BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘make fun’

Argument frame: X (make fun) of Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. did something very stupid. Now,) P. is making fun of M .
Predicate label Ru: издеваться
Argument frame Ru: X (издеваться) над Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. сделал(а) что-то очень глупое. Теперь) П. издевается над М .

Abaza laq̇ərdə́ č’pa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
zaréma rasúl laq̇ərdə́ də-l-č’p-ə́j-d
pn pn fun 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . erg -make- prs - dcl
‘Zarema is making fun of Rasul.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) č̣ʼeneč̣ʼaλe ṣ̂ə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
pŝaŝe-m č̣ʼale-r č̣ʼeneč̣ʼaλe j-e-ṣ̂ə
girl- obl guy- abs ridicule 3 sg . erg - dyn -do
‘The girl is making fun of the guy.’

Aghul ihanat-ar aq’.a-

Valency pattern: ERG_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: ERG
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-k-as ihanat-ar aq’.a-a
pn ( erg ) pn - sub / cont - elat mocking- pl do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is making fun of Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz uyun ğvaqhuric

Valency pattern: ERG_PART
X: ERG
Y: PART
Locus: Y
terlan-ir rasul-kar uyun ğvarqh-uryu
pn - erg pn - part game( f ) f .lift. ipfv - prs . f
‘Terlan is making fun of Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu moħommad iqʼiˁl wa-r-ši w-i
pn - obl ( erg ) pn mock 1-do- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be
‘Pasha is making fun of Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic gaxəc

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
+Ašur gaxəc bi švav-u
pn laugh. prs with neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur will make fun of his neighbor.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. The actual form of the verb stem in the example is [ɟaxət], most likely a dialect realization of gaxəc.

Avar beɬanqize

Valency pattern: NOM_LOCtad
X: NOM
Y: LOCtad
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmad-i-da t’ad w-eɬanq-ule-w w-ugo
pn pn - obl - loc on m -laugh- ipf . ptcp - m m - cop
‘Ali is making fun of Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani sataşmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a sataş-ır
pn pn - dat / lat tease- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is making fun of Rasul.’

Bambara yɛ̀lɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_ma
X: SBJ
Y: ma
Locus: Y
Sékù bɛ́_kà yɛ̀lɛ Fántà mà
pn prog laugh pn to
‘Seku mocks Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese caçoar

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro caço-a de Miguel
pn ( m ) mock-3 sg . prs of pn ( m )
‘Pedro is making fun of Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-a' sataşmi yıxhar-i
pn pn - loc annoying ( m )be. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is making fun of Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan burlar-se

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
en Pere es burl-a del Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) refl .3 sg mock-3 sg . prs . ind of. def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere is making fun of Marc.’

Chirag da̰qlṵχa̰li ke-b-išːi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le rasul da̰qlṵχa̰-l-i k-erxː-le
pn - erg pn ( abs ) laughter- obl - super down-( m . sg )put: pf - dur . prs .3
‘Ali is making fun of Rasul.’

Czech vysmívat se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr se vysmívá Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc make_fun( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr is making fun of Michal.’

Danish gøre grin

Valency pattern: SBJ_med
X: SBJ
Y: med
Locus: Y
Peter gør grin med Marie
pn make. prs fun( n ). sg with pn
‘Peter is making fun of Marie.’

Dutch beschimpen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet beschimp-t Marie
pn (С) make.fun-3 sg pn (С)
‘Piet is making fun of Marie.’

Eastern Maninka máɲàa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé Fántà máɲàa-la.
pn be pn mock- inf . la
‘Seku teases Fanta.’

English make fun

Valency pattern: SBJ_of
X: SBJ
Y: of
Locus: Y
Peter is making fun of Mary.

Estonian nalja tegema

Valency pattern: NOM_GENule
X: NOM
Y: GENule
Locus: Y
Peeter tee-b Mareti üle nalja
pn . sg . nom make- prs .3 sg pn . sg . gen over joke. sg . part
‘Peeter is making fun of Maret.’

Finnish pilkata

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka pilkka-a Matti-a
pn . nom make.fun- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka is making fun of Matti.’

Forest Enets piʃizi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da piʃiza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg ridicule( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is making fun of Vasja’.

French se moquer

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Paul se moque de Michel
pn ( m ) refl mock. prs .3 sg of pn ( m )
‘Paul is making fun of Michel.’

Georgian Ø-e-k'aip-eb-a (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s Ø-e-k'aip-eb-a
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : r -make_fun- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Petre is making fun of Masho.’

