BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘open’

Argument frame: X (open) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. opened a can .
Predicate label Ru: открывать
Argument frame Ru: X (открывать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. открыл банку .

Abaza qə-ṭə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
á-č’ḳʷən a-bánka ʕa-qə-j-ṭə́-d
def -boy def -jar cisl - loc -3 sg . m . erg -open- dcl
‘The boy opened the jar.’

Aghul daq.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a bankːa daq.u-ne
pn ( erg ) can open. pf - aor
‘Aslan opened a can.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic patəx

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata ptəx-la banka
girl( f ) open. pst - ls .3 f can(?)
‘The girl opened a can.’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro abriu a lata
‘Педру открыл банку.’

Czech otevřít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr otevře-l lahvičk-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] open( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] bottle( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr opened a bottle.’

Finnish avata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka ava-si tölki-n
pn . nom open- pst .3 sg can- gen
‘Pekka opened a can.’

Forest Enets nɛte

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ banka nɛti-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg jar open( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend opened the jar’.

Latin retego

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
in hoc thec-am nummari-am non retex-eri-s
in this. acc . sg . n chest( f )- acc . sg monetary- acc . sg . f not open- fut 2. ind - act .2 sg
‘In this case, you will not open the money chest.’
Note: (Cic. Ep. ad Att. 4, 7, 2)

Modern Hebrew pataχ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas pataχ paχit
pn open[ pst .3 sg . m ] can
‘Pinchas opened a can.’

Nanai nixəli-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Pətjə banka-wa nixə.li-xə-ni
pn can- obl open. pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia opened a can.’

Norwegian Bokmål å åpne

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per åpne-t boks-en
pn open- pst can- def . m . sg
‘Per opened a can.’

Polish otworzyć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Marek otworzy-ł puszk-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] open: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] can- acc . sg
‘Marek opened a can.’

Russian otkrytʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja otkry-l bank-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg open( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] can( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja opened a can.’

Rutul ačɨχ wɨɁɨr

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a bank’a ačɨχ w-ɨɁɨ-r
pn - erg pot( nom ) open 3-do. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul opened a can.’

Skolt Saami ääʹveed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt äävi-i puurk
pn . sg . nom open- pst .3 sg can. sg . acc
‘Pete opened a can.’

Slovenian odpreti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je odpr-l bank-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg open: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] can- acc . sg
‘Peter opened a can.’

Swedish att öppna

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn öppna-de en burk
pn open- pst indf . c . sg can
‘Björn opened a can.’

Turkish açmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet şişe-yi aç-tı
pn bottle- acc open- pst
‘Mehmet opened the bottle.’

Ulcha ńī-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
bukwar'-wə ńī-rərə, ti nə̄-xə
abc _book- acc open- cvb . nsim so put- pst
‘[We] opened the ABC book and put it like this.’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Zilo Andi arχ.onn-ij

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di arχ.onn-ij banka
pn - erg open. pst - pf tin[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat opened the tin.’