BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘play (instrument)’

Argument frame: X (play) Y
Stimulus sentence: (What is P. doing?) P. is playing the guitar .
Predicate label Ru: играть
Argument frame Ru: X (играть) на Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Что сейчас делает П.?) П. играет на гитаре .

Abaza

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
fatíma gitára d-á-s-əj-d
pn guitar 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io -hit- prs - dcl
‘Fatima is playing the guitar.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-we

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pŝaŝe-r gitare-m je-we
girl- abs guitar- obl 3 sg . io + dat -strike
‘The girl is playing the guitar.’

Aghul jarʜ.a-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a č’iʁan jarʜ.a-a
pn ( erg ) squeezebox strike. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is playing the sqeezebox.’

Alik Kryz çat'ic

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir gitara çart'-iraʕaca
pn - erg guitar play. ipfv - prog . n
‘Terlan is playing the guitar.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša mandalin da<b>χi-r-ši w-i 
pn mandolin <3>hit- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be
‘Pasha is playing the mandolin.’
Note: Binominative construction resolves into transitive.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṭavəl

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
+Ašur ṭavul=ələ +al zurna
pn play. prog =3 m on zurna(?)
‘Ashur is playing the zurna.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar qwaze

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali w-ugo gitara qwa-le-w
pn m - cop guitar scratch- ipf . ptcp - m
‘Ali is playing the guitar.’

Azerbaijani çalmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan gitara çal-ır
pn guitar play- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is playing the guitar.’

Bambara fɔ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bɛ́_kà nkòni` fɔ́
pn prog lute\ art say
‘Seku is playing the lute.’

Brazilian Portuguese tocar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro toc-a violão
pn ( m ) play-3 sg . prs guitar( m )
‘Pedro is playing the guitar.’

Catalan tocar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està toc-ant la guitarra
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind play- ger def . sg . f guitar( f )
‘Pere is playing the guitar.’

Chirag b-a̰qi

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
ʡa̰li-le gitara-la d-ṵrq-le
pn - erg guitar- gen n . pl -hit: ipf - dur . res .3
‘Ali is playing guitar.’

Czech hrát

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr hraje na kytar-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] play( ipfv ). prs .3 sg on guitar( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr is playing the guitar.’

Danish spille

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter spille-r guitar
pn play- prs guitar( c ). sg
‘Peter is playing the guitar.’

Dutch spelen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet is gitaar aan het spel-en
pn (С) cop .3 sg guitar( c ) on art . def . n play- inf
‘Piet is playing the guitar.’

Eastern Maninka fɔ́

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé kɔ̀nin fɔ́-la.
pn be lute say- inf . la
‘Seku is playing the lute.’

English play

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter is playing the guitar.

Estonian mängima

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter mängi-b kitarri
pn . sg . nom play- prs .3 sg guitar. sg . part
‘Peeter is playing the guitar.’

Finnish soittaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka soitt-aa kitara-a
pn . nom play- prs .3 sg guitar- part
‘Pekka is playing the guitar.’

Forest Enets sɛnoko

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ garmoʃka-xan sɛnokoɔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg squeezebox- loc . sg play( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is playing the squeezebox’.

French jouer

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul joue de la guitare
pn ( m ) play. prs .3 sg of def . sg . f guitar( f )
‘Paul is playing the guitar.’

Georgian Ø-u-k'r-av-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT.SUPERESS
X: ERG
Y: DAT.SUPERESS
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø git'ara-ze melodia-s Ø-u-k'r-av-s
pn - nom guitar- pstp : superess melody- dat io 3- ver : o -play- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre is playing a tune on the guitar.’
Note: DAT IO omitted.

German spielen

Valency pattern: NOM_aufDAT
X: NOM
Y: aufDAT
Locus: Y
Karl spiel-t auf der Gitarre
pn [ nom . sg ] play- prs .3 sg on def . f . dat . sg guitar[ dat . sg ]
‘Karl is playing the guitar.’

Icari Dargwa b=urq-uˤj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il gitara b=urq-aˤ-ca=b.
pn - erg guitar. abs n =play: ipf - prs - cop = n
‘Islam is playing the guitar.’

Irish seinn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pól ag seimint an guitar.
be. prs pn at play. nmlz def guitar( gs )
‘Pól is playing the guitar.’
Note: The Y argument is in the GS-form because the verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian suonare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo suon-a la chitarr-a
pn ( m ) play-3 sg . prs def . sg . f guitar- sg . f
‘Leo is playing the guitar.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li b-irq-u-le w-0-ar gitara
pn - erg n -beat. ipfv - prs - cvb m -be. ipfv - th guitar( r us)
‘Muhammad is playing the guitar.’

