq'vic

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
terlan kur aabad-a ğirağ-ca surq'u-d
pn river. gen further- attr side- obl . in m .reach. pfv - aor ( m )
‘Terlan reached the other bank of the river.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC.LAT
X: NOM
Y: LOC.LAT
Locus: Y
patʼimat sːobtːa-k e-r-di
pn edge. loc - lat reach-2- pfv
‘Patimat reached the bank.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +maṭə

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
naša +məṭy=əl +al bərza
person( m ) arrive. res . m =3 m on dry_land( m )
‘The man reached the bank.’

Avar ššweze

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
ʕali ɬar-a-l raʕal-de ššw-ana
pn river- obl - gen brink- lat arrive- aor
‘Ali reached the bank.’

Azerbaijani çatmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan sahil-ǝ çat-dı
pn bank- dat / lat reach- pst (3)
‘Aslan reached the bank.’

Bafut nkùʔû

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nkùʔû ǹtsù mɨ̀jàà
pn sm p 2 reach mouth river
‘Ambe reached the river bank.’

Bambara sé

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù sé-ra báda` lá
pn reach- pfv . intr river_border\ art in
‘Seku reached the bank of the river.’

Brazilian Portuguese alcançar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro alcanç-ou a-s margen-s
pn ( m ) reach-3 sg . pst def . f - pl shore( f )- pl
‘Pedro reached the coast.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan sahil-ce çurq'u-ci
pn shore- obl . loc h .arrive. pf - nar
‘Aslan reached the bank.’

Catalan arribar

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
en Pere va arrib-ar al banc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind reach- inf to. def . sg . m bank( m )
‘Pere reached the bank.’
Note: Cf. "en Pere hi va arribar"

Chirag sa-b-aʁi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le derbent-l-i sa-j-aʁ-ib
pn ( abs ) d erbent- obl - super hither- m . sg -reach: pf - aor .3
‘Ali reached Derbent.’

Czech dostat se

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr se dosta-l na břeh
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc reach( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on bank( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr reached the bank.’

Danish nå hen

Valency pattern: SBJ_til
X: SBJ
Y: til
Locus: Y
Peter nå-ede hen til bredd-en
pn reach- pst towards to bank( c )- def . sg
‘Peter reached the bank.’

Dutch bereiken

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft de oever bereik-t
pn (С) have.3 sg art . def . c bank( c ) reach- ptcp
‘Piet reached the bank.’

Eastern Maninka sé

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù báda sé dánkan` ná.
pn prf arrive bank\ art at
‘Seku reached the bank.’

English reach

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter reached the bank.

Estonian jõudma

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Peeter jõud-is kalda-le
pn . sg . nom reach- pst .3 sg bank- all
‘Peeter reached the bank.’

Finnish saavuttaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka saavutt-i ranna-n
pn . nom reach- pst .3 sg bank- gen
‘Pekka reached the bank.’

Forest Enets tɔɔ

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ teni biz baru-d tɔɔ-j-zʔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg to_opposite_bank water. obl border- dat . sg reach( pfv )- m -3 sg . m
‘My friend reached the bank at the opposite side’.

French atteindre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a atteint la rive
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg reach. pst . ptcp . m def . sg . f shore( f )
‘Paul reached the bank.’

Georgian mi-Ø-aγc'ev-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-m nap'ir-s mi-Ø-aγc'i-a
pn - erg bank- dat prv : dist - io 3-reach- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre reached the bank.’

German erreichen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl erreich-te das Ufer
pn [ nom . sg ] reach- pst .3 sg def . n . acc . sg bank[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl reached the bank.’

Guinean Kpelle hěli

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá hèlí ɲà ɓâ
pn 3 sg . pfv reach def \river on1
‘Pepee reached the river.’

Icari Dargwa w=eːʁ-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
Islam dum-leh w=eːʁ-ib
pn . abs edge- post m =reach- aor
‘Islam reached the bank.’

