BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘punish’

Argument frame: X (punish) Y
Stimulus sentence: (P.’s son was misbehaving.) P. punished his son .
Predicate label Ru: наказывать
Argument frame Ru: X (наказывать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Сын П. плохо себя вел) П. наказал своего сына .

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Adyghe (West Circassian) tjezər tje-λhe

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC.TOP
X: ERG
Y: LOC.TOP
Locus: Y
č̣ʼelejeʁaǯʼe-m č̣ʼale-m tjezər tr-jə-λha-ʁ
teacher- obl guy- obl punishment( abs ) loc : top -3 sg . erg -put- pst
‘The teacher punished the guy.’

Aghul nakːazat q’.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a uč.i-n gada nakːazat q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) self- gen son <punish> do. pf - aor
‘Aslan punished his son.’

Alik Kryz cazalandirmiş aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir ug gada cazalandirmiş ar-id
pn - erg refl . m ( gen ) boy punish do. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan punished his son.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
zari un nakazat u-w-li
i . erg you. sg ( nom ) punish[ r ] do. pfv -1- cvb . evid
‘I punished you.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +savər

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
baxta +suvər-ra ka brat-o
woman( f ) swear. pst - ls .3 f to girl( f )- p .3 f
‘The woman punished her daughter.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. Arguably, the translation is not very accurate. +taləm 'to punish' seems to belong to the same class.

Avar ʕadlu habize

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali-ca was-as-e ʕadlu ha-b-una
pn - erg son- obl - dat justice do- n - aor
‘Ali punished his son.’

Azerbaijani cəzalandırmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan oğlu-nu cǝzalan-dır-dı
pn son. poss 3- acc be_punished- caus - pst (3)
‘Aslan punished his son.’

Bambara ɲàngi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye dén` ɲàngi
pn pfv . tr 3 sg child\ art punish
‘Seku punished his child.’

Brazilian Portuguese castigar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro castig-ou seu filho
pn ( m ) punish-3 sg . pst poss .3. m son( m )
‘Pedro punished his son.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan-ır uga' duxor-uz caza yıva-ci
pn - erg refl . loc son. obl - dat punishment give. pf - nar
‘Aslan punished his son.’

Catalan castigar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va castig-ar el seu fill
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind punish- inf def . sg . m poss .3. m . sg son( m )
‘Pere punished his son.’

Chirag taχsir b-arq’i

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰li-le gal-l-i taχsir b-arq’-ib
pn - erg boy- obl - super punishment( abs ) n . sg -do: pf - aor .3
‘Ali punished his son.’

Czech potrestat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr potresta-l syn-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] punish( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] son( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr punished his son.’

Danish straffe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter straffe-de sin søn
pn punish- pst poss . refl . c . sg son( c )
‘Peter punished his son.’

Dutch straffen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft zijn zoon ge-straf-t
pn ( c ) have.3 sg poss . c .3 sg son( c ) ptcp -punish- ptcp
‘Piet punished his son.’

Eastern Maninka látɔn

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù bára kó` látɔn dén` ná
pn prf matter\ art punish 3 sg child\ art at
‘Seku has punished his child.’

English punish

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter punished his son.

Estonian karistama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter karista-b oma poega
pn . sg . nom punish- pst .3 sg poss . refl son. sg . part
‘Peeter punished his son.’

Finnish rangaista

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka rankais-i poika-a-nsa
pn . nom punish- pst .3 sg son- part - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka punished his son.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French punir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a sévèrement puni son fils
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg severely punish. pst . ptcp . m one’s.3 sg . m son( m )
‘Paul severely punished his son.’

Georgian da-Ø-saǯ-av-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m važ-i da-Ø-saǯ-a
pn - erg son- nom prv :downward- do 3-punish- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre punished his son.’

German bestrafen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl bestraf-t sein-en Sohn
pn [ nom . sg ] punish- prs .3 sg his- m . acc . sg son[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl is punishing his son.’

Guinean Kpelle *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Icari Dargwa w=it-uj

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Islam-il durħuˤ w=it-ib
pn - erg boy. abs m =beat: pf - aor
‘Islam beat his son.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Irish cuir piniós

Valency pattern: SBJ_ar
X: SBJ
Y: ar
Locus: Y
Chuir Pól piniós air a mhac.
pst /put pn punishment on poss .3 sg . m son
‘Pól punished his son.’

