BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘plough’

Argument frame: X (plough) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. is ploughing the field .
Predicate label Ru: пахать
Argument frame Ru: X (пахать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. пашет поле .

Abaza ĉaʁʷa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-qác̣a j-ádg’əl j-ĉaʁʷ-ə́j-d
def -man 3 sg . m . io -ground 3 sg . m . erg -plough- prs - dcl
‘The man is ploughing the field.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ẑʷe

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
λ̣ə-m ŝʷefə-r j-e-ẑʷe
man- obl field- abs 3 sg . erg - dyn -plough
‘The man is ploughing the field.’

Aghul izan aq’.a-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a χupː-ur izan aq’.a-a
pn ( erg ) field- pl <plowing> do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is ploughing the field.’

Alik Kryz yizayc

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir ciga yizats'-re
pn - erg place plough. ipfv - prs . n
‘Terlan is ploughing the field.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša hija-r-ši w-i 
pn field plow- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be
‘Pasha is ploughing the field.’
Note: Binominative construction resolves into transitive.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṭarə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
sava +bəṭray-o=l +mazra
old. m plough. prog - p .3 f =3 m field( f )
‘The oldman is ploughing the field.’

Avar beƛ’ize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca χur b-eƛ’-ule-b b-ugo
pn - erg field n -plough- ipf . ptcp - n n - cop
‘Ali is ploughing the field.’

Azerbaijani şumlamaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan tarla-nı şumla-yır
pn field- acc plough- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is ploughing the field.’

Bambara sɛ̀nɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bɛ́_kà fòro` sɛ̀nɛ
pn prog field\ art cultivate
‘Seku is cultivating a field.’

Brazilian Portuguese arar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ar-a o campo
pn ( m ) plough-3 sg . prs def . m field( m )
‘Pedro is ploughing the field.’

Catalan llaurar

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
en Pere està llaurant-ant en el seu camp
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind plough- ger in def . sg . m poss .3. m . sg field( m )
‘Pere is ploughing the field.’

Chirag b-aci

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le qu b-alc-le
pn - erg field( abs ) n . sg -plough: ipf - dur . prs .3
‘Ali is plowing the field.’

Czech orat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr oře pol-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] plough( ipfv ). prs .3 sg field( n )- acc . sg
‘Petr is ploughing the field.’

Danish pløje

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter pløje-r mark-en
pn plough- prs field( c )- def . sg
‘Peter is ploughing the field.’

Dutch ploegen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet ploeg-t het veld
pn ( c ) plough-3 sg art . def . n field( n )
‘Piet is ploughing the field.’

Eastern Maninka sɛ̀nɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé fòdo` dó sɛ̀nɛ` lá.
pn be field\ art indf till\ art at
‘Seku is tilling a field.’

English plough

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter is ploughing the field.

Estonian kündma

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter künna-b põldu
pn . sg . nom plough- prs .3 sg field. sg . part
‘Peeter is ploughing the field.’

Finnish kyntää

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka kynt-ää pelto-a
pn . nom plough- prs .3 sg field- part
‘Pekka is ploughing the field.’

Forest Enets kɔbuda

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
rosa-ʔ dʲa kɔbuda-ʔ
r ussian- pl place skin( ipfv )-3 pl . s
‘The Russians scrape the ground’.

French labourer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul laboure son champ
pn ( m ) plough. prs .3 sg one’s. sg . m field( m )
‘Paul is ploughing the field.’

Georgian Ø-xn-av-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-Ø q'ana-s Ø-xn-av-s
pn - nom field- dat do 3-plough- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre is ploughing the field.’

German pflügen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl pflüg-t das Feld
pn [ nom . sg ] plough- prs .3 sg def . n . acc . sg field[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl is ploughing the field.’

Icari Dargwa b=alc-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il qu b=alc-a-ca=b
pn - erg field. abs n =plough: pf - cop = n
‘Islam is ploughing the field.’

