BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘plough’

Argument frame: X (plough) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. is ploughing the field .
Predicate label Ru: пахать
Argument frame Ru: X (пахать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. пашет поле .

Abaza ĉaʁʷa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-qác̣a j-ádg’əl j-ĉaʁʷ-ə́j-d
def -man 3 sg . m . io -ground 3 sg . m . erg -plough- prs - dcl
‘The man is ploughing the field.’

Aghul izan aq’.a-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a χupː-ur izan aq’.a-a
pn ( erg ) field- pl <plowing> do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is ploughing the field.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṭarə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sava +bəṭray-o=l +mazra
old. m plough. prog - p .3 f =3 m field( f )
‘The oldman is ploughing the field.’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ara o campo
‘Педру пашет поле.’

Czech orat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr oře pol-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] plough( ipfv ). prs .3 sg field( n )- acc . sg
‘Petr is ploughing the field.’

Finnish kyntää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka kynt-ää pelto-a
pn . nom plough- prs .3 sg field- part
‘Pekka is ploughing the field.’

Forest Enets kɔbuda

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
rosa-ʔ dʲa kɔbuda-ʔ
r ussian- pl place skin( ipfv )-3 pl . s
‘The Russians scrape the ground’.

Latin aro

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
qui public-os agr-os ara-nt
who. nom . pl . m public- acc . pl . m field( m )- acc . pl plough[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl
‘... those who till public fields.’
Note: (Cic. In Verrem. 5, 53)

Modern Hebrew χoreʃ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas χoreʃ et ha sade
pn plow[ ptcp . sg . m ] do def field
‘Pinchas is ploughing the field.’

Nanai anǯala-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia daai usi-mba anǯa-la-j-ni
pn big vegetable_garden- obl plough- pfv - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is ploughing the field.’

Norwegian Bokmål å pløye

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per pløye-r jord-et
pn plough- prs field- def . n . sg
‘Per is ploughing the field.’

Polish orać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Michał orze pol-e
pn [ nom . sg ] plough: ipfv . prs .3 sg field- acc . sg
‘Michał is ploughing the field.’

Russian paxatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja paš-et pol-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg plough( ipfv )- prs .3 sg field( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja is ploughing the field.’

Rutul lʲaˁjχaˁra

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a χuj lʲ-aˁjχaˁ-r=a
pn - erg field( nom ) pv -4.plough. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is ploughing the field.’

Skolt Saami auʹrrjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt lij auʹrrje-men peäld
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg plough- prog . ptcp field. sg . acc
‘Pete is ploughing the field.’

Slovenian orati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a orje polj-e
pn - nom . sg plough: ipfv . prs .3 sg field- acc . sg
‘Ana is ploughing the field.’

Swedish att plöja

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn plöj-er åker-n
pn plough- prs field- def . c . sg
‘Björn is ploughing the field.’

Turkish sürmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet tarla-yı sür-üyor
pn field- acc plough- prs
‘Mehmet is ploughing the field.’

Ulcha bojali-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama nā-wa bojal-i-ni
father ground- acc break. tr - prs -3 sg
‘Father is ploughing the field (lit. breaking the ground).’

Zilo Andi <b>-eqχ’.i-r

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di b-eqχ’.i-r χur
pn - erg inan 1-plough. pst - prog field[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Ali is ploughing the field.’