BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘obey’

Argument frame: X (obey) Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. is a mischievous boy, but) P. always listens to / obeys his mother .
Predicate label Ru: слушаться
Argument frame Ru: X (слушаться) Y -a
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. хулиган, плохо себя ведет, а) П. слушается маму .

Abaza [z-]ʒərʕʷ

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
rasúl j-an d-lə-z-ʒərʕʷ-ə́j-d
pn 3 sg . m . io -mother 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - ben -listen- prs - dcl
‘Rasul obeys his mother.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-deʔʷə

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ŝeweẑəje-r jane j-e-deʔʷə
this boy- abs (3 sg . pr )mother( obl ) 3 sg . io + dat - dyn -listen
‘The guy always listens to his mother.’

Aghul ubur lix.a-

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
aslan.a baw.a-l ubur lix.a-a
pn ( erg ) mother- super ear { super }put. ipf - prs
‘Aslan listens to his mother.’

Alik Kryz ç'ilxvan ikayc

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
terlan-ir umay ç'il-xvan ik-re
pn - erg mother( gen ) word. obl - dir look. ipfv - prs . n
‘Terlan always listens to his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is arguably expressed as an NP-internal modifier. To be checked.

Archi

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP.LAT
X: ERG
Y: SUP.LAT
Locus: Y
paša-mu buwa-tːi-k oj a<r>č-ar
pn - obl ( erg ) mother- sup - lat ear 4.< ipfv >throw- ipfv
‘Pasha listens to his mother.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +šammə

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
yala +bəšmay=əl ka +rabit-u
boy( m ) hear. prog =3 m to teacher( f )- p .3 m
‘This boy obeys his mother.’

Avar ʕenekkize

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
ʕali ebel-aɬ-uq ʕenekk-ula
pn mother- obl - apud listen- ipf
‘Ali always listens to his mother.’

Azerbaijani sözə baxmaq

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Aslan ana-sı-nın söz-ü-nǝ bax-ır
pn mother- poss 3- gen word- poss 3- dat / lat look- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan listens to his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Bafut

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
àmbɛ́ ɣáʔásə̂ njúʔútə́ ǹtsù ǹdì jì
pn sm always listen mouth mother his
‘Ambe always obeys his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Bambara kólo

Valency pattern: SBJ_ye
X: SBJ
Y: ye
Locus: Y
mùso` kólo cɛ̀` yé
woman\ art ipfv obey 3 sg man\ art as
‘A woman obeys her husband.’

Brazilian Portuguese obedecer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro obedec-e sua mãe
pn ( m ) obey-3 sg . prs poss .3. f mother( f )
‘Pedro obeys his mother.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan-ır ug-unda dido ç'el-oxun irħa-ra'vi
pn - erg refl - hpl . obl mother. gen word- dir look. pf - prog
‘Aslan always listens to his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Catalan obeir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere sempre obeeix la seva mare
def . sg . m pn ( m ) always obey.3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . f poss .3. f . sg mother( f )
‘Pere always obeys his mother.’

Chirag lejqi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le babaj-l-i lejq-le
pn ( abs ) mother- obl - super hear: ipf - dur . prs .3
‘Ali obeys his mother.’

Czech poslouchat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr poslouchá mamink-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] listen( ipfv ). prs .3 sg mother( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr listens to his mother.’

Danish adlyde

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter adlyde-r altid sin mor
pn obey- prs always poss . refl . c . sg mother( c )
‘Peter always obeys his mother.’

Dutch luisteren

Valency pattern: SBJ_naar
X: SBJ
Y: naar
Locus: Y
Piet luister-t naar zijn moeder
pn ( c ) listen-3 sg on poss . c .3 sg mother( c )
‘Piet listens to his mother.’

Eastern Maninka dàn

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù yé dàn-na ná lá.
pn be limit- hab 3 sg mother at
‘Seku obeys his mother.’

English obey

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter obeys his mother.

