BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘pour’

Argument frame: X (pour) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. poured the sugar (into the cup).
Predicate label Ru: сыпать
Argument frame Ru: X (сыпать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. насыпал сахар (в чашку).

Abaza ta-psa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən fač’ə́ʕʷ ʕa-ta-j-psá-ṭ
def -boy sugar cisl - loc -3 sg . m . erg -pour( aor )- dcl
‘The boy poured some sugar.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) jə-teqʷe

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
č̣ʼale-m ŝʷewə.šʼəʁʷə-r čʼaške-m r-jə-teqʷa-ʁ
guy- obl sugar- abs cup- obl loc : cont -3 sg . erg -pour. lat - pst
‘The guy poured the sugar into the cup.’

Aghul aq.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a pusuk’ aq.u-ne kuruškː.i-ʔ
pn ( erg ) sugar { in }pour. pf - aor mug- in
‘Aslan poured the sugar into the mug.’

Alik Kryz ʕayts'ayc

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir çeşka-ca pasuk' ʕayts'a-du
pn - erg cup- obl . in sugar( f ) put_in. pfv - aor . f
‘Terlan poured the sugar into the cup.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu pisokʼ a<b>ču
pn - obl ( erg ) sugar <3>throw. pfv
‘Pasha poured the sugar into the cup.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic darə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
baxta dri-la šacar gu mana
woman( f ) pour. pst - ls .3 f sugar( m ) in vessel( m )
‘The woman poured the sugar into the cup.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar baze

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca čakar b-a-na čaška-jaɬ-u-b-e
pn - erg sugar n -hang- aor cup- obl - loc - n - lat
‘Ali poured the sugar into the cup.’

Azerbaijani tökmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan şǝkǝr-i fincan-a tök-dü
pn sugar- acc cup- dat / lat pour- pst (3)
‘Aslan poured the sugar into the cup.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nᵼ́ŋə́ súgà wá
pn sm p 2 put sugar def
‘Ambe poured the sugar.’

Bambara kɛ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye súkaromugu` kɛ́ tàbali` kàn
pn pfv . tr sugar_powder\ art do table\ art on
‘Seku poured some sugar on the table.’

Brazilian Portuguese colocar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro coloc-a açúcar
pn ( m ) place-3 sg . prs sugar( m )
‘Pedro poured some sugar.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır posug suk'ra-ca ʕabts'a-ci
pn - erg sugar( a ) vessel- loc a .pour. pf - nar
‘Aslan poured the sugar into the cup.’

Catalan abocar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va aboc-ar el sucre a la tassa
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind pour- inf def . sg . m sugar( m ) to def . sg . f cup( f )
‘Pere poured the sugar (into the cup).’

Chirag kašʷi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le kruškːa-l-i pisuk’ ka-x-ub
pn - erg cup- obl - super sugar( abs ) down -throw: pf - aor .3
‘Ali poured the sugar in the cup.’

Czech dát

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr da-l cukr do sklenic-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] put( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] sugar( m )[ acc . sg ] in glass( f )- gen . sg
‘Petr poured the sugar in the glass.’

Danish putte i

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter putte-de sukker i kopp-en
pn put- pst sugar( n ) in cup( c )- def . sg
‘Peter poured the sugar.’

Dutch doen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet deed suiker in het kopje
pn ( c ) do. pst sugar( c ) in art . def . n cup( n )
‘Piet poured sugar into the cup.’

Eastern Maninka lábɔ̀n

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bára súkara` lábɔ̀n tàbali` kàn.
pn prf sugar\ art spill table\ art on
‘Seku spilled sugar on the table.’

English pour

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter poured the sugar into the cup.

Estonian valama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter vala-s suhkru-t
pn . sg . nom pour- pst .3 sg sugar- sg . part
‘Peeter poured sugar.’

Finnish kaataa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka kaat-oi sokeri-n kuppi-in
pn . nom pour- pst .3 sg sugar- gen cup- ill
‘Pekka poured the sugar into the cup.’

Forest Enets bata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲaasa-da dʲizi mi-ʔ bata-bi-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg flour- obl . sg .3 sg cauldron inside- dat pour_out( pfv )- prf -3 sg . so sg
‘My friend poured the flour into the bucket’.

French verser

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a versé du sucre dans la casserole
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg pour. pst . ptcp . m of. def . sg . m sugar( m ) inside def . sg . f saucepan( f )
‘Paul poured sugar into the pan.’
Note: The use of the preposition "de" is triggered by the partitive meaning, not by the argument frame of the verb.

Georgian ča-Ø-i-q'r-i-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m č'ika-ši šakar-i ča-Ø-i-q'ar-a
pn - erg glass- pstp : iness sugar- nom prv :downward+inward- do 3- ver : s -cast- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre poured the sugar into the glass.’

German schütten

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl schütte-t Zucker in die Tasse
pn [ nom . sg ] pour- prs .3 sg sugar[ acc . sg ] in def . f . acc . sg cup[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl pours sugar into the cup.’