Irish treabh

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pól ag treabh an ghoirt.
be. prs pn at plough. nmlz def . gs field/ gs
‘Pól is ploughing the field.’
Note: The Y argument is in the GS-form because the verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian arare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ar-a il camp-o
pn ( m ) plough-3 sg . prs def . sg . m field- sg . m
‘Leo ploughs the field.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_IN
X: NOM
Y: IN
Locus: Y
meħamad 0-uz-u-le w-0-ar awlaq-i-ze
pn m -work. ipfv - prs - cvb m -be. ipfv - th field- obl - in
‘Muhammad is ploughing the field.’

Kalderash Romani vunavel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a vunav-el ə phuv
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg plough- prs -3 sg art . f . dir . sg ground[ acc . sg ]
‘Murša is ploughing the field.’

Karata

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali χure b-eƛ’:-idja idja
pn field n -plough- ipf cop
‘Ali is ploughing the field.’
Note: This structure is binominative because of the progressive. The verb is transitive.

Kaytag Dargwa икъвара

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l qu iq:-ulca
pn - erg field plough. ipf - prs
‘Petja is ploughing the field.’

Kazakh žïrt

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya alqap-tï žïrt-ïp žatïr
pn field- acc plough- cvb lie.3 sg
‘Petya is ploughing the field.’

Kazym Khanty χirti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en akarat-ǝλ χir-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg garden- poss .3 sg dig- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is digging his garden.’
Note: This sentence is semantically slightly different from the stimulus.

Khoekhoe ǃhūǃgao

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǃhana-b-a ra ǃhūǃgao
pn -3 m . sg decl field-3 m . sg - obl ipfv plough
‘Peter is ploughing the field.’

Khwarshi laƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obut'-i laƛe-he ʁudu
father. o - erg plough- prs field( iv )
‘Father is ploughing the field.’

Kina Rutul lʲaˁjχaˁra

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a χuj lʲ-aˁjχaˁ-r=a
pn - erg field( nom ) pv -4.plough. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is ploughing the field.’

Kumyk qazmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat awlaq-nɨ qaz-a
pn field- acc dig-3 sg
‘Patimat is digging the field.’
Note: This sentence is semantically slightly different from the stimulus.

Latin aro

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
qui public-os agr-os ara-nt
who. nom . pl . m public- acc . pl . m field( m )- acc . pl plough[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl
‘... those who till public fields.’
Note: (Cic. In Verrem. 5, 53)

Laz o-zd-im-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k ekin-i e-Ø-zd-um-s
pn - b - erg field- nom prv - do 3-plough- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim ploughs the field.’

Mandarin Chinese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zhèngzài
pn prog plough field
‘Zhangsan is ploughing the field.’

Mano ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ lɛ̀ ɓō
3 sg . ipfv field remove
‘S/he cultivates a field.’
Note: Always combines with lɛ̀, field.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Islam-ini haj b-aq'-ib qu
pn - erg plough n -do: pfv - pst field
‘Islam is ploughing the field.’

Mingrelian Ø-bar-un-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-Ø ʔvana-s Ø-bar-un-s=u
pn - nom field- dat do 3-plough- sm - s 3 sg = ev
‘Chelo is ploughing the field.’

Modern Hebrew χoreʃ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas χoreʃ et ha sade
pn plow[ ptcp . sg . m ] do def field
‘Pinchas is ploughing the field.’

Mukhad Rutul lıˤjχıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a χuj lıˤjχaˤ-re a
pn - erg field n .plough. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is ploughing the field.’

Nanai anǯala-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia daai usi-mba anǯa-la-j-ni
pn big vegetable_garden- obl plough- pfv - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is ploughing the field.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi quri b-eƛ’:-ere gudi
pn field n -plough- simul m . cop
‘Patahi is ploughing the field.’

Northern Mansi xili

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xum xil-i mā
man dig- npst [3 sg ] earth
‘A man is digging/ploughing the earth.’

Northern Yukaghir tǝldič=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn lukul purа-ɣa-k tǝl-di-č-nu-m-lǝ
pn ground surface- loc - foc turn_inside_out- caus - mult - ipf - tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien is ploughing the ground.’
Note: Despite the presence of LOC, the second argument is syntactically a direct object (‘The surface of the ground’), here used in the object focus construction.

