BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘marvel’

Argument frame: X (marvel) at Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. arrived in the capital.) P. marvelled at / was struck by / was impressed by this town .
Predicate label Ru: поражаться
Argument frame Ru: X (поражаться) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. приехал в столицу). П. поразился этому городу .

Abaza ǯ’a-š’a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
rasul á-q̇ala χʷábəž-ta j-ǯ’a-j-š’a-d
pn def -city strong- adv 3 sg . n . abs - loc -3 sg . m . erg -wonder( aor )- dcl
‘Rasul marvelled at this city.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ʁe.ṣ̂eʁʷe

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
č̣ʼale-m qale-r ə-ʁe-ṣ̂eʁʷa-ʁ
guy- obl town- abs 3 sg . erg - caus -miracle- pst
‘The guy was impressed by this town.’

Aghul ʡalamat x.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
aslan ʡalamat x.u-ne me šahar.di-l
pn amazing become. pf - aor demm town- super
‘Aslan was struck by this town.’

Alik Kryz ğarğ xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
terlan lu şahar-ciğ ğarğ xhiy-id
pn this town- obl . super astonished be. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
paša χːi i<w>tːi ja-b šahru-li-tː-iš
pn be.surprised <1>become. pfv that-3 town- obl - sup - el
‘Pasha was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (so-called "stative" + 'become').

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Avar ħikmaɬize

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
ʕali ħikmaɬ-izaw-una he-b šahar-aɬ
pn be_awed- caus . m - ipf that- n town- erg
‘Ali was impressed by this town.’

Azerbaijani heyran olmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan bu şǝhǝr-ǝ heyran ol-du
pn this town- dat / lat enthused be(come)- pst (3)
‘Aslan was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Bafut

Valency pattern: nu_a.nu
X: nu
Y: a.nu
Locus: XY
nú àmbɛ́ ᵼ̀ kɨ̀ bɔ̀ŋə̂ nù mûmə̀láʔà jú
body/ prep pn sm p 2 be_good at body/ prep village_center this
‘Ambe was impressed by this town.’

Bambara kábakoya

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
dùgu` ye Sékù kábakoya
village\ art pfv . tr pn surprise
‘Seku was surprised by the village.’

Brazilian Portuguese ficar impressionado

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro fic-ou impression-ad-o com ess-a cidade
pn ( m ) get-3 sg . pst impress- ptcp - m with dem . med - f city( f )
‘Pedro was very impressed by this city.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan ulu şeher-ce heyran saxha-ci
pn prox town- loc impressed ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan quedar impressionat

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere va qued-ar impressionat d’aquest poble
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind remain- inf impressed( m ) of-this. sg . m city( m )
‘Pere was impressed by this town.’

Chirag tamaša b-uχi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le jaˤ šahru-l-i gužle tamaša uχ-ub-le
pn ( abs ) prox city- obl - super very suprised ( m . sg )-become: pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali was very impressed by this city.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Czech obdivovat se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr se tomu měst-u obdivova-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc this. n . dat . sg city( n )- dat . sg admire( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr was marvelled at this city.’

Danish være imponeret

Valency pattern: SBJ_over
X: SBJ
Y: over
Locus: Y
Peter var imponere-t over by-en
pn be. pst impress- ptcp . pst . sg over town( c )- def . sg
‘Peter was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Dutch verwondern

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: Y
de stad verwonder-t Piet
art . def . c city(С) surprise-3 sg pn ( c )
‘This city impressed Piet.’

Eastern Maninka dálajà

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
Sékù dálajà-da Kánkan ná.
pn be.surprized- aor . intr pn at
‘Seku was surprized by Kankan.’

English marvel

Valency pattern: SBJ_at
X: SBJ
Y: at
Locus: Y
Peter marvelled at this town.

Estonian imetlema

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter imetle-s seda linna
pn . sg . nom marvel- pst .3 sg dem . sg . part town. sg . part
‘Peeter marvelled at this town.’

