BivalTyp

‘melt’

Argument frame: X (melt) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. melted a piece of lead .
Predicate label Ru: плавить
Argument frame Ru: X (плавить) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. расплавил кусок свинца .

Abaza r.ĉa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
a-nχaʕʷə́ ájχa–čət-ḳ jə́-r-ĉa-d
def -worker metal–piece- indf 3 sg . m . erg - caus -melt( aor )- dcl
‘The worker melted a piece of metal.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ʁe-ṭḳʷə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ležʼaḳʷe-m pceṣ̂ʷe–taqərə-r ə-ʁe-ṭḳʷə-ʁ
worker- obl lead–piece- abs 3 sg . erg - caus -melt(intr.)- pst
‘The worker melted the piece of lead.’

Aghul uc’.u-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a qːurqːušum uc’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) lead melt. pf - aor
‘Aslan melted a piece of lead.’
Note: Labile verb.

Alik Kryz yits'ara aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir sad tike q'urq'uşun yits'ara ar-ic
pn - erg one. n piece lead melt do. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan melted a piece of lead.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu tʼeˁčʼu cʼa-sː aw
pn - obl ( erg ) lead 4.thaw- inf 4.do. pfv
‘Pasha melted a piece of lead.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic mapšər

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala mupšər-rə prəzla
boy( m ) melt(tr). pst - ls .3 m iron( m )
‘The boy melted the iron.’

Avar biʔine

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca t’uxi-du-l kesek b-iʔ-inab-una
pn - erg lead- obl - gen piece n -melt- caus . n - ipf
‘Ali melted a piece of lead.’

Azerbaijani əritmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan bir qurğuşun parça-sı ǝri-t-di
pn one lead piece- poss 3 melt- tr - pst (3)
‘Aslan melted a piece of lead.’

Bafut tɔ̀ɔ̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ tɔ̀ɔ̂ àtᵼ̂
pn sm p 2 burn iron
‘Ambe melted a (piece of) iron.’

Bambara yèelen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye sánu-mugu` yèelen
pn pfv . tr gold-powder\ art melt
‘Seku melted the gold-dust.’

Brazilian Portuguese derreter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro derret-eu um pedaço de chumbo
pn ( m ) melt-3 sg . pst indf piece( m ) of lead( m )
‘Pedro melted a piece of lead.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır sad ç'uk'ol ğurğuşun aritmi süʔür-cü
pn - erg one. n piece lead( a ) melt a .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan melted a piece of lead.’

Catalan desfer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va desf-er un troç de plom
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind melt- inf indf . sg . m piece( m ) of lead( m )
‘Pere melted a piece of lead.’

Chirag b-ac’i b-aqi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le č’it’-la ziriz b-ac’-i b-aq-ib
pn - erg lead- gen piece( abs ) n . sg -melt: pf - inf n . sg - caus : pf - aor .3
‘Ali melted a piece of lead.’

Czech roztavit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr roztavi-l kousek olov-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] melt( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] piece( m )[ acc . sg ] lead( n )- gen . sg
‘Petr melted a piece of lead.’

Danish smelte

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter smelte-de et stykke bly
pn melt- pst indf . sg piece( n ) lead( c ). sg
‘Peter melted a piece of lead.’

Dutch smelten

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft een stuk lood ge-smolt-en
pn ( c ) have.3 sg art . indf piece( n ) lead( n ) ptcp -melt- ptcp
‘Piet melted a piece of lead.’

Eastern Maninka yèlen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà sánin` yèlen.
pn aor . tr gold\ art melt
‘Seku melt gold.’

English melt

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter melted a piece of lead.

Estonian sulatama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter sulata-s tüki plii-d
pn . sg . nom melt- pst .3 sg piece. sg . gen lead- sg . part
‘Peeter melted a piece of lead.’

Finnish sulattaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka sulatt-i metallipala-n
pn . nom melt- pst .3 sg piece.of.metal- gen
‘Pekka melted a piece of metal.’

Forest Enets dʲuta

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ salba-da dʲuta
i man- nom . sg .1 sg ice- obl . sg .3 sg heat( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend melted the ice’.

French faire fondre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a faire fondre un morceau de plomb
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg make. pst . ptcp . m melt. inf indf . sg . m piece( m ) of lead( m )
‘Paul melted a piece of lead.’

Georgian da-Ø-a-dn-ob-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m t'q'vi-is nač'er-i da-Ø-a-dn-o
pn - erg lead- gen piece- nom prv :downward- do 3- fact -melt- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre melted a piece of lead.’

German schmelzen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl schmolz ein Stück Blei
pn [ nom . sg ] melt. pst .3 sg indf [ n . acc . sg ] piece[ acc . sg ] lead[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl melted a piece of lead.’

Guinean Kpelle pú

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá hɛ́ni pú
pn 3 sg . prf gold pour
‘Pepee melted gold.’

Icari Dargwa b=ac'-aq-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il ʁurʁašin-na but'a b=ac'-aq-ib
pn - erg lead- gen piece. abs n =melt: pf - caus - aor
‘Islam melted a piece of lead.’