Estonian kuuletuma

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Peeter kuuletu-b ema-le
pn . sg . nom obey- prs .3 sg mother- all
‘Peeter obeys his mother.’

Finnish totella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka tottel-ee äiti-ä-än aina
pn . nom obey- prs .3 sg mother- part - poss .3 sg always
‘Pekka always obeys his mother.’

Forest Enets dʲuzire

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ ɛɛ-xo-da dʲuzire-ubi
i man- nom . sg .1 sg mother- dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg listen( ipfv )- hab .3 sg . s
‘My friend obeys his mother’.

French obéir

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Paul obéit à sa mère
pn ( m ) obey. prs .3 sg to one’s. sg . f mother( f )
‘Paul obeys his mother.’

Georgian Ø-e-morčil-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø deda-s q'oveltvis Ø-e-morčil-eb-a
pn - nom mother- dat always io 3- ver : r -submit- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre always obeys his mother.’

German gehorchen

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Karl gehorch-t sein-er Mutter
pn [ nom . sg ] obey- prs .3 sg his- f . dat . sg mother[ dat . sg ]
‘Karl always listens to his mother.’

Guinean Kpelle *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Icari Dargwa gu-lik'-anaj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam waba-j gu-lik'-an
pn . abs mother- suplat under -listen: ipf - hab
‘Islam always listens to his mother.’

Irish éist

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Éist-eann Pól i gcónaí lena mháthair.
listen- prs pn always always with. poss .3 sg . m mother
‘Pól always listens to his mother.’

Italian obbedire

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Leo obbedisc-e alla mamm-a
pn ( m ) obey-3 sg . prs to. def . sg . f mom- sg . f
‘Leo obeys his mom.’

Kadar Dargwa líħ-aˤq-es / líħ-irq-es

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad-li neš-i-ke liħ-irq-u
pn - erg mother- obl - super ear- lv . ipfv - th
‘Muhammad always listens to his mother.’

Kalderash Romani kandel o muj

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
o Murš-a kand-el o muj pesk-a d-ak-o
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg listen- prs .3 sg art . m . dir . sg mouth[ acc . sg ] one’s- f . obl . sg mother- gen . sg - m . dir . sg
‘Murša always listens to his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_POST
X: ABS
Y: POST
Locus: Y
baž dada.ji-q qpeq-ru-r=u
boy( abs ) mother- post obey- part - h . sg = cop ( prs )
‘The boy obeys his mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (participle).

Karata andukaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_POST
X: NOM
Y: POST
Locus: Y
ʕali iljo-q anduk-idja
pn mother. obl - post listen- ipf
‘Ali listens to his mother.’

Kaytag Dargwa nik’nawic:ara

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja nik’navirc:-u aba-j
pn m .listen. ipf - evt mother- datlat
‘Petja always listens to his mother.’

Kazakh tïnda

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya ana-sï-n tïnda-ydï
pn mother- poss 3- acc listen- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya obeys his mother.’

Kazym Khanty χǫλǝntti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ńawrεm aŋke-λ-a χǫλǝnt-ǝλ
child mother- poss .3 sg - dat listen- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja listens to his mother.’

Khoekhoe ǁnâuǀnam

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge hoaǁae ǁî-b mama-s-a ra ǁnâuǀnam
pn -3 m . sg decl always 3-3 m . sg mother-3 f . sg - obl ipfv obey
‘Peter always obeys his mother.’

Khwarshi ahi laha

Valency pattern: ERG_CONT.LAT
X: ERG
Y: CONT.LAT
Locus: Y
di-lo uža išat-qo-l ahi l-a:ha
1 sg . o - gen 2 son\ erg mother. o - cont - lat ear( iv ) iv -put\ gnt
‘My son always listens to his mother.’

Kina Rutul ubɨr qassara

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB
X: ERG
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
islam-a nin-ɨ-χda ubɨr q-ass-a=r-a
pn - erg mother- obl - sub ear pv -1.listen. ipfv - cvb =be- pst
‘Islam always obeys his mother.’