German sich lustig machen

Valency pattern: NOM_uberACC
X: NOM
Y: uberACC
Locus: Y
Karl mach-t sich über Marie lustig
pn [ nom . sg ] make- prs .3 sg refl over pn [ acc . sg ] funny
‘Karl is making fun of Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle yɛ́lɛ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe káa yɛ́lɛ-ì Ɲàákwɛ̀i ɓà
pn cop laugh- inf pn on1
‘Pepee is making fun of Nyakwei.’

Icari Dargwa dukalt'-n-a-lli w=irq'-a-raj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLATchi
X: ABS
Y: SUPLATchi
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-ri-j či=w dukalt'-n-a-lli w=irq'-a-ca=w
pn . abs pn - obl - suplat on = m mockery- pl - obl - erg m =do: ipf - prs - cop = m
‘Islam is making fun of Nadir.’

Irish cráigh

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pól ag crá Mháire.
be. prs pn at make_fun. nmlz gs / pn
‘Pól is making fun of Máire.’
Note: The Y argument is in the GS-form because the verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian prendere in giro

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo prend-e in gir-o Maria
pn ( m ) take-3 sg . prs in circle- sg . m pn ( f )
‘Leo makes fun of Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa misqili-CL-uk'-as (IPFV)

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad misqili-0-uk'-ar rasu-j-ke
pn mockery- m -say. ipfv - th pn - obl - super
‘Muhammad is making fun of Rasul.’

Kalderash Romani asal

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
o Murš-a asa-l kata Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg laugh- prs .3 sg from pn - nom . sg
‘Murša is making fun of Marijka.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the structure with the ablative case (ABL) would be used.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
fatima maˁhaˁmad.ʔ-in aˁlq-uˁra
pn ( abs ) pn - super ( h . sg )laugh- prs
‘Fatima is making fun of Mahamad.’

Karata reɬeχχaɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_CONTka7agal
X: NOM
Y: CONTka7agal
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmat’-i-č’o kaʔa-gal reɬeχχ-idja idja
pn pn - obl - cont up- el laugh- ipf cop
‘Ali is making fun of Ahmat.’
Note: Here, “kaʔagal” functions as a postposition.

Kaytag Dargwa hinaik’wara

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
na petja miša-j hina ik’-ulca
now pn pn - datlat mock say- prs
‘Petja is making fun of Misha.’

Kazakh kemsit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï kemsіt-tі
pn pn - acc consider_insignificant- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya is making fun of Masha.’

Kazym Khanty ńŏsǝrλǝti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
petr-en waśa-j-ǝλ ńŏsǝrλ-ǝλ
pn - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg make_fun- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is making fun of Vasja.’
Note: The basic meaning of the verb is ‘to furrow’.

Khoekhoe ǂoeǂoe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a ra ǂoeǂoe
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl ipfv tease
‘Peter is making fun of Maria.’

Khwarshi łasa

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
učitel łas-so c'aldoq'an-ƛ'o
teacher make.fun- prs pupil- super
‘The teacher is making fun of the pupil.’

Kina Rutul jiʁ laɢara

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul-a ramazan-ɨ jiʁ laɢa-r=a
pn - erg pn - obl ( sup ) mock lv . ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is making fun of Ramazan.’

Kumyk mɨsʁɨllamaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
musa patimat-nɨ mɨsʁɨl-la-j
pn pn - acc mock- vblz -3 sg
‘Musa is making fun of Patimat.’

Latin derideo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
deride-a-mus haruspic-es, van-os esse dic-a-mus
ridicule- prs . sbjv - act .1 pl haruspex( m )- acc . pl unreliable- acc . pl . m be. prs . inf . act say- prs . sbjv - act .1 pl
‘Let us ridicule haruspices, let us say they are unreliable.’
Note: (Cic. Div. 1, 36)

Laz o-tk(v-al)-u

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k Fatma-s n-Ø-o-tkv-am-s
pn - b - erg pn - dat io 3- ver : sup -say- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is making fun of Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese kāiwánxiào

Valency pattern: SBJ_na
X: SBJ
Y: na
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān zài Lǐsì kāiwánxiào
pn prog with pn joke
‘Zhangsan is making fun of Lisi.’

