BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘miss’

Argument frame: X (miss) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. misses M .
Predicate label Ru: скучать
Argument frame Ru: X (скучать) по Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. скучает по М .

Abaza ʕa-gʷalaŝa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád j-aχš’á d-ʕá-j-gʷalaŝ-əj-d
pn 3 sg . m . io -sister 3 sg . h . abs - cisl -3 sg . m . erg -miss- prs - dcl
‘Murad misses his sister.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) fe-zešʼə

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
wə-qə-s-fe-mə-zešʼ
2 sg . abs - csl -1 sg . io - ben - neg -miss
‘Don’t miss me!’

Aghul dariχ x.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.LAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.LAT
Locus: Y
aslan dariχ x.u-naa baw.a-q-tːi
pn miss become. pf - prf mother- post - lat
‘Aslan misses his mother.’

Alik Kryz darixmiş xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
terlan leyla-z darixmiş şe-re
pn pn - dat be_bored be. ipfv - prs . m
‘Terlan misses Leyla.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_DATxir
X: NOM
Y: DATxir
Locus: Y
paša marin-ni-s χir bazar-ši w-i
pn pn - obl - dat behind be.missing- cvb . ipfv 1-be
‘Pasha misses Marina.’
Note: The NP in the dative case cannot be separated from the “χir” element. The combination of the dative case and “χir” is analyzed as an argument-encoding device.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic maxnə

Valency pattern: SBJ_bar
X: SBJ
Y: bar
Locus: Y
urza maxnuy=əl +bar baxt-u
man( m ) miss. prog =3 m after woman( f )- p .3 m
‘This man misses his wife.’

Avar ššweze

Valency pattern: GEN_LAT
X: GEN
Y: LAT
Locus: XY
ʕali-l marjam-i-de rak’ ššun b-ugo
pn - gen pn - obl - lat heart reach. seq n - cop
‘Ali misses Marjam.’

Azerbaijani darıxmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ucun
X: NOM
Y: ucun
Locus: Y
Aslan Leyla üçün darıx-ır
pn pn for yearn- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan misses Leyla.’

Bambara ɲɛ́nafin` bɛ́/tɛ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
mùso` ɲɛ́nafin` bɛ́ lá
1 sg woman\ art sadness\ art be 1 sg in
‘I miss my wife.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Brazilian Portuguese sentir falta

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro sent-e falta de Maria
pn ( m ) feel-3 sg . prs lack( f ) of pn ( f )
‘Pedro misses Maria.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_DATbadala
X: NOM
Y: DATbadala
Locus: Y
aslan leyla'-z badala darixmi yıxhar-a'vi
pn pn - dat for bored ( m )be. ipf - prog
‘Aslan misses Leyla.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan trobar a faltar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere trob-a a falt-ar la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) find-3 sg . prs to be_missing- inf def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere misses Maria.’

Chirag c’ijal b-uχi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
rusːe babaj-l-i c’ijal r-uχ-ub-le
girl( abs ) mother- obl - super miss f . sg -become: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘The girl misses her mother.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Czech stýskat se

Valency pattern: NOM_poLOC
X: NOM
Y: poLOC
Locus: Y
Petr se stýská po Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc miss( ipfv ). prs .3 sg after pn ( m )- loc . sg
‘Petr misses Michal.’

Danish savner

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter savne-r Marie
pn miss- prs pn
‘Peter misses Marie.’

Dutch missen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet mis-t Marie
pn ( c ) miss-3 sg pn ( c )
‘Piet misses Marie.’

Eastern Maninka be

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù lɔ́ɔ` yé ná lá.
pn desire\ art be 3 sg mother at
‘Seku misses his mother.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predication.

English miss

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter misses Mary.

Estonian igatsema

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter igatse-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom miss- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter misses Maret.’

Finnish ikävä + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peka-lla on ikävä Matti-a
pn - ade be. prs .3 sg sad. nom pn - part
‘Pekka misses Matti’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French manquer

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Marie manque à Paul
pn ( f ) miss. prs .3 sg to pn ( m )
‘Paul misses Marie.’

Georgian Ø-e-nat'r-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s mašo-Ø Ø-e-nat'r-eb-a
pn - dat pn - nom io 3- ver : r -wish- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre misses Masho.’

German sich sehnen

Valency pattern: NOM_nachDAT
X: NOM
Y: nachDAT
Locus: Y
Karl sehn-t sich nach Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] long- prs .3 sg refl after pn [ dat . sg ]
‘Karl misses Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle wɛ́li hǒŋ

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Kɔ̀lukɔlu wɛ́li káa Pépèe hò-zî
pn love cop pn catch- inf
‘Pepee misses Kolukolu.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Icari Dargwa b=et'-araj

Valency pattern: SUPLAT_POST.ELAT
X: SUPLAT
Y: POST.ELAT
Locus: XY
Islam-lij Madina-leh-er b=et'-ib-ca=b
pn - suplat pn - post - elat n =miss: pf - aor - cop = n
‘Islam misses Madina.’