Kumyk tɨnglamaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir ana-sɨn-a tɨng-la-j
pn mother-3 sg - dat (listen)- vblz -3 sg
‘Basir always listens to his mother.’

Latin pareo

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
non adeo pare-b-imus omni-a matr-i
not so_much obey- fut . ind - act .1 pl all- acc . pl . n mother( f )- dat . sg
‘We won't obey the mother in everything.’
Note: (Stat. Ach. I, 660)

Laz uǯ-ap-a

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k nana-muš-i-s n-u-uǯ-am-s
pn - b - erg mother- poss 3- b - dat io 3- ver : o -listen- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim listens to his mother.’

Mandarin Chinese tīng

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Zhāngsān yīxiàng tīng tā-mǔqīn-de huà
pn always listen he-mother- de word
‘Zhangsan always listens to his mother's words.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mano wéè píé kɛ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ dàā wéè píé kɛ̀
3 sg . ipfv 3 sg . refl father speech behind do: ipfv
‘S/he obeys his father.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

Mehweb

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER.LAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
Islam-ini abaj-če liħi b-irx-an
pn - erg mother- super ( lat ) ear n -put: ipfv - hab
‘Islam always listens to his mother.’

Mingrelian Ø-u-rčkil-en-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø dia-muš-i-s iro(t) Ø-u-rčkil-e(n)-Ø
pn - nom mother- refl . poss - dat always io 3- ver : o -hear- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo obeys his mother.’

Modern Hebrew makʃiv

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas tamid makʃiv le ima ʃel-o
pn always listen[ ptcp . sg . m ] to mother poss -3 sg . m
‘Pinchas always listens to his mother.’

Mukhad Rutul qhacun

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad nin-ı-χda qhabcu-ra
pn mother- obl - apud ipf .listen- hab
‘Murad listens to his mother.’

Nanai dosiǯa-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia əni-mbi doseǯa-j-ni
pn mother- p . refl . sg listen- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia obeys his mother.’

Nivkh məd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Ajsana əmk + mə-d
pn mother + listen- ind
‘Ajsana obeys his mother.’

Northern Akhvakh hadaxuruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
pataħi ilo-ga handax-iri
pn mother. obl - lat listen- ipf 3
‘Patahi always listens to his mother.’

Northern Mansi xūntli

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
ti n’awram at xūntl-i ɕān’-e-n
this child neg obey- npst [3 sg ] mother- poss .3 sg - lat
‘This child doesn’t obey his mother.’

Northern Yukaghir arū-GEN ban=

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sǝmiǝn tudǝ ǝnˈiǝ аrū-gi-n bаn-i
pn 3 sg . poss mother word- poss .3- gen be- intr .3. sg
‘Semien obeys his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Norwegian Bokmål å adlyde

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per adlyde-r mamma-en sin
pn obey- prs mother- def . m . sg poss . refl . f . sg
‘Per obeys his mother.’

Polish słuchać się

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Ann-a słucha się mam-y
pn - nom . sg listen: ipfv . prs .3 sg refl mummy- gen . sg
‘Anna obeys her mother.’

Russian slušatʹsja

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja sluša-et-sja mam-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg listen( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl mum( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja listens to his mother.’

Serbian slušati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar sluša mam-u
pn . nom . sg listen. prs .3 sg mother- acc . sg
‘Petar obeys his mother.’

Shinaz Rutul qhacu-n

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
basir qhacu-r a nin-ɨχda
pn ( m )listen. pf - seq exist mother- apud
‘Basir listens to his mother.’

Shughni niɣix̌tow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Lola xu nān niɣůɣ̌-d
pn refl mother listen-3 sg
‘Lola obeys his mother.’

Skolt Saami jäkktõõllâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt pâi jäkktââll suu jieʹnn
pn . sg . nom always obey. prs .3 sg 3 sg . gen mother. sg . acc
‘Pete always obeys his mother.’