Irish bain amach

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Bhain Pól amach an banc.
pst /reach pn outside def bank
‘Pól reached the bank.’

Italian raggiungere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha raggiunto la riv-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs reach. pst . ptcp def . sg . f shore- sg . f
‘Leo reached the coast.’

Kadar Dargwa ́CL-aˤʁ-es / CL-iʁ-es

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
meħamad w-aˤʁ-ib ħark'-la dub-i-ze
pn m -reach. pfv - pret river- gen edge- obl - in
‘Muhammad reached the bank.’

Kalderash Romani arəsəl

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pa duj ćas-urʼa o Murš-a arəs-l-o man-de
through two. nom hour- nom . pl art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg reach- pst -3 sg . m i - loc
‘In two hours, Murša reached me.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.LAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.LAT
Locus: Y
maˁhaˁmad lodka.ji-ǯi ʁiraʁi.ǯi-q-na qu<r>q’-nu
pn ( abs ) boat-( in ) dir bank- post - lat < h . sg >reach- pst
‘Mahamad reached the bank of the river.’

Karata baʔaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPERLAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPERLAT
Locus: Y
ʕali reɬa raʕaj-ƛ’ar w-aʔ-a
pn sea shore- superlat m -come- pf
‘Ali reached the shore.’

Kaytag Dargwa č:iverχ:vara

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja erk’-la baʔ-i v-eʁ-i
pn river- gen bank- datlat m -reach. pf - aor
‘Petja reached the bank.’

Kazakh žet

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya žaɣa-ɣa žet-tі
pn bank- dat reach- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya reached the bank.’

Kazym Khanty jŏχǝtti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en imǝλtijǝn jŏχan kimλ-a śi jŏχǝt-s
pn - ep - poss .2 sg finally river bank- dat foc come- pst [3 sg ]
‘Finally, Petja reached the riverbank.’

Khoekhoe sī

Valency pattern: SBJ_ai
X: SBJ
Y: ai
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge ǀnom-i ai go sī
pn -3 m . sg decl bank-3 m . sg on rpst come
‘Peter reached the bank.’

Khwarshi j/at'a

Valency pattern: ABS_AD.LAT
X: ABS
Y: AD.LAT
Locus: Y
iłi-lo bala-ha-l at'ek'-k'a šamil
dem . an . o . noni - gen 2 bank( iii )- ad - lat [ i ]reach- pst . w pn ( i )
‘Shamil reached its (the river’s) bank.’

Kina Rutul lejq’ɨra

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul čejlaʁ-a le-jq’ɨ-r=a
pn ( nom ) riverside- obl ( sup ) pv -1.reach. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul reached the bank.’

Kumyk jetmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
mahammat özen-ni boj-ɨn-a et-d-i
pn river- gen shore-3 sg - dat go- pst -3 sg
‘Muhammad reached the bank of the river.’

Latin pervenio

Valency pattern: NOM_adACC
X: NOM
Y: adACC
Locus: Y
(Cleonym-us) ad litor-a Venet-orum perven-it
pn ( m )- nom . sg at coast( n )- acc . pl v enetus( m )- gen . pl reach[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘(Cleonymus) reached the coasts of the Veneti.’
Note: (Liv. X, 2, 5)

Laz o-mčvir-u

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Käzim-i kinai-ša d-Ø-i-mčvi-u
pn - nom bank- all prv - s 3- ver : s -swim- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim reached the bank.’
Note: Lit. ‘Käzim swam/sailed to the bank.’

Mandarin Chinese dào

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān dào àn-biān le
pn reach bank-edge pfv
‘Zhangsan reached the bank.’

Mano ɓɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Pèé ɓɔ̄ yíí kpóŋ́ là
pn 3 sg . pst leave water edge on
‘Pe arrived at a river bank.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.LAT
X: NOM
Y: CONT.LAT
Locus: Y
Pajzula ħark'ʷ-la dub-li-ze w-aʔ-ib
pn river- gen edge- obl - cont ( lat ) m -arrive: pfv - pst
‘Pajzula reached the riverbank.’