Finnish hämmästyä

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka hämmästy-i tä-stä kaupungi-sta
pn . nom marvel- pst .3 sg this- ela town- ela
‘Pekka marvelled at this town.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French être imprissionné

Valency pattern: SBJ_par
X: SBJ
Y: par
Locus: Y
Paul a été impressionné par cette ville
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg be. pst . ptcp . m impress. pst . ptcp . m by this. sg . f city( f )
‘Paul was impressed by this town.’
Note: Passive construction.

Georgian aγ-Ø-prtovan-d-eb-a (FUT)

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø am kalak-it aγ-Ø-prtovan-d-a
pn - nom attr . dem . prox _ obl city- ins prv :upward- s 3-admire- intr - s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre was impressed by this town.’

German beeindruckt sein

Valency pattern: NOM_vonDAT
X: NOM
Y: vonDAT
Locus: Y
Karl war von dies-er Stadt beeindruck-t
pn [ nom . sg ] be. pst .3 sg of this- f . dat . sg town[ dat . sg ] impress- ptcp 2.
‘Karl was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Guinean Kpelle kwèi pǐli mà

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Paul kwèi àá pìlí mà dàa ɲɛ́í màa mɛ́nî ɓà
pn stomach. loc 3 sg . prf throw 3 sg .on1 def \town dem surface issue\ l on1
‘Pepee is surprised by this town.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Icari Dargwa tamaša=w=ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam hel šahar-rij tamaša=w=ih-ub
pn . abs this town- suplat surprise= m = lv : pf - aor
‘Islam was impressed by this town.’

Irish bí iontas

Valency pattern: ar_le
X: ar
Y: le
Locus: XY
Bhí iontas air Phól leis an chathair.
be. pst surprise on pn with def town
‘Pól was impressed by the town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian rimanere stupito

Valency pattern: SBJ_da
X: SBJ
Y: da
Locus: Y
Leo è rimast-o stupit-o da quest-a città
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs stay. pst . ptcp - sg . m impress. pst . ptcp - sg . m by this- sg . f city. sg . f
‘Leo was impressed by this city.’

Kadar Dargwa ħaˤjran-CL-uh-es / ħaˤjran-CL-ur-es

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad ħaˤjran-0-uh-ub ejt' šaha-li-ke
pn surprise- m -become. pfv - pret that city- obl - super
‘Muhammad was impressed by this city.’

Kalderash Romani diľavel

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
o Murš-a diľ-ajl-o kata kad-o for-o
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg go_crazy- pst -3 sg . m from this- m . dir . sg town- nom . sg
‘Murša was impressed by this town.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the structure with the ablative case (ABL) would be used.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
maˁhaˁmad ha-mu χabr.i-in aˁlamat du-x-na
pn ( abs ) emph-3. p news- super marvel res -( h . sg )become- res
‘Mahamad marvelled at this news.’

Karata hikmaɬaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali ħikmaɬ-e ha-b šahar-ja
pn wonder- pf this- n city- dat
‘Ali was impressed by this town.’

Kaytag Dargwa urk’wert:ara

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
petja hel šahar-ži urk’vert:-iv
pn dem town- super m .admire. pf - aor
‘Petja was impressed by this town.’

Kazakh taŋɣal

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya astana-ɣa taŋɣal-dï
pn capital- dat marvel- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya marvelled at the city.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe buruǂgâ kai-he

Valency pattern: SBJ_xa
X: SBJ
Y: xa
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge nē ǃā-s xa go buruǂgâ kai-he
pn -3 m . sg decl this town-3 f . sg by rpst be_astonished cause- pass
‘Peter was struck by this town.’

Khwarshi hajranƛa

Valency pattern: ABS_CONT.LAT
X: ABS
Y: CONT.LAT
Locus: Y
da hun-za-qo-l hajranƛa-na gołe
1 sg . abs mountain- pl . o - cont - lat be.excited- pst . u aux . prs
‘I am excited about the mountains.’
Note: This sentence is semantically slightly different from the stimulus.