Irish braith ó

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Braith-ean Pól uaid Máire.
miss- prs pn from.3 sg . m pn
‘Pól misses Máire.’
Note: uaid is not a device for flagging Y.

Italian mancare

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo manc-a Maria
to pn ( m ) lack-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo misses Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa karc'-CL-uh-es / karc'-CL-ur-es

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad karc'-0-uh-ub ʡašura-ke
pn miss- m -become. pfv - pret pn - super
‘Muhammad misses Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani lel doro

Valency pattern: ACC_pa
X: ACC
Y: pa
Locus: XY
le Murš-as l-el doro pa Marijk-a
art . m . obl pn - acc . sg take- prs -3 sg sadness with pn - nom . sg
‘Murša misses Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: GEN_APUD
X: GEN
Y: APUD
Locus: XY
maˁhaˁmed.a-n juk̊’ fatima.ji-x du-b-x-na
pn - gen heart( abs ) pn - apud res - n . sg -become- res
‘Mahamad misses Fatima.
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Karata rak’wa t’amaɬa

Valency pattern: POSS_ADLAT
X: POSS
Y: ADLAT
Locus: XY
ʕali-b marjam-i-χar rak’wa t’am-e idja
pn - n pn - obl - adlat heart throw- pf cop
‘Ali misses Marjam.’

Kaytag Dargwa hancikara

Valency pattern: DATLAT_NOM
X: DATLAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
petja-j maša hancarič:-ivca
pn - datlat pn f .be_missed. pf - perf
‘Petja misses Misha.’

Kazakh saɣïn

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï saɣïn-ïp žür
pn pn - acc miss- cvb go.3 sg
‘Petya misses Masha.’

Kazym Khanty mǎrԑmǝti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMtakla
X: NOM
Y: NOMtakla
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en maša-j-ǝλ takλa mǎrԑmǝ-s-i
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg without miss- pst - pass [3 sg ]
‘Petja misses Maša.’
Note: The verb is in the passive form.

Khoekhoe ǁkhore

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a go ǁkhore
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl rpst miss
‘Peter misses Maria.’

Khwarshi lok’ʷaƛ'oho liχʷa

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
di-l lok’ʷa-ƛ'o-ho liχ-na uža
1 sg . o - dat heart( iv )- super -? ad go- pst . i son
‘I miss my son.’
Note: The agreement behaviour of “liχ-na” is not clear.

Kina Rutul c’iɣal jišira

Valency pattern: DAT_SUB
X: DAT
Y: SUB
Locus: XY
rasul-u-s madinat-ɨ-χda c’iɣal jiši-r=a
pn - obl - dat pn - obl - sub longing( nom ) 4.become. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul misses Madinat.’

Kumyk saʁɨnmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul patimat-qa saʁɨn-d-ɨ
pn pn - dat miss- pst -3 sg
‘Rasul misses Patimat.’

Latin desidero

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
fort-ius e mult-is mater desidera-t un-um
strong- cmpr from many- abl . pl mother( f ). nom . sg miss[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg one- acc . sg . m
‘A mother missed one of many the most.’
Note: (Ov. Rem. Am. 463)

Laz o-nč'el-u

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Käzim-i-s Fatma-Ø g-a-Ø-nč'el-u
pn - b - dat pn - nom prv - ver : sup - io 3-hug- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim wanted to hug Fatma.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Mandarin Chinese xiǎngniàn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān xiǎngniàn Lǐsì
pn miss pn
‘Zhangsan misses Lisi.’

Mano lɔ̀ kṵ́

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
lɔ̀ lɛ̄ ŋ̄ kṵ́-pɛ̀lɛ̀
2 sg love 3 sg . exi 1 sg catch- inf
‘I miss you.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_AD.ESS
X: NOM
Y: AD.ESS
Locus: Y
Islam bizar urh-uwe le-w Madina-le-ʡe-w
pn missing m .become: ipfv - cvb be- m pn - obl - ad - m ( ess )
‘Islam misses Madina.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-nart'-u(n)-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
čelo-s anučia-Ø Ø-o-nart'-u(n)-Ø
pn - dat pn - nom io 3- ver : sup -miss- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo misses Anuchia.’
Note: This verb phrase is a recent borrowing from Georgian.

Modern Hebrew mitgagea

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas mitgagea le Menaχem
pn miss[ ptcp . sg . m ] to pn
‘Pinchas misses Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul c'ijal hıʔın

Valency pattern: DAT_APUD
X: DAT
Y: APUD
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s majram-ı-χda c'ijal jiʔi
pn - obl - dat pn - obl - apud bore n . cop
‘Murad misses Majram.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai ǯoŋgo-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa ǯoŋ-go-j-ni
pn pn - obl mention- rep - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia misses Masha.’