Mingrelian mi-Ø-o-č'irin-u-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k c'q'ar-pi[ǯ]-s ki-mi-Ø-o-č'irin-u
pn - erg water-bank- dat aff - prv - io 3- ver : sup -reach- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo reached the bank.’

Modern Hebrew higia

Valency pattern: SBJ_el
X: SBJ
Y: el
Locus: Y
Pinχas higia el ha gada
pn reach[ pst .3 sg . m ] towards def bank
‘Pinchas reached the bank.’

Mukhad Rutul lijq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_AD
X: NOM
Y: AD
Locus: Y
murad qirχı-da lijq'ı-ri
pn side. obl - ad m .reach. pf - aor
‘Murad reached the bank.’

Nanai esi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia bagea-wa ese-xa-ni
pn opposite_bank- obl reach- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia reached the bank.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh q’unuƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_TERMIN
X: NOM
Y: TERMIN
Locus: Y
patħudi inχχa-ƛ’iga q’we-eni
pn river- termin reach- aor
‘Pathudi reached the bank.’

Northern Mansi l’apamas

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMpoxen
X: NOM
Y: NOMpoxen
Locus: Y
am kol-um pox-ǝn ta l’apa-m-as-um
i house- poss .1 sg near- lat ptcl close- vbz - pst -1 sg
‘I reached my home.’

Northern Yukaghir kötkǝj=

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn ǝnmu-diǝ iǝmum-dǝ-ɣa kötkǝ-č
pn river- dim opposite_bank- poss .3- loc come_to- intr .3 sg
‘Semien reached the bank.’

Norwegian Bokmål å nå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per nådde bredd-en
pn reach. pst bank- def . m . sg
‘Per reached the bank.’

Polish dotrzeć

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Maciek dotar-ł do brzeg-u
pn [ nom . sg ] reach: pfv \ pst - pst [ m .3 sg ] at bank- gen . sg
‘Maciek reached the bank.’

Russian dostičʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Pet-ja dostig bereg-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg reach( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] bank( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja reached the bank.’

Serbian stići

Valency pattern: NOM_doGEN
X: NOM
Y: doGEN
Locus: Y
Petar je stiga-o do obal-e
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg reach- part . perf . m . sg up.to bank- gen . sg . f
‘Petar reached the bank.’

Shinaz Rutul lejq'ɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
basir lejq'ɨ-rɨ qirʁ-ɨ
pn m .reach. pf - perf shore. obl - super
‘Basir reached the bank.’

Shughni firīptow

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Azim=i lodka=qati tar qoq-i firīp-t
pn =3 sg boat= ins eq dry- subst reach- pst
‘Azim reached the bank in a boat.’

Skolt Saami laʹddjed

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt laʹddj-i ridd-u
pn . sg . nom reach- pst .3 sg bank. sg . ill
‘Pete reached the bank.’

Slovak dostať sa

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Peter sa dosta-l na breh
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc reach( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] on bank( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter reached the bank.’

Slovenian doseči

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
nemc-i so doseg-l-i obal-o
g erman- nom . pl aux .3 pl reach: pfv - lpt - m . pl bank- acc . sg
‘The Germans reached the bank.’

Sorani Kurdish geîŝtin

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Hîwa be belem geîʂt-Ø-e kenar-î çom-eke
pn with boat reach. pst -3 sg -to side- izf river- def
‘Hiwa reached the riverbank in a boat.’
Note: The verbal marker –e is the result of the “migration” of the preposition "be", cf. “Hîwa be belem geîʂt-Ø be kenar-î çom-eke.”

Southern Rutul leyq'ın

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad xhid-di ziy-aa leyq'ı-r
pn water. obl - attr border- super m .arrive. pf - aor
‘Murad reached the bank.’

Spanish alcanzar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro alcanz-ó la orilla
pn [ sg . m ] reach- aor .3 sg art . def . sg . f bank[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro reached the coast.’

