BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘open’

Argument frame: X (open) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. opened a can .
Predicate label Ru: открывать
Argument frame Ru: X (открывать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. открыл банку .

Abaza qə-ṭə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən a-bánka ʕa-qə-j-ṭə́-d
def -boy def -jar cisl - loc -3 sg . m . erg -open- dcl
‘The boy opened the jar.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) qə-ze.tje-xə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
č̣ʼale-m banke-r qə-ze-tr-jə-xə-ʁ
guy- obl can- abs csl - rec . io - loc : top -3 sg . erg -remove- pst
‘The guy opened the can.’

Aghul daq.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a bankːa daq.u-ne
pn ( erg ) can open. pf - aor
‘Aslan opened a can.’

Alik Kryz açuğ aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir banka açuğ ar-ic
pn - erg jar open do. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan opened a can.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu bankːa dabɬu
pn - obl ( erg ) jar open. pfv
‘Pasha opened a jar.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic patəx

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata ptəx-la banka
girl( f ) open. pst - ls .3 f can(?)
‘The girl opened a can.’

Avar rahize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca banka rah-ana
pn - erg jar open- aor
‘Ali opened a can.’

Azerbaijani açmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan bir bǝrni aç-dı
pn one jar open- pst (3)
‘Aslan opened a jar.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ ŋáʔà-mə̂ tɔ́ʔɔ̂
pn sm open- p 0 can
‘Ambe opened a can.’

Bambara dáyɛ̀lɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye kɛ́su` dáyɛ̀lɛ
pn pfv . tr box\ art open
‘Seku opened the box.’

Brazilian Portuguese abrir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro abr-iu a lata
pn ( m ) open-3 sg . pst def . f can( f )
‘Pedro opened the can.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır sab banka eçmi süʔür-cü
pn - erg one. a jar( a ) open a .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan opened a can.’

Catalan obrir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va obr-ir un-a llauna
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind open- inf indf - sg . f can( f )
‘Pere opened a can.’

Chirag ač b-arq’i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le šuša b-arq’-ib
pn - erg bottle( abs ) open n . sg -do: pf - aor .3
‘Ali opened the bottle.’

Czech otevřít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr otevře-l lahvičk-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] open( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] bottle( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr opened a bottle.’

Danish åbne

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter åbne-de en dåse
pn open- pst indf . sg can( c )
‘Peter opened a can.’

Dutch openen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft de pot ge-open-d
pn ( c ) have.3 sg art . def . c can( c ) ptcp -open- ptcp
‘Piet opened the can.’

Eastern Maninka lákà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bára pɔ́ti` lákà.
pn prf can\ art open
‘Seku has opened a can.’

English open

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter opened a can.

Estonian avama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter ava-s konservi
pn . sg . nom open- pst .3 sg can. sg . gen
‘Peeter opened a can.’

Finnish avata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka ava-si tölki-n
pn . nom open- pst .3 sg can- gen
‘Pekka opened a can.’

Forest Enets nɛte

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ banka nɛti-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg jar open( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend opened the jar’.

French ouvrir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a ouvert le bocal
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg open. pst . ptcp . m def . sg . m jar( m )
‘Paul opened a can.’

Georgian ga-Ø-xsn-i-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m kila-Ø ga-Ø-xsn-a
pn - erg jar- nom prv :outward- do 3-open- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre opened a jar.’

German öffnen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl öffne-te ein-e Dose
pn [ nom . sg ] open- pst .3 sg indf - f . acc . sg can[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl opened a can.’

Guinean Kpelle láa ɓó

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá gbòɣo láa ɓó
pn 3 sg . prf def \box mouth open
‘Pepee opened the box.’

Icari Dargwa ač=b=arq'-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il pːank'a ač=b=aˤrq'-ib
pn - erg can. abs open= n =do- aor
‘Islam opened a can.’

Irish oscail

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
D’=oscail Pól cana.
pst =open pn can
‘Pól opened a can.’

Italian aprire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha aperto un barattol-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs open. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m can- sg . m
‘Leo opened a can.’

Kadar Dargwa abx-es / ibx-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li pank'a abx-ib
pn - erg jar open. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad opened a jar.’

Kalderash Romani pytrəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a pytər-ď-a ə bank-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg open- pst -3 sg art . f . dir . sg can- acc . sg
‘Murša opened a can.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatima-ji bank t’ap’-nu
pn - erg can ( n . sg )open- pst
‘Fatima opened a/the can.’

Karata ruhaanɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l banka ruh-an
pn - erg jar open- pf
‘Ali opened a jar.’

Kaytag Dargwa ʕaˁč:barara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l bank’a ʕaˁč:bar-iv
pn - erg jar n .open. pf - aor
‘Petja opened a can.’

Kazakh

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya banka-nï aš-tï
pn can- acc open- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya opened a can.’

Kazym Khanty pǔnši

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en panka pǔnš-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg can open- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja opened a can.’

Khoekhoe ǁkhowaam

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Perub ge dō-b-a go ǁkhowaam
pn -3 m . sg decl can-3 m . sg - obl rpst open
‘Peter opened a can.’

Khwarshi j/ãʁa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šamil-i j-ãʁ-ʁa banka
pn - erg v -open- pst . w can( v )
‘Shamil is opening a can.’

Kina Rutul ačɨχ wɨɁɨr

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a bank’a ačɨχ w-ɨɁɨ-r
pn - erg pot( nom ) open 3-do. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul opened a can.’

Kumyk ačmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat banka-nɨ ač-d-ɨ
pn jar( r )- acc open- pst -3 sg
‘Patimat opened the can.’