Kalderash Romani dilabal

Valency pattern: NOM_pe
X: NOM
Y: pe
Locus: Y
o Murš-a dilaba-l pe gitar-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg sing- prs .3 sg in guitar- nom . sg
‘Murša is playing the guitar.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the structure with the pe + locative case (LOC) would be used.

Karata

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali gitar-a qwar-da idja
pn guitar- dat scratch- ipf cop
‘Ali is playing the guitar.’

Kaytag Dargwa бяхъяра

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l gitara b-aˁq-ivca
pn - erg guitar n -strike. pf - perf
‘Petja is playing the guitar.’

Kazakh oyna

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Petya giytara-da oyna-ydï
pn guitar- loc play- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya is playing the guitar.’

Kazym Khanty jǒntti

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en nars_jŭχ-ǝn jŏnt-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg nares_jux- loc play- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is playing the nares-jux.’

Khoekhoe ǀhuru

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge gitar-s-a ra ǀhuru
pn -3 m . sg decl guitar-3 f . sg - obl ipfv play
‘Peter is playing the guitar.’

Khwarshi qʷaja

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
di-lo uža qʷaja-ha gitara
1 sg . o - gen 2 son\ erg play- prs guitar
‘My son is playing the guitar.’

Kina Rutul wɨrɨˁχɨˁra

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a saz wɨ-rɨˁχɨˁ-r=a
pn - erg saz( nom ) 3-hit. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is playing the saz.’

Kumyk ojnamaq

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMbulan
X: NOM
Y: NOMbulan
Locus: Y
patimat gitara bulan ojna-j
pn guitar with play-3 sg
‘Patimat is playing the guitar.’

Latin modulor

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
pastor inaequal-i modula-tur harundin-e carmen
shepherd( m ). nom . sg unequal- abl . sg play- prs . ind . act .3 sg reed( f )- abl . sg song( n ). acc . sg
‘A shepherd is playing a song his unequal reeds.’
Note: (Ov. Rem. Am. 181)

Laz Ø-o-č'a(r)din-am-s

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k gitar-i Ø-o-č'a(r)din-am-s
pn - b - erg guitar- nom do 3- fact -play- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is playing the guitar.’

Mandarin Chinese tán

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zài tán jítā
pn prog play guitar
‘Zhangsan is playing the guitar.’

Mano mɛ̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ɓàlā mɛ̀
3 sg . ipfv tamtam hit: ipfv
‘S/he plays tamtam.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Pajzula-li-ni gitara b-irq-uˁwe le-b
pn - obl - erg guitar n -hit: ipfv - cvb be- n
‘Pajzula is playing the guitar.’

Mingrelian mi-Ø-o-g-an-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø git'ara-s mi-Ø-o-g-an-s
pn - nom guitar- dat prv - io 3- ver : loc -play- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo is playing the guitar.’

Modern Hebrew menagen

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Pinχas menagen ba gitara
pn play[ ptcp . sg . m ] in+ def guitar
‘Pinchas is playing the guitar.’

Mukhad Rutul hulqhun

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
murad sunnı-dıı hulqha-ra
pn pipe- obl . super ipf .play- hab
‘Murad is playing the pipe.’

Nanai kupi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia gitar(a)-ǯi kupi-ni
pn guitar- ins play. npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is playing the guitar.’

Nivkh sеwd

Valency pattern: SBJ_INS
X: SBJ
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Kaskazik gitara-ɣir̥ sеw-d
pn guitar- ins play- ind
‘Kaskazik is playing the guitar.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi gitara q:war-ero gudi
pn guitar scratch- ipf . ptcp . m m . cop
‘Patahi is playing the guitar.’

Northern Mansi jonji

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
ōjka-riɕ jonj-i sāŋkwəltap-əl
old_man- dim play- npst .3 sg sangkweltap- ins
‘The old man plays the sangkweltap.’

Northern Yukaghir juora=

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn ǝrkǝjǝ-lǝk juorа̄-nu-j
pn tambourine- ins play- ipf - intr .3 sg
‘Semien is playing the tambourine.’

Norwegian Bokmål å spille

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per spille-r gitar
pn play- prs guitar
‘Per is playing the guitar.’