Italian punire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha punito su-o figli-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs punish. pst . ptcp poss .3 sg - sg . m son- sg . m
‘Leo punished his son.’

Kadar Dargwa ʡaˤdlu CL-ar-es / CL-ir-es

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
meħamad-li cuni-ja urši-li-s ʡaˤdlu b-ar-ib
pn - erg self- gen boy- obl - dat instruction n -do. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad punished his son.’

Kalderash Romani *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
maˁhaˁmad-ǯi ča-n baž nakazat’ ʁ-ap’-nu
pn - erg refl - gen boy( abs ) punish pf -do- pst
‘Mahamad punished his son.’

Karata tamiħ gahaɬa

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali-l waša-š:w-a tamiħ geh-e
pn - erg boy- obl . m - dat instruct do- pf
‘Ali punished his son.’

Kaytag Dargwa tanbihlawarara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l urši tanbih-la v-ar-iv
pn - erg son punishment- gen m -do. pf - aor
‘Petja punished his son.’

Kazakh žaza- ber

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya özіm-nіŋ ul-ï-ɣa žaza-sï-n ber-dі
pn one’s- gen son- poss 3- dat punishment- poss 3- acc give- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya punished his son.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aś-eλ pǒχ-ǝλ λǒst-ǝs-λe
father- poss .3 sg son- poss .3 sg slap- pst -3 sg . so
‘Petja slapped his son.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Khoekhoe ǁkhara

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǁî-b ǀgôa-b-a go ǁkhara
pn -3 m . sg decl 3-3 m . sg son-3 m . sg - obl rpst punish
‘Peter punished his son.’

Khwarshi j/ajƛ'a

Valency pattern: ABS_CONT.LAT
X: ABS
Y: CONT.LAT
Locus: Y
obu ajƛ-ƛa uža-qo-l
father( i ) [ i ]scorch- pst . w son( i )- cont - lat
‘Father scorched his son.’

Kina Rutul *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Kumyk taqsɨrlamaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
mahammat jaš-in-a taqsɨr-la-ʁan
pn child-3 sg - dat guilt- vblz - pf
‘Muhammad punished his son.’

Latin punio

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(August-us) adulter-os mort-e aut fug-a puni-v-it
pn ( m )- nom . sg lover( m )- acc . pl death( f )- abl . sg or exile( f )- abl . sg punish- prf - ind . act .3 sg
‘(Augustus) punished the lovers with death or exile.’
Note: (Tac. Ann. III, 24)

Laz o-beǯγ-u

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Käzim-i-k be(r)e-muš-i-s Ø-u-beǯγ-am-s
pn - b - erg child- poss 3- b - dat io 3- ver : o -shout_loudly- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is loudly shouting at (his) child.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Mandarin Chinese chéngfá

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān chéngfá le tā-de érzi
pn punish pfv he- de son
‘Zhangsan punished his son.’

Mano *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Islam-ini il-li-s tamiħ b-aq'-ib
pn - erg that- obl - dat punishment n -do: pfv - pst
‘Islam punished his son.’

Mingrelian k'in-Ø-a-nčkol-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
čelo-k sk'ua-Ø ku-k'n-Ø-a-nčkol-(u)
pn - erg child- dat aff - prv - do 3- fact -place-( s 3 sg . pst )
‘Chelo put (his) son in the corner.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Modern Hebrew heenish

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas heenish et ha ben ʃel-o
pn punish[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def son poss -3 sg . m
‘Pinchas punished his son.’

Mukhad Rutul taˤmbuˤh vıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a džuˤ-dı duχarı-s taˤmbuˤh vıʔı-ri
pn - erg refl . h . obl - attr son. obl - dat punishment( a ) a .do. pf - aor
‘Murad punished his son.’

Nanai kəsuli-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia piktə-i kəsu.li-xə-ni
pn child- p . refl . sg punish. pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia punished his son.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh tamiħi guruƛa

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pataħi-de wašo-ƛa tamiħi gw-eri
pn - erg boy- dat punishment do- aor
‘Patahi punished his son.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir čǝlˈwǝrǝj=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn tudǝ uo-ɣаnǝ čǝlˈwǝ-rǝ-j-m
pn poss .3 child- acc aff get_bitter_experience- caus - pf - tr .3 sg
‘Semien punished his son.’