Guinean Kpelle pú

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hɛ́ni àá lɔ̀ɔ kwélê pú ŋwɔ̀ kpèle kɔɣɔ̂ hù
pn 3 sg . prf wine white pour 3 sg . poss drink cup\ l in
‘Heni poured some white wine to her cup.’

Icari Dargwa b=iː-ka=b=ix-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il čakar b=iː-ka=b=ix-ub
pn - erg sugar. abs n =together- on = n =throw: pf - aor
‘Islam poured the sugar.’

Irish doirt

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Dhoirt Pól an siúcra isteach a’ gcupa.
pst /pour pn def sugar inside def cup
‘Pól poured the sugar into the cup.’

Italian versare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha versato lo zuccher-o in un-a tazz-a
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs pour. pst . ptcp def . sg . m sugar- sg . m in indf - sg . f cup- sg . f
‘Leo poured the sugar into a cup.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-uš-es / CL-urš-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li šeker b-uš-ib šaška-l-ze
pn - erg sugar n -add. pfv - pret cup- obl - in
‘Muhammad poured the sugar into the cup.’

Kalderash Romani śorəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a śor-ď-a zar-o ande kuć-i
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg pour- pst -3 sg sugar- acc . sg in cup- nom . sg
‘Murša poured the sugar into the mug.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatima-ji šakar čaška.ji-ʔ a<b>x-nu
pn - erg sugar( abs ) cup- in < n . sg >pour- pst
‘Fatima poured the sugar into the cup.’

Karata t’amaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l kuruška-j-r čakar t’am-e
pn - erg mug- obl - lat sugar throw- pf
‘Ali poured the sugar into the mug.’

Kaytag Dargwa kaq’ara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l č:akar kaq’-iv
pn - erg sugar pour. pf - aor
‘Petja poured the sugar.’

Kazakh sal

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya qant-tï sal-dï
pn sugar- acc put- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya poured sugar.’

Kazym Khanty pǒnti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en an-λ-a sakkar pǒn-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg cup- poss .3 sg - dat sugar put- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja poured the sugar into the cup.’

Khoekhoe tsoro

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge dai-i-a go tsoro
pn -3 m . sg decl milk-3 c . sg . obl rpst pour
‘Peter poured the milk.’

Khwarshi j/aha

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šamil-i pisok b-ajša istakan-ma
pn - erg sand( iv ) iv -rise\ pst . w glass( v )- in
‘Shamil poured the sugar into the glass.’

Kina Rutul kiɁɨraj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a pisuk’ ki-Ɂɨ-r=a-j istek’an-e
pn - erg sugar( nom ) pv -4.add. pfv - cvb =be- pst glass- in
‘Rasul poured the sugar.’

Kumyk tökmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir šeker-ni tök-d-ü čaška-ʁa
pn sugar- acc pour- pst -3 sg cup- dat ( r )
‘Basir poured the sugar in the cup.’

Latin infundo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(Lateran-us) manipl-os solv-e-t et infund-e-t iument-is horde-a lass-is
pn ( m )- nom . sg sheaf( m )- acc . pl unbind- fut . ind - act .3 sg and pour- fut . ind - act .3 sg cattle( n )- dat . pl barley( n )- acc . pl weary- dat . pl . n
‘(Lateranus) will unbind the sheaves and pour the barley to his weary cattle.’
Note: (Juv. 8, 153)

Laz o-bγ-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k šeke(r)-i gel-Ø-u-bγ-u
pn - b - erg sugar- nom prv - do 3- ver : o -scatter- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim poured the sugar.’

Mandarin Chinese dào-rù

Valency pattern: SBJ_ba
X: SBJ
Y: ba
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān táng dào-rù bēi-zhōng
pn ba sugar pour-into cup-middle
‘Zhangsan poured the sugar into the cup.’
Note: The status of the "bǎ"-construction is controversial.

Mano káá

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
māà yíí káá
1 sg . prf water pour
‘I have poured water.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Islam-ini aq'-ur čakar
pn - erg pour: pfv - aor sugar
‘Islam poured the sugar.’

Mingrelian in-Ø-i-rγv-an-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k č'irka-ša šankar-(i) k-in-Ø-i-rγ-u
pn - erg glass- all sugar-( nom ) aff - prv - do 3- ver : s -scatter- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo poured the sugar into the cup.’

Modern Hebrew ʃafaχ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas ʃafaχ et ha sukar
pn pour[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def sugar
‘Pinchas poured the sugar.’

Mukhad Rutul kıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a pisuχ kıʔı-ri
pn - erg sugar ( n )pour. pf - aor
‘Murad poured the sugar.’

Nanai nəə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia seata-wa aleo-či nəə-xə-ni
pn sugar- obl tableware- dir put- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia poured the sugar into the cup.’

Nivkh sid

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik ŋirŋ-dоχ sеta si-d
pn cup- dat / add sugar put- ind
‘Kaskazik poured the sugar into the cup.’

Northern Akhvakh ssussuruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi-de čaka ssuss-ari
pn - erg sugar pour- aor
‘Patahi poured the sugar.’

Northern Mansi tārtǝs

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ɕān’-um sākkar āni-n tārt-ǝs
mother- poss .1 sg sugar cup- lat pour- pst [3 sg ]
‘My mother poured sugar into the cup.’