Irish leáigh

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=leáigh Pól píosa luaidhe.
pst =melt pn piece lead( gs )
‘Pól melted a piece of lead.’

Italian fondere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha fuso un pezz-o di piomb-o
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs melt. pst . ptcp indf . sg . m piece- sg . m of lead- sg . m
‘Leo melted a piece of lead.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-ac'-aˤq-es / CL-ic'-aˤq-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li b-ac'-aˤq-ib ʁurʁaši-j-a gesek'
pn - erg n -melt. pfv - caus - pret lead- obl - gen piece
‘Muhammad melted a piece of lead.’

Kalderash Romani bilavel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a bila-ď-a kotor molivi
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg melt- pst -3 sg piece[ acc . sg ] lead[ nom . sg ]
‘Murša melted a piece of lead.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
maˁhaˁmad-ǯi ruq’ here<b>c’-nu
pn - erg iron( abs ) < n . sg >melt- pst
‘Mahamad melted a piece of iron.’

Karata bic’aaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l t’oše b-ic’a-a
pn - erg lead n -melt. caus - pf
‘Ali melted a piece of lead.’

Kaytag Dargwa bac’ara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l ʁurʁašin-na but’a b-ac’-iv
pn - erg lead- gen piece n -melt. pf - aor
‘Petja melted a piece of lead.’

Kazakh balqït

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya sviynets-tі balqï-t-tï
pn lead- acc melt- caus - pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya melted a piece of lead.’

Kazym Khanty λǒλtti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en λǒλpi λǒλt-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg lead melt- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja melted a piece of lead.’

Khoekhoe tsunitsuni

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǀhaiǀuri-b-a ge tsunitsuni
pn -3 m . sg decl lead-3 m . sg - obl pst melt
‘Peter melted a piece of lead.’

Khwarshi j/ẽca

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
de j-enca-χ-χa šitomihi
1 sg . erg v -melt- caus - pst . w spoon( v )
‘I melted a spoon.’

Kina Rutul jic’a hɨɁɨraj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a jic’-a hɨɁɨ-r=a-j tike ɢurʁušin-ad
pn - erg 4.melt- imp 4.do. pfv - cvb =be- pst piece( nom ) lead- attr
‘Rasul melted a piece of lead.’

Kumyk iritmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
rasul jaw gesek-ni irit-d-i
pn butter piece- acc melt- pst -3 sg
‘Rasul melted a piece of butter.’

Latin liquefacio

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
patr-es congest-a-que flamm-a tur-a liquefaci-unt
father( m )- nom . pl gather. prf . ptcp . pass - abl . sg . f -and fire( f )- abl . sg tar( n )- acc . pl melt[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl
‘And fathers melt the tars gathered on the flame.’
Note: (Ov. Met. VII, 161)

Laz o-ndγul-(in)-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k k'ušum-i d-Ø-o-ndγul-in-u
pn - b - erg lead- nom prv - do 3- fact -melt- r . ext - s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim melted the lead.’

Mandarin Chinese rónghuà

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān rónghuà le yí-kuài qiān
pn melt pfv one- clf lead
‘Zhangsan melted a piece of lead.’

Mano sèŋē

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
fɔ̰́á̰ sèŋē
3 pl . pst aluminium melt
‘They melted aluminium.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Islam-ini b-ac'-aq-ib č'ut'i-la kesek
pn - erg n -melt: pfv - caus - pst lead- gen piece
‘Islam melted a piece of lead.’

Mingrelian d-Ø-a-ndγul-u-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k t'q'vir-iš noč'k'er-(i) d-Ø-a-ndγul-u
pn - erg lead- gen piece-( nom ) prv - do 3- fact -melt- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo melted a piece of lead.’

Modern Hebrew hitiχ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas hitiχ pisa-t oferet
pn melt[ pst .3 sg . m ] piece- cs lead
‘Pinchas melted a piece of lead.’

Mukhad Rutul jic'e hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a qurʁušin jic'e hıʔı-ri
pn - erg lead n .melt n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad melted a piece of lead.’

Nanai uumbuwən-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia toǯa pase-wa-n’ uu-mbuwəŋ-ki-ni
pn lead piece- obl - p .3 sg melt- caus - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia melted a piece of lead.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh miħoonuƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi-de t’oša-ƛƛi keseki miħa-ani
pn - erg lead- gen piece n .melt. caus - aor
‘Patahi melted a piece of lead.’

Northern Mansi toltǝs

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xum kēr tolt-ǝs
man iron melt- pst [3 sg ]
‘The man melted the iron.’

Northern Yukaghir alˈа̄s=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn svinjeс köjlǝ-k аlˈа̄-s-mǝ-lǝ
pn lead piece- foc melt- caus - tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien melted a piece of lead.’

Norwegian Bokmål å smelte

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per smelte-t en bit bly
pn melt- pst indf . m . sg piece lead
‘Per melted a piece of lead.’

Polish roztopić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Staszek roztopi-ł kawałek ołowi-u
pn [ nom . sg ] melt: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] piece[ acc . sg ] lead- gen . sg
‘Staszek melted a piece of lead.’