Standard Arabic waṣala

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un waṣala š-šāṭiɁ-a
pn - nom reach. pf .3 m def -bank- acc
‘Badr reached the bank.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_ALL.EL
X: ERG
Y: ALL.EL
Locus: Y
maizer-d nap'ir-te-ka ad-Ø-h-e
pn - erg bank- all . el prv : dist - s 3-reach- pst
‘Maizer reached the bank.’

Swedish att komma fram

Valency pattern: SBJ_till
X: SBJ
Y: till
Locus: Y
Björn kom fram till strand-en
pn come. pst forward to bank- def . c . sg
‘Björn reached the bank.’
Note: Phrasal verb (fram is not a flagging device).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_PATH
X: ACT
Y: PATH
Locus: Y
naka-rating si Pedro sa bangko
pot . av . pfv -reach pers . subj pn dat bank
‘Pedro reached the bank.’
Note: The Y argument can also be signaled by a locative phrase, e.g. "pa-punta bangko" [DIR-go bank].

Telugu cēru

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pravīṇ oḍḍi-ki cērāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom coast( n ). sg . obl - dat reach. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen reached the bank.’

Tsakhur hirхhıniy

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPERLAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPERLAT
Locus: Y
murad q:uru-lqha hirхhın-na
pn dry- superlat h .go. pf - h
‘Murad reached the bank.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-it-eʁ-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG/LOC(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Locus: Y
rursːi ħerk'-la muza-le r-et-eʁ-ib
girl river- gen edge- erg / loc ( lat ) f -thither-reach. pfv - pret (3)
‘The girl reached the bank of the river.’

Tsugni Dargwa ka-b-eʁ-i / ka-b-irʁ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: LOC(LAT)
Locus: Y
rursːi dum-le ke-r-eʁ-ib
girl edge- loc ( lat ) down- f -reach. pfv - pret (3)
‘The girl reached the bank.’

Turkish varmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet kıyı-ya var-dı
pn coast- dat reach- pst
‘Mehmet reached the bank’.

Turoyo moṭe

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_IO
X: SBJ.SS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
Gabriyel maṭi l-i skale
pn reach. pfv .3 m to- art . f bank( f )
‘Gabriyel reached the bank.’

Twi duru

Valency pattern: SBJ_so
X: SBJ
Y: so
Locus: Y
Kofi duru-u kokoᴐ no so
pn reach- pst bank def on
‘Kofi reached the bank.’

Ulcha xā-

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
xusə piktə sapsi kera-ti-ni xā-xa-ni
male child bank edge- lat -3 sg land- pst -3 sg
‘The boy came ashore.’
Note: Not quite exact translation of the stimulus sentence.

Uzbek etmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya sohil-ga et-ti
pn coast- dat reach- pst .3 sg
‘Petja reached the bank.’

West Central Oromo gaha

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n k'ark'ara lagaa gah-e
pn - nom bank. abs river. gen reach-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa reached the river bank.’

Wolof àgg

Valency pattern: SBJ_ci
X: SBJ
Y: ci
Locus: Y
àgg-ag-unu ci tefes g-i
reach- nondum - prf . neg .s i :1 pl loc shore( g ) cl g - def
‘We haven’t reached the shore yet.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_AD
X: NOM
Y: AD
Locus: Y
Sahib vacˈ-u-n qerex-di-v agaʔ-na
pn river- obl - gen shore- obl - ad arrive- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib reached the bank.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: SBJ.INTR_GOAL
X: SBJ.INTR
Y: GOAL
Locus: Y
o rɛʃt vɛr-e t͡ʃɛm-i
3 sg . m . abs reach. pst front- ez . m river- m . obl
‘He reached the bank of the river.’

Zilo Andi <w>-oqχ.o

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali rahal-ʔo w-oqχ.o
pn [ m ][ nom ] bank. obl - super . lat m -go_up/out. pst ( aor )
‘Ali reached the river bank.’