Latin retego

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
in hoc thec-am nummari-am non retex-eri-s
in this. acc . sg . n chest( f )- acc . sg monetary- acc . sg . f not open- fut 2. ind - act .2 sg
‘In this case, you will not open the money chest.’
Note: (Cic. Ep. ad Att. 4, 7, 2)

Laz o-c'k'-(im)-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k küp-i mo-Ø-o-c'k'-u
pn - b - erg bottle- nom prv - do 3- fact -open- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim opened a bottle.’

Mandarin Chinese dǎkāi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān dǎkāi le yí-gè guàntou
pn open pfv one- clf can
‘Zhangsan opened a can.’

Mano lé ɓō

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà ká lé ɓō
3 sg . prf house mouth remove
‘S/he has opened the house.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Islam-ini abx-ib pank'a
pn - erg open: pfv - pst jar[ r ]
‘Islam opened a can.’

Mingrelian go-Ø-nc'q'-un-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k bank'a-Ø go-Ø-nc'q'-u
pn - erg jar- nom prv - do 3-open- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo opened a jar.’

Modern Hebrew pataχ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas pataχ paχit
pn open[ pst .3 sg . m ] can
‘Pinchas opened a can.’

Mukhad Rutul ačıχ hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a bank'a ačıχ hıʔı-ri
pn - erg jar open n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad opened a jar.’

Nanai nixəli-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Pətjə banka-wa nixə.li-xə-ni
pn can- obl open. pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia opened a can.’

Nivkh r̥əlɣd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik qalŋ + r̥əlɣ-d
pn can + open- ind
‘Kaskazik opened a can.’

Northern Akhvakh aχuruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi-de maka aχ-ari
pn - erg jar open- aor
‘Patahi opened a jar.’

Northern Mansi pūnsas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pēt’a āwi pūns-as
p eter door open- pst [3 sg ]
‘Peter opened the door.’

Northern Yukaghir joŋotǝj=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn bа̄nkǝ-lǝ joŋotǝ-j-mǝ-lǝ
pn can- acc open- pf - tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien opened a can.’

Norwegian Bokmål å åpne

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per åpne-t boks-en
pn open- pst can- def . m . sg
‘Per opened a can.’

Polish otworzyć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Marek otworzy-ł puszk-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] open: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] can- acc . sg
‘Marek opened a can.’

Russian otkrytʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja otkry-l bank-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg open( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] can( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja opened a can.’

Serbian otvoriti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je otvori-o tegl-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg open- part . perf . m . sg jar- acc
‘Petar opened a can.’

Shinaz Rutul ačɨχ hɨʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir ačɨχ hɨʔɨ-r bank'
pn ( erg ) open n .do. pf - aor jar
‘Basir opened a can.’

Shughni yet čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i banka yet čūd
pn =3 sg jar open do. pst
‘Azim opened a can.’

Skolt Saami ääʹveed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt äävi-i puurk
pn . sg . nom open- pst .3 sg can. sg . acc
‘Pete opened a can.’

Slovak otvoriť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter otvori-l konzerv-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] open( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] can( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter opened a can.’

Slovenian odpreti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je odpr-l bank-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg open: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] can- acc . sg
‘Peter opened a can.’

Sorani Kurdish kirdinewe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa qutu-ek=î kird-Ø-ewe
pn can- indf =3 sg . pc do. pst -3 sg - asp
‘Hiwa opened a can.’

Southern Rutul ğara hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a rak ğara hıʔı-r
pn - erg door open n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad opened the door.’

Spanish abrir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha abier-to una lata
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg open- ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . f can[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro opened the can.’

Standard Arabic fataḥa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un fataḥa l-ʕilbat-a
pn - nom open. pf .3 m def -can( f )- acc
‘Badr opened a can.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d bank'a-Ø a-Ø-pišg
pn - erg jar- nom prv : dist - do 3-open
‘Maizer opened a jar.’

Swedish att öppna

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn öppna-de en burk
pn open- pst indf . c . sg can
‘Björn opened a can.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Nag-bukas si Pedro ng lata
av . pfv -open pers . subj pn gen can
‘Pedro opened a can.’

Telugu terucu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ kyān-ni tericāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom can( n ). sg . obl - acc open. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen opened a can.’

Tsakhur aaqhiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee akka aaqhı
pn - erg gate( a ) a .open. pf
‘Murad opened the gate.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa abšː-iz/ibšː-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le bank'a abšː-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) pot open. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy opened a pot.’

Tsugni Dargwa abšː-i / ibšː-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li taq'a abšː-ib
boy- erg pot open. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy opened a can.’

Turkish açmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet şişe-yi aç-tı
pn bottle- acc open- pst
‘Mehmet opened the bottle.’

Turoyo fotəḥ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel ftəḥ-le qotiye
pn open. pfv - ls .3 m can( f )
‘Gabriyel opened a can.’

Ulcha ńī-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
bukwar'-wə ńī-rərə, ti nə̄-xə
abc _book- acc open- cvb . nsim so put- pst
‘[We] opened the ABC book and put it like this.’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Uzbek očmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya banka-ni oč-ti
pn jar- acc open- pst .3 sg
‘Petja opened a can.’

West Central Oromo bana

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n k'aruura ban-e
pn - nom can. abs open-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa opened a can.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a bankka aqhay-na
pn - erg jar open- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib opened a can.’

Zilo Andi arχ.onn-ij

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di arχ.onn-ij banka
pn - erg open. pst - pf tin[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat opened the tin.’