Russian rasplavitʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja rasplavi-l kusok svinc-a
pn ( m )- nom . sg melt( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] piece( m )[ acc . sg ] lead( m )- gen . sg
‘Petja melted a piece of lead.’

Serbian rastopiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je rastopi-o komad olov-a
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg melt- part . perf . m . sg piece- acc . sg lead- gen . sg . n
‘Petar melted a piece of lead.’

Shinaz Rutul hic'a hɨʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir hic'a hɨʔɨ-r sa bat' qurqušum-a-d
pn ( erg ) n .melt. cov n .do. pf - aor one piece lead- obl - attr
‘Basir melted a piece of lead.’

Shughni ob čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i tillo kande ob čūd
pn =3 sg gold piece water do. pst
‘Azim melted a piece of gold.’

Skolt Saami suddeed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt suddi-i lââʹjj-kuuʹsǩ
pn . sg . nom melt- pst .3 sg lead-piece. sg . acc
‘Pete melted a piece of lead.’

Slovak roztaviť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter roztavi-l kus olov-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] melt( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] piece( m )[ acc . sg ] lead( n )- gen . sg
‘Peter melted a piece of lead.’

Slovenian razstopiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je razstopi-l kos svinc-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg melt: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] piece[ acc . sg ] lead- gen . sg
‘Peter melted a piece of lead.’

Sorani Kurdish tuwandinewe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa let-êk qeɫay=î tuwand-Ø-ewe
pn piece- indf lead=3 sg . pc melt. pst -3 sg - asp
‘Hiwa melted a piece of lead.’

Southern Rutul yits'e hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'ış yits'e hıʔı-r
pn - erg cream n .melt n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad melted the cream.’

Spanish fundir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro fundi-ó un trozo de plomo
pn [ sg ] melt- aor .3 sg art . ndef . sg . m piece[ sg . m ] from lead[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro melted a piece of lead.’

Standard Arabic ṣahara

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un ṣahara qiṭʕat-a r-ruṣāṣ-i
pn - nom melt. pf .3 m piece( f )- acc def -lead- gen
‘Badr melted a piece of lead.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d cxwia nakic-Ø ad-Ø-hin-e
pn - erg lead piece- nom prv : dist - do 3-melt- pst
‘Maizer melted a piece of lead.’

Swedish att smälta

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn smält-e en bit bly
pn melt- pst indf . c . sg piece lead
‘Björn melted a piece of lead.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
t<in>unaw ni Pedro ang piraso ng tingga
< pv > pfv .melt pers . gen pn subj piece gen lead
‘Pedro melted a piece of lead.’

Telugu karigiṁcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ oka lēḍu mukka-ni karigiṁcāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom one lead( n ). sg . obl piece( n ). sg . obl - acc melt. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen melted a piece of lead.’

Tsakhur eramıš haʔıy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee sa q:urğušun-un parče eramıš haʔu
pn - erg one lead- n piece melt n .do. pf
‘Murad melted a piece of lead.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-ac'-aq/b-ic'-aq-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le č'at' b-ac'-aq-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) lead n -melt. pfv - caus - pret (3)
‘The boy melted a piece of lead.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-ac'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li ʁurʁašin b-ac'-ib
boy- erg lead n -melt. pfv ( caus )- pret (3)
‘The boy melted a piece of lead.’

Turkish eritmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet buz-u erit-ti
pn ice- acc melt- pst
‘Mehmet melted the ice.’

Turoyo mfašər

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel mfašar-le qatte d riṣaṣ
pn melt. pfv - ls .3 m piece( f ) rel lead( m )
‘Gabriyel melted a piece of lead.’

Twi naane

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kofi naane-e kᴐbere sini bi
pn melt- pst lead piece indef
‘Kofi melted a piece of lead.’

Ulcha umbuwən-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama ǯū-wə um-buwən-či-ni
father ice- acc melt- caus - pst -3 sg
‘Father melted the ice.’

Uzbek eritmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya qo’rɣošin-ni erit-ti
pn lead- acc melt- pst .3 sg
‘Petja melted some lead.’

West Central Oromo bak'sa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n liidii t'ik'k'oo tokko bak'-s-e
pn - nom lead. abs small. abs one melt- caus -3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa melted a piece of lead.’

Wolof seeyal

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
naaj w-i a seey-al galaas g-i
sun( w ) cl w - def f oc s melt- caus ice( g ) cl g - def
‘It was the sun that melted the ice.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a qˈurqˈușum-di-n sa kˈus cˈurcˈu-r-ar-na
pn - erg lead- obl - gen one piece melt. pfv / mas - caus - caus - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib melted a piece of lead.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ.TR
Y: DO
Locus: TR
oxɨr-i qɛrʃunə vɨloʃna-jɛ=ra
pn - m . obl lead melt. pst -3 sg . f =from
‘Oxir melted the lead.’

Zilo Andi <b>-uts’-oɬ.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di b-uts’-oɬ.i t’uʃi
pn - erg inan 1-melt- caus . pst ( aor ) lead
‘Ali has melted some lead.’