BivalTyp

Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘make fun’

Argument frame: X (make fun) of Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. did something very stupid. Now,) P. is making fun of M .
Predicate label Ru: издеваться
Argument frame Ru: X (издеваться) над Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. сделал(а) что-то очень глупое. Теперь) П. издевается над М .

Abaza

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
zaréma rasúl laq̇ərdə́ də-l-č’p-ə́j-d
pn pn fun 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . erg -make- prs - dcl
‘Zarema is making fun of Rasul.’

Aghul

Valency pattern: ERG_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: ERG
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-k-as ihanat-ar aq’.a-a
pn ( erg ) pn - sub / cont - elat mocking- pl do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is making fun of Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
+Ašur gaxəc bi švav-u
pn laugh. prs with neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur will make fun of his neighbor.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. The actual form of the verb stem in the example is [ɟaxət], most likely a dialect realization of gaxəc.

Forest Enets

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da piʃiza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg ridicule( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is making fun of Vasja’.

Modern Hebrew

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas maknit et Menaχem
pn tease[ ptcp . sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas is making fun of Menachem.’

Norwegian Bokmål

Valency pattern: SBJ_av
X: SBJ
Y: av
Locus: Y
gjø-r Per narr av Ola
now make- prs pn fool of pn
‘Now Per is making fun of Ola.’

Russian

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja izdeva-et-sja nad Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg make_fun( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl above pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja is making fun of Maša.’

Rutul

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul-a ramazan-ɨ jiʁ laɢa-r=a
pn - erg pn - obl ( sup ) mock lv . ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is making fun of Ramazan.’

Skolt Saami

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt luânnj Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom make.fun.of. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete is making fun of Maria’

Slovenian

Valency pattern: NOM_izGEN
X: NOM
Y: izGEN
Locus: Y
Peter se norčuje iz Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl make_fun: ipfv . prs .3 sg from pn - gen . sg
‘Peter is making fun of Pavel.’

Turkish

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-le alay ed-ıyor
pn pn - com mockery make- prs
‘Mehmet is making fun of Filiz.’

Zilo Andi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati muħammadi-ʔa j-eɬː-o
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn - super f -laugh- hab
‘Patimat is laughing at Muhammad.’