Slovak poslúchať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter vždy poslúcha svoj-u matk-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] always listen( ipfv ). prs .3 sg one’s- f . acc . sg mother( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter always listens to his mother.’

Slovenian ubogati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a uboga mam-o
pn - nom . sg obey: ipfv . prs .3 sg mother- acc . sg
‘Ana obeys her mother.’

Sorani Kurdish be qise kirdin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hîwa hemîʂe be qise-î dayk=î de-k-a
pn always to talking- izf mother=3 sg . pc ind -do. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa always obeys his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul ç’ilık kaqhın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad nin-di ç'il-ı-k kaqha-r
pn mother- attr word. obl - obl - cont m .look. ipf - prs
‘Murad obeys his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Spanish obedecer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro obedec-e a la madre
pn [ sg . m ] obey- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm art . def . sg . f mother[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro obeys his mother.’

Standard Arabic samiʕa kalāma

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Badr-un yasmaʕu kalām-a Ɂumm-i-hi
pn - nom listen. ipf .3 m words- acc mother- gen - p .3 m . sg
‘Badr always listens to his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø dede-s čiγad x-o-ǯräw-i
pn - nom mother- dat always io 3- ver : o -obey- prs
‘Maizer obeys (his) mother.’

Swedish att lyda

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn lyd-er alltid sin mamma
pn obey- prs always poss . refl . c . sg mother
‘Björn always listens to his mother.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
S<um>u~sunod palagi si Pedro sa nanay niya
< av > ipfv ~obey adv pers . subj pn dat mother 3. sg . gen
‘Pedro always listens to / obeys his mother.’
Note: The GEN encoding of the Y is also possible, hence ACT_UND. Co-exists with the PV-construction.

Telugu viṇu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pravīṇ eppuḍū tana amma māṭa viṁṭāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom always own mother( f ). sg . obl word( n ). sg . nom listen. npst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen always listens to his mother’s words.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Tsakhur k’ırı gyaq:q:iy

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-ee yedy-ni džıvab-ı-qha k’ırı gyaq:q:a
pn - erg mother- attr . obl argument- obl - lat ear ( n )listen. ipf
‘Murad obeys his mother.’ (Lit. ‘Murad listens to his mother’s words.’)
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Tsudakhar Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
gula-le tːutːeš-la aj b-irq'-u
child. pl . obl - erg / loc ( lat ) father- gen word n -do. ipfv -3 hab . prs
‘The children obey their father.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Tsugni Dargwa legu aq-i / iq-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
gule tatːi-ge legu iq-ar
child. pl father- super ( lat ) ear down -hang. ipfv -3 hab . prs
‘The children obey their father.’

Turkish *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Mehmet anne-si-nin söz-ü-nü dinli-yor
pn mother- p .3- gen word- p .3- acc listen- prs
‘Mehmet obeys his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Turoyo šoməʕ

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_IO
X: SBJ.SS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
Šabo dayəm k-šoməʕ l-i mama
pn always prs -hear. ipfv .3 m to- art . f mother
‘Shabo always obeys his mother.’

Ulcha dosoǯi-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
xusə piktə ən-bi xəsə-wə-n dosoǯ-i-ni
male child mother- refl . sg word- acc -3 sg listen- prs -3 sg
‘The boy listens to his mother (lit. his mother’s words).’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate and Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Uzbek tiŋlamoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya ona-si-ni tiŋla-y-di
pn mother- poss .3 sg - acc listen- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja listens to his mother.’

West Central Oromo ɗagaʔa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n jeroo hunda haaɗa isaa ɗagaʔ-a
pn - nom time all mother. abs 3 sg . m . poss hear-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa always listens to his mother.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib-a dide-da-l yob alaa-zva
pn - erg mother- obl - sup ear plonk- prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib obeys his mother.’

Zilo Andi antʃː.i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali baba-ʔo antʃː.i
pn [ m ][ nom ] mother- super . lat listen. pst ( aor )
‘Ali obeys his mother.’