Northern Yukaghir par=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn sаhаr-lǝ pаr-mǝ-lǝ
pn sugar- acc immerse- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien poured the sugar.’

Norwegian Bokmål å strø

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per strød-de sukker i kopp-en
pn pour- pst sugar in cup- def . m . sg
‘Per poured the sugar into the cup.’

Polish wsypać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Staszek wsypa-ł cukier
pn [ nom . sg ] pour: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] sugar[ acc . sg ]
‘Staszek poured the sugar.’

Russian nasypatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja nasypa-l saxar v čašk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg pour( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] sugar( m )[ acc . sg ] in cup( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja poured the sugar into the cup.’

Serbian staviti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je stavi-o šećer u šolj-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg put- part . perf . m . sg sugar. acc . sg in cup- acc . sg
‘Petar poured the sugar into the cup.’

Shinaz Rutul ar kiʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir ar kiʔɨ-r šigar
pn ( erg ) in ( n )pour. pf - aor sugar
‘Basir poured the sugar.’

Shughni čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Šamil=i qand ar xu čīni čūd
pn =3 sg sugar prep . down refl cup do. pst
‘Shamil poured the sugar into the cup.’

Skolt Saami kâʹlvved

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kõõʹlv-i säähhar
pn . sg . nom pour- pst .3 sg sugar. sg . acc
‘Pete poured the sugar (into the cup).’

Slovak nasypať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter nasypa-l cukor do pohár-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] put( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] sugar( m )[ acc . sg ] in glass( m )- gen . sg
‘Peter poured the sugar in the glass.’

Slovenian nasuti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je nasu-l sladkor v skodelic-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg pour: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] sugar[ acc . sg ] in cup- acc . sg
‘Peter poured the sugar into the cup.’

Sorani Kurdish r̂iʂtin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa ʂekir-eke=î r̂iʂt-Ø
pn sugar- def =3 sg . pc pour. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa poured the sugar.’

Southern Rutul kıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a pusux kıʔı-r
pn - erg sugar ( n )pour. pf - aor
‘Murad poured the sugar.’

Spanish echar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ech-ó azúcar a la taza
pn [ sg . m ] throw- aor .3 sg sugar[ sg . m ] to art . def . sg . f cup[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro poured some sugar into the cup.’

Standard Arabic waḍaʕa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un waḍaʕa s-sukkar-a l-finǧān-i
pn - nom place. pf .3 m def -sugar- acc in def -cup- gen
‘Badr poured the sugar into the cup.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_ALL.INESS
X: ERG
Y: ALL.INESS
Locus: Y
maizer-d č'ik-te-isga šakär-Ø äd-Ø-šid
pn - erg cup- all - iness sugar- nom prv : dist . ver : s - do 3-scatter
‘Maizer poured the sugar into the cup.’

Swedish att hälla i

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn häll-de i socker i kopp-en
pn pour- pst in sugar in cup- def . c . sg
‘Björn poured sugar into the cup.’
Note: Phrasal verb (the first i is not a flagging device).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Nag-salin si Pedro ng asukal sa garapon
av . pfv -pour pers . subj pn gen sugar dat container
‘Pedro poured the sugar in a container.’

Telugu pōyu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ paṁcadāra pōsāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom sugar( n ). sg . nom pour. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen poured the sugar.’

Tsakhur k’yaʔiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee k’olee-qha šakar k’yaʔu
pn - erg cup. obl - lat sugar ( n )pour. pf
‘Murad poured the sugar.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa k-aq'-iz/k-alq'-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le čaj-li-c:e pisuk' k-aq'-ur
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) tea- obl - inter ( lat ) sweet down -pour. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy poured the sugar into the cup.’

Tsugni Dargwa k-aq'-i / k-alq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li čaˤj-li-cːe mizi-dix k-aq'-ur
boy- erg tea- obl - inter ( lat ) sweet- nmlz down -pour. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy poured the sugar into the cup.’

Turkish dökmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet bardağ-a şeker dök-tü
pn glass- dat sugar pour- pst
‘Mehmet poured sugar into the glass.’

Turoyo maḥət

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel maḥat-le šakar b-u koso
pn put. pfv - ls .3 m sugar( m ) in- art . m cup( m )
‘Gabriyel put the sugar in the cup.’

Ulcha xūlu-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama seata-wa čaj=ban xūl-xə-ni
father sugar- acc tea=to pour- pst -3 sg
‘Father poured the sugar into the tea.’

Uzbek qo’ymoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya šakar-ni qo’y-di
pn sugar- acc put- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petja poured the sugar.’

West Central Oromo nak'a

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n sukkaara burtʃ'uk'k'oo-tti nak'-e
pn - nom sugar. abs glass- loc pour-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa poured sugar into a glass.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a çașkka-di-z ppasuk vehe-na
pn - erg cup- obl - dat caster_sugar throw. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib poured the sugar into the cup.’ (?)

Zilo Andi t’inn.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di pisoki t’inn.i
pn - erg sugar[ inan 1][ nom ] pour. pst ( aor )
‘Ali poured the sugar.’