Nivkh ŋawzоr̥kt

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT/ADD
X: SBJ
Y: DAT/ADD
Locus: Y
Kaskazik Ajsana-rоχ ŋawzоr̥k-t
pn pn - dat / add miss- ind
‘Kaskazik misses Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh mišaraquruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_AD
X: NOM
Y: AD
Locus: Y
pataħi madina-qqe mišaraq-o gudi
pn pn - ad miss- seq . m m . cop
‘Patahi misses Madina.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir īligi=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ īligi-m-lǝ
pn pn yearn- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien misses Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å savne

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per savne-r Kari
pn miss- prs pn
‘Per misses Kari.’

Polish tęsknić

Valency pattern: NOM_zaINS
X: NOM
Y: zaINS
Locus: Y
Marek tęskni za Magd-ą
pn [ nom . sg ] miss: ipfv . prs .3 sg behind pn - ins . sg
‘Marek misses Magda.’

Russian skučatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_poDAT
X: NOM
Y: poDAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja skuča-et po Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg miss( ipfv )- prs .3 sg by pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja misses Maša.’

Serbian nedostajati

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u nedostaje Marij-a
pn - dat . sg miss. prs .3 sg pn - nom . sg
‘Petar misses Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul c'ijal h-iši-n

Valency pattern: DAT_APUD
X: DAT
Y: APUD
Locus: XY
basir-ɨs c'ijal ɨj peri-χda
pn - dat longing cop pn - apud
‘Basir misses Peri.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni dargil sitow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Azim Lola-ti dargīl suδǰ
pn pn - sup sad go. m . pf
‘Azim misses Lola.’

Skolt Saami âʹǩǩõõššâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt âʹǩǩââžž Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom miss. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete misses Maria’

Slovak chýbať

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-ovi chýba Mári-a
pn ( m )- dat . sg miss( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( f )- nom . sg
‘Peter misses Maria.’

Slovenian tožiti se

Valency pattern: DAT_poLOC
X: DAT
Y: poLOC
Locus: XY
Petr-u se toži po An-i
pn - dat . sg rfl miss: ipfv . prs .3 sg by pn - loc . sg
‘Peter misses Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish tase kiridin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Mensour tase-î Marie-î de-k-a
pn missing- izf pn - obl ind -do. prs -3 sg
‘Mansour misses Marie.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul yik' isala hıʔın

Valency pattern: ATTR_APUD
X: ATTR
Y: APUD
Locus: XY
murad-ıd ayten-i-xda yik' isala haʔa-r
pn - attr pn - obl - apud heart bored n .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad misses Ayten.’

Spanish echar de menos

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ech-a de menos a María
pn [ sg . m ] throw- prs .3 sg from less dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro misses Maria.’

Standard Arabic Ɂištāqa

Valency pattern: NOM_ilaaGEN
X: NOM
Y: ilaaGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un yaštāqu Ɂilā Maryam-a
pn - nom miss. ipf .3 m towards pn - gen
‘Badr misses Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_BEN
X: DAT
Y: BEN
Locus: XY
maizer-s lile-šd x-a-c'wdun-i
pn - dat pn - ben io 3- ver : sup -miss- prs
‘Maizer misses Lile.’
Note: Nominative lile-Ø is also possible.

Swedish att sakna

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn sakna-r Maja
pn miss- prs pn
‘Björn misses Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Na-ngu~ngulila si Pedro kay Maria
< ipfv > stem - ipfv ~feel_lonely[ av ] pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro misses Maria.’

Telugu mis agu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ madhuri-ni mis avutunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( f ). sg . obl - acc miss become. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen misses Madhuri.’

Tsakhur darıхmıšхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_mee
X: NOM
Y: mee
Locus: Y
murad leyla-yni-mee darıхmıš-eeхhi
pn pn - obl -until bored-be. pf
‘Murad misses Leyla.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Tsugni Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Turkish özlemek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i özlö-yor
pn pn - acc miss- prs
‘Mehmet misses Filiz.’

Turoyo soyəm beriye

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Gabriyel ko-soyəm i beriye d Maryam
pn prs -do. ipfv .3 m art . f longing( f ) rel pn
‘Gabriyel misses Maryam.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Ulcha ǯonǯi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
əktə piktə mə̄n ən-bi ǯonǯ-i-ni
female child self mother- refl . sg miss- prs -3 sg
‘The girl misses her mother.’

Uzbek soɣinmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni soɣin-di
pn pn - acc miss- pst .3 sg
‘Petja misses Maša.’

West Central Oromo jaada

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n boontuu jaad-a
pn - nom pn . abs miss-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa misses Bontu.’

Zilo Andi haluχ.onn-ij

Valency pattern: NOM_INST
X: NOM
Y: INST
Locus: Y
marjam haluχ.onn-ij pat’imati-qχi
pn [ f ][ nom ] miss. pst - pf pn - inst
‘Mariam misses Patimat.’