Kina Rutul *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Kumyk tamaša bolmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir bu šahar-ʁa tamaša bol-d-u
pn this town- dat strange be- pst -3 sg
‘Basir was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Latin miror

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(host-is) dum mira-tur subit-um advent-um
enemy( m )- nom . sg as_long_as be_surprised[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg sudden- acc . sg . m advance( m )- acc . sg
‘... while (the enemy) was surprised by the sudden advance.’
Note: (Liv. XXXIX, 30, 10)

Laz o-xel-u

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Käzim-i-s noγa-Ø Ø-a-xel-u
pn - b - dat town- nom io 3- ver : r -be_glad- s 3 sg . pst
‘The town pleased Käzim.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Mandarin Chinese jīngtàn-bù-yǐ

Valency pattern: SBJ_dui
X: SBJ
Y: dui
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān duì zhè-zuò chéngzhèn jīngtàn-bù-yǐ
pn towards this- clf town marvel-not-stop
‘Zhangsan marvelled at this town.’

Mano gé dùò

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ŋ̄ gé dùò sɛ́lɛ́ ɓɛ̄ ká
1 sg stomach 3 sg . pst throw town dem with
‘I am astonished by this town .’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-is wahaj-le-l urče b-arc-ur het šahar
pn - dat bad- advz - emph heart.in( lat ) n -stick: pfv - aor that. level town
‘Islam was impressed by this town.’

Mingrelian č'k'ua-še(n) gin-Ø-i-l-en-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_INS
X: ERG
Y: INS
Locus: Y
čelo-k č'k'ua-še(n) gin-Ø-i-l-u te noγa-t(i)
pn - erg wit- abl prv - s 3- ver : s -go- s 3 sg . pst dem . prox town- ins
‘Chelo got crazy about this town.’

Modern Hebrew hitraʃem

Valency pattern: SBJ_mi
X: SBJ
Y: mi
Locus: Y
Pinχas hitraʃem me ha ir ha z-o
pn be.impressed[ pst .3 sg . m ] from def town def this- sg . f
‘Pinchas was impressed by this town.’

Mukhad Rutul mat jišin

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad mi šeher huvgu-jne mat jiši-ri
pn prox town a .see. pf -when surprised m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad was impressed when he saw this town.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Nanai xal-xal o-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia əj xoto-nǯi xal-xal ose-xa-ni
pn this town- ins embarrassed become- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia was embarrassed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh ħikmaɬiluruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pataħi ħikmaɬil-ari šaha-ɬɬi-ge
pn wonder- aor town- obl - loc
‘Patahi was impressed by this town.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir mа̄lijuori=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn tu-ŋ gorod-lǝ mа̄li-j-uo-ri-m
pn prxm - at town- acc aff be_surprised- pf - res - appl - tr .3 sg
‘Semien was impressed by this town.’

Norwegian Bokmål å bli imponert

Valency pattern: SBJ_over
X: SBJ
Y: over
Locus: Y
Per ble imponer-t over by-en
pn become. pst impress- ptcp over town- def . m . sg
‘Per was impressed by the town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Polish porazić

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pawł-a porazi-ł-o to miast-o
pn - acc . sg strike: pfv - pst - n .3 sg that. n . nom . sg town- nom . sg
‘Paweł was impressed by this town.’

Russian porazitʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja porazi-l-sja èt-omu gorod-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg amaze( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]- refl this- m . dat . sg city( m )- dat . sg
‘Petja was impressed by this town.’

Serbian biti oduševljen

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petar je bi-o oduševljen t-im grad-om
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg be- part . perf . m . sg amaze. part . pass . nom . sg this- ins . sg . m city- ins . sg
‘Petar was amazed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Shinaz Rutul mahaˁt'al h-iši-n

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
basir mahaˁt'al h-iši-r ha-d šeher-di-j
pn surprised m -be. pf - aor med - attr city( a )- obl - super
‘Basir was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Skolt Saami õõmšed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čuuʹt õõmš-i siid
pn . sg . nom very marvel.at- pst .3 sg village. sg . acc
‘Pete marvelled at this village.’

Slovak obdivovať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter obdivova-l toto mest-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] admire( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] this. n . acc . sg city( n )- acc . sg
‘Peter was marvelled at this city.’

Slovenian biti navdušen

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Pavel je bi-l navdušen nad tem mest-om
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg be- lpt [ m . sg ] thrilled[ nom . m . sg ] above this. ins . sg . n city- ins . sg
‘Pavel was marvelled at this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive participle).