Polish grać

Valency pattern: NOM_naLOC
X: NOM
Y: naLOC
Locus: Y
Dariusz gra na gitarz-e
pn [ nom . sg ] play: ipfv . prs .3 sg on guitar- loc . sg
‘Dariusz is playing the guitar.’

Russian igratʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_naLOC
X: NOM
Y: naLOC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja igra-et na gitar-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg play( ipfv )- prs .3 sg on guitar( f )- loc . sg
‘Petja is playing the guitar.’

Serbian svirati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar svira gitar-u
pn . nom . sg play. prs .3 sg guitar- acc . sg
‘Petar is playing the guitar.’

Shinaz Rutul jɨˁvχɨˁ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir jɨˁvχaˁ-r a gitara
pn ( erg ) a .strike. ipf - simul exist guitar( a )
‘Basir is playing the guitar.’

Shughni niwêzdow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Ahmed gitar-ti niwoz-d
pn guitar- sup play-3 sg
‘Ahmed is playing the guitar.’

Skolt Saami siõrrâd

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Peâtt seârr kitara-in
pn . sg . nom play. prs .3 sg guitar- sg . com
‘PN is playing the guitar.’

Slovak hrať

Valency pattern: NOM_naLOC
X: NOM
Y: naLOC
Locus: Y
Peter hrá na gitar-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] play( ipfv ). prs .3 sg on guitar( f )- loc . sg
‘Peter is playing the guitar.’

Slovenian igrati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter igra kitar-o
pn [ nom . sg ] play: ipfv . prs .3 sg guitar- acc . sg
‘Peter is playing the guitar.’

Sorani Kurdish amêrî mûsiqa jenîn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa gîtar-î de-jen-ê
pn guitar- obl ind -play. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa plays the guitar.’
Note: The OBL morpheme is used as a residual case marker here.

Southern Rutul kıˤyxıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a gitara kıˤrıˤxıˤ-r
pn - erg guitar strike. ipf - prs
‘Murad is playing the guitar.’

Spanish tocar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro toc-a la guitarra
pn [ sg . m ] touch- prs .3 sg art . def . sg . f guitar[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro is playing the guitar.’

Standard Arabic ʕazafa

Valency pattern: NOM_alaaGEN
X: NOM
Y: alaaGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-u-n yaʕzifu ʕalā l-ʕūd-i
pn - nom - indef play. ipf .3 m on def -guitar- gen
‘Badr is playing the guitar.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPERESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPERESS
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø git'ara-ži a-Ø-šwm-i
pn - nom guitar- superess prv : dist -play- prs
‘Maizer is playing the guitar.’

Swedish att spela

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn spela-r gitarr
pn play- prs guitar
‘Björn is playing the guitar.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
T<um>u~tugtog ng gitara si Pedro
< av > ipfv ~play gen guitar pers . subj pn
‘Pedro is playing the guitar.’

Telugu vāyiṁcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ giṭār vāyistunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom guitar( n ). sg . nom strike. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is playing the guitar.’

Tsakhur hek’viy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee gitara vo-d hek’va
pn - erg guitar( n ) cop - n n .play. ipf
‘Murad is playing the guitar.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le tːam b-irq-ule=sab
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) drum n -do. ipfv - prog . cnv = cop : n (3)
‘The boy is playing the drum.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-aˤq-i / b-uˤrq-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li tːam b-urq-ule=caj
boy- erg drum n -hit. ipfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is playing the drum.’

Turkish çalmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet gitar çal-ıyor
pn guitar strike- prs
‘Mehmet is playing the guitar.’

Turoyo moḥe

Valency pattern: SBJ_7al
X: SBJ
Y: 7al
Locus: Y
uʕdo Yuḥanən ko-moḥe ʕal u keṯoro
now pn prs -beat. ipfv .3 m on art . m guitar( m )
‘Yuḥanən is playing the guitar now.’

Ulcha xupi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
min piktə-j təŋkərə-ǯi xup-i-ni
my child-1 sg tengkere- ins play- prs -3 sg
‘My son is playing the tengkere.’
Note: Tengkere is a string instrument.

Uzbek yo’namoq

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Petya gitara-da o’yna-yab-ti
pn guitar- loc play- prs 1-3 sg
‘Petja is playing the guitar.’

West Central Oromo tap'ata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
nam-ittʃ-i gitaara tap'attʃ-aa dʒir-a
man- def - nom guitar. abs play- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is playing a guitar.’

Zilo Andi qχʷar.i-r

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di pandur qχʷar.i-r
pn - erg guitar[ inan 1][ nom ] play. pst - prog
‘Patimat is playing the guitar.’