Norwegian Bokmål å straffe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per straffe-t sønn-en sin
pn punish- pst son- def . m . sg poss . refl . m . sg
‘Per punished his son.’

Polish ukarać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Andrzej ukara-ł sw-ego syn-a
pn - nom . sg punish: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] one’s_own- m . acc . sg son- acc . sg
‘Andrzej punished his son.’

Russian nakazatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja nakaza-l svo-ego syn-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg punish( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] one’s- m . acc . sg son( m )- acc . sg
‘Petja punished his son.’

Serbian kazniti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je kazni-o sv-og sin-a
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg punish- part . perf . m . sg one’s- acc . sg son- acc . sg
‘Petar punished his son.’

Shinaz Rutul džaza vɨ-n

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir džaza vɨ-r džu-du duχar-ɨs
pn ( erg ) punishment give. pf - aor refl. obl - attr son. obl - dat
‘Basir punished his son.’

Shughni kud δêdow1

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i xu puc kud δod
pn =3 sg refl son dog give. pst
‘Azim punished his son.’

Skolt Saami *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Slovak potrestať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter potresta-l svoj-ho syn-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] punish( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] one's- m . acc . sg son( m )- acc . sg
‘Peter punished his son.’

Slovenian kaznovati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je kaznova-l sin-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg punish: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] son- acc . sg
‘Peter punished his.’

Sorani Kurdish siza dan

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa kur̂-eke=î siza da-Ø
pn boy- def =3 sg . pc punishment give. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa punished his son.’

Southern Rutul ceza vın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
did-e duxarı-s ceza vı-r
father- erg son. pl . obl - dat punishment give. pf - aor
‘Father punished his son.’

Spanish castigar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha castiga-do a su hijo
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg punish- ptcp : prf dir . obj . anm one’s[ sg ] son[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro punished his son.’

Standard Arabic ʕāqaba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un ʕāqaba l-Ɂibn-a
pn - nom punish. pf .3 m def -son- acc
‘Badr punished his son.’

Svan *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Swedish att straffa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn straffa-de sin son
pn punish- pst poss . refl . c . sg son
‘Björn punished his son.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
P<in>arusah-an ni Pedro ang kaniya-ng anak
< pfv >punish- pv pers . gen pn subj 3. sg . dat - lin son
‘Pedro punished his son.’
Note: The GEN encoding of Y is possible in the AV construction, hence ACT_UND.

Telugu šikṣiṁcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ tana koḍuku-ni šikṣiṁcāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom own son( m ). sg . obl - acc punish. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen punished his son.’

Tsakhur taˁnbıh q:avdžiy

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-ee džu-ni duхay-s taˁnbıh q:avdžu
pn - erg refl . m - attr . obl son. obl - dat punishment( a ) a .see. pf
‘Murad punished his son.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-it-iz

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
unra-le sune-la uršːi it-ib
neighbor- erg / loc ( lat ) refl . obl - gen boy ( m )beat. pfv - pret (3)
‘The neighbor beat his son.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Tsugni Dargwa b-ebg-i / b-ubg-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
zumra-li durħaˤ w-ebg-ub
neighbor- erg boy m -beat. pfv - pret (3)
‘The neighbor punished his son.’

Turkish cezalandırmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet oğl-u-nu cezalandır-dı
pn son- p .3- acc punish- pst
‘Mehmet punished his son.’

Turoyo mǧaze

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel mǧaze-le u abro
pn punish. pfv - ls .3 m art . m son
‘Gabriyel punished his son.’

Ulcha gosila-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ami-ni mə̄n piktə-ji ńī-ǯi sori-n turgun-dulə-ni gosla-xa-ni
father-3 sg self child- refl . sg person- ins fight-3 sg cause- loc -3 sg criticize- pst -3 sg
‘Father scolded his son for a fight with other people.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Uzbek žazolamoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya o’ɣl-i-ni žazola-di
pn son- poss .3 sg - acc punish- pst .3 sg
‘Petja punished his son.’

West Central Oromo adaba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
nam-ittʃ-i mutʃ'aa isaa adab-e
man- def - nom son. abs 3 sg . m . poss punish-3 sg . m . pfv
‘The man punished his son.’

Zilo Andi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.