Norwegian Bokmål å pløye

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per pløye-r jord-et
pn plough- prs field- def . n . sg
‘Per is ploughing the field.’

Polish orać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Michał orze pol-e
pn [ nom . sg ] plough: ipfv . prs .3 sg field- acc . sg
‘Michał is ploughing the field.’

Russian paxatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja paš-et pol-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg plough( ipfv )- prs .3 sg field( n )- acc . sg
‘Petja is ploughing the field.’

Serbian orati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar ore njiv-u
pn . nom . sg plough. prs .3 sg field- acc . sg
‘Petar is ploughing the field.’

Shinaz Rutul lejχɨˁ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir lejχaˁ-r a χuj
pn ( erg ) n .plow. ipf - simul exist field
‘Basir is ploughing the field.’

Shughni čīntow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim agorod čůn-t
pn garden dig-3 sg
‘Azim is digging the garden.’

Skolt Saami auʹrrjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt lij auʹrrje-men peäld
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg plough- prog . ptcp field. sg . acc
‘Pete is ploughing the field.’

Slovak orať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter orie pol-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] plough( ipfv ). prs .3 sg field( n )- acc . sg
‘Peter is ploughing the field.’

Slovenian orati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a orje polj-e
pn - nom . sg plough: ipfv . prs .3 sg field- acc . sg
‘Ana is ploughing the field.’

Sorani Kurdish kêɫan

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa zewî-eke-î de-kêɫ-ê
pn field- def - obl ind -plough. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa is ploughing the field.’

Southern Rutul laˤyxıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gurux laˤyıˤrxaˤ-r
pn - erg orchard n .till. ipf - prs
‘Murad is tilling the orchard.’

Spanish arar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ar-a el campo
pn [ sg . m ] plough- prs .3 sg art . def . sg . m field[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro is ploughing the field.’

Standard Arabic ḥaraṯa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n yaḥruṯu l-ḥaql-a
pn - nom - indef plow. ipf .3 m def -field- acc
‘Badr is ploughing the field.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-Ø dab-s Ø-a-qn-i
pn - nom field- dat do 3- fact -plough- prs
‘Maizer is ploughing the field.’

Swedish att plöja

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn plöj-er åker-n
pn plough- prs field- def . c . sg
‘Björn is ploughing the field.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
<In>a~araro ni Pedro ang bukid
< pv > ipfv ~plough pers . gen pn subj field
‘Pedro is ploughing the field.’
Note: Co-exists with the AV-construction.

Telugu dunnu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ polānni dunnutunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom field( n ). sg . acc plough. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is ploughing the field.’

Tsakhur get’iy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee dirnig gyoot’a vo-b
pn - erg garden( a ) a .till. ipf cop - a
‘Murad is tilling the garden.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
unra-le qu b-ac'-un
neighbor- erg / loc ( lat ) field n -plough. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy ploughed the field.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-ac-i / b-alc-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
zumra-li qu b-ac-un
neighbor- erg field n -plough. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy ploughed the field.’

Turkish sürmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet tarla-yı sür-üyor
pn field- acc plough- prs
‘Mehmet is ploughing the field.’

Turoyo dowər

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel ko-dowər i arʕ-ayḏe
pn prs -plough. ipfv .3 m art . f field( f )- p .3 m
‘Gabriyel is ploughing his field.’

Ulcha bojali-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama nā-wa bojal-i-ni
father ground- acc break. tr - prs -3 sg
‘Father is ploughing the field (lit. breaking the ground).’

Uzbek xaydamoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya dala-ni xayda-y-di
pn field- acc plough- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja is ploughing the field.’

West Central Oromo k'ota

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n laf-ittʃa k'ot-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom land- def . abs plough- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is ploughing the land.’

Zilo Andi <b>-eqχ’.i-r

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di b-eqχ’.i-r χur
pn - erg inan 1-plough. pst - prog field[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Ali is ploughing the field.’