Sorani Kurdish sersam bûn

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Hîwa be ʂar-eke-î sersam bû-Ø
pn to city- def - obl impressed be. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Southern Rutul aˤvraˤh aˤğaˤyç'uˤn

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad-ı-s mi-di şeher ğavgu-de aˤvraˤh aˤğaˤyç'uˤ-nay
pn - obl - dat prox - attr town a .see. pf -when thrill n .go_out. pf - pst
‘Murad was thrilled when he saw this town.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Spanish sorprender

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Pedro lo/le sorprendi-ó est-a ciudad
dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . m ] he. dir . obj . anm surprise- aor .3 sg this[ sg ]- f town[ sg . f ]
‘This city surprised Pedro.’

Standard Arabic taʕaǧǧaba

Valency pattern: NOM_minGEN
X: NOM
Y: minGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un taʕaǧǧaba min hāḏihi l-madīnat-i
pn - nom be_surprised. pf .3 m from this. f def -city( f )- gen
‘Badr was impressed by this city.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s al kaläk-Ø gun xoča-Ø la-x-baž-ǝn
pn - dat dem . prox town very good- nom prv : slightly - io 3-deem- pst
‘Maizer was impressed by this town a lot (lit. ‘Maizer felt like evaluating this town very well’).’

Swedish att förundras

Valency pattern: SBJ_over
X: SBJ
Y: over
Locus: Y
Björn förundra-de-s över stad-en
pn marvel- pst - pass over town- def . c . sg
‘Björn was impressed by this town.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_CAUSE
X: ACT
Y: CAUSE
Locus: Y
Na-mangha si Pedro sa kaniya-ng bayan
av . pfv ~get_amazed pers . subj pn dat 3. sg . dat - lin town
‘Pedro marvelled at this town’
Note: The Y-argument i) can be introduced by an explicit causal marker and ii) can be promotoed to subject in the causal voice construction.

Telugu āšcaryapōvu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pravīṇ ā paṭṭaṇānni cūsi āšcaryapōyāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom dem . dist city( n ). sg . acc see. cvb . ant get_suprised. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen was surprised by this town.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Tsakhur haˁyranхhay

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
murad i-ni šahar-ı-qha haˁyran-хha-na
pn prox- attr . obl town- obl - lat astonished-( m ) aux . pf - h
‘Murad was impressed by this town.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa tamaša b-iχ-iz/b-irχ-iz

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
uršːi šahar če-b-až-ible tamaša iχ-ub
boy city on -see. pfv - pret . cnv amazing ( m )be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy saw the city and was amazed.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Tsugni Dargwa tamaša b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ šahar-li-ge-w tamaša w-iχ-ub
boy city- obl - super - m . ess amazing m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy was impressed by this town.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish şaşmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet bu şehir-e şaş-tı
pn this city- dat be_surprised- pst
‘Mehmet marvelled at this city.’

Turoyo miɁaṯər

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_m
X: SBJ.SS
Y: m
Locus: Y
Šabo mɁaṯər m-i walay-aṯe
pn be_impressed. pfv .3 m from- art . f city( f )- dem . f
‘Shabo was impressed by this city.’

Ulcha *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Uzbek hayrat qolmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya bu šahar-ga hayrat-da qol-di
pn this city- dat surprise- loc stay- pst .3 sg
‘Petja was impressed by this city.’

West Central Oromo adʒaaʔibsiisata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n magaala-ttii adʒaaʔib-siis-at-e
pn - nom town- def . abs impress- caus - mid -3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa was impressed by the town.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
Sahib in șeher-da-l mehttel xha-na
pn this town- obl - sup surprised become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib was impressed by this town.’

Zilo Andi <w>-uχ.i-j

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.EL
X: NOM
Y: CONT.EL
Locus: Y
ali w-uχ.i-j ho-no-b gorodil-tʃ’u-kːu
pn [ m ][ nom ] m -take_off. pst - pf dem - emph - inan 1 city- cont - el
‘Ali was astounded by that city.’