Mano pá

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
lɛ́ɛ̀ bā̰ ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . ipfv touch: ipfv 1 sg on
‘S/he makes fun of me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
hanna Pajzula duč-irk'-uwe=gʷa Musa-li-če-w
now pn laugh- lv : ipfv - cvb = ptcl pn - obl - super - m ( ess )
‘Pajzula is making fun of Musa.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-cigan-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-s Ø-o-cigan-(un)-Ø
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : sup -kid- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo is making fun of Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew maknit

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas maknit et Menaχem
pn tease[ ptcp . sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas is making fun of Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul ijanat hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_CONTEL
X: ERG
Y: CONTEL
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-ı-klaa ijanat-bır haʔa-ra a
pn - erg pn - obl - contel trick- pl . nom n .do. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is making fun of Kurban.’

Nanai siŋgərə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa siŋgərə-j-ni
pn pn - obl make_fun- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is making fun of Masha.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh badaƛuruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LOCla
X: NOM
Y: LOCla
Locus: Y
pataħi musa-ge ƛ’a w-adaƛ-ero gudi
pn pn - loc on m -laugh- ipf . ptcp . m m . cop
‘Patahi is making fun of Musa.’
Note: Here, ƛ’a functions as a postposition. Postpositions ƛ’ada and ƛ’a are synonyms.

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir jugulwǝs=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ jugulwǝ-s-nu-m
pn pn - acc suffer- caus - ipf - tr .3 sg
‘Semien is making fun of Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å gjøre narr

Valency pattern: SBJ_av
X: SBJ
Y: av
Locus: Y
gjø-r Per narr av Ola
now make- prs pn fool of pn
‘Now Per is making fun of Ola.’

Polish drwić

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Mefistofeles drwi z Bog-a
pn [ nom . sg ] make_fun: ipfv . prs .3 sg from god- gen . sg
‘Mephistopheles is making fun of God.’

Russian izdevatʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja izdeva-et-sja nad Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg make_fun( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl above pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja is making fun of Maša.’

Serbian maltretirati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar maltretira Marij-u
pn . nom . sg make.fun. prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar is making fun of Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul jɨʁ gɨrkɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
basir jɨʁ gɨrka-r a karam-ɨ
pn day ( m ) ipf .mock- simul exist pn - super
‘Basir is making fun of Karam.’

Shughni qīn čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Ahmed as Saida qīn kix̌-t
pn el pn difficult do-3 sg
‘Ahmed is making fun of Saida.’

Skolt Saami luânnjad

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt luânnj Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom make.fun.of. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete is making fun of Maria’

Slovak robiť si žarty

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Peter si z Mark-a teraz robí žart-y
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . dat from pn ( m )- gen . sg now make( ipfv ). prs .3 sg joke( m )- acc . pl
‘Peter is now making fun of Marek.’

Slovenian norčevati se

Valency pattern: NOM_izGEN
X: NOM
Y: izGEN
Locus: Y
Peter se norčuje iz Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl make_fun: ipfv . prs .3 sg from pn - gen . sg
‘Peter is making fun of Pavel.’

Sorani Kurdish fiʂe pêkirdin

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Hîwa fiʂe be Ferhad-î de-k-a
pn fun to pn - obl ind -do. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa is making fun of Ferhad.’
Note: The OBL morpheme is used as a residual case marker here.

Southern Rutul incimiş hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a natig incimiş haʔa-r
pn - erg pn pissed m .do. ipf - prs
‘Murad is making fun of Natig.’

Spanish burlarse

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro se burl-a de María
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg make_fun- prs .3 sg from pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro is making fun of Maria.’

Standard Arabic ḍaḥika

Valency pattern: NOM_alaaGEN
X: NOM
Y: alaaGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un yaḍḥaku ʕalā Maryam-a
pn - nom laugh. ipf .3 m on pn - gen
‘Badr is making fun of Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø gegi-s x-e-lgac-äːl
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : r -joke- vpl
‘Maizer is making fun of Gegi.’

Swedish att göra narr

Valency pattern: SBJ_av
X: SBJ
Y: av
Locus: Y
Björn gör narr av Maja
now make. prs fool of pn
‘Björn is making fun of Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
P<in>ag-ta~tawan-an ni Pedro si Miguel
< ipfv > stem - ipfv ~laugh- lv pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro is making fun of Miguel.’

Telugu vekkiriṁcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni vekkiristunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc ridicule. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is making fun of Mahesh.’

Tsakhur maxsara havʔıy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Murad-ee Rasul maxsara haʔu
pn - erg pn ( m ) fun m .do. pf
‘Murad is making fun of Rasul.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa inžit b-arq'-iz/b-irq'-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le kːata inžit b-irq'-ule=sab
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) cat weary n -do. ipfv - prog . cnv = cop . n (3)
‘A boy is bullying a cat.’

Tsugni Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Turkish alay etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-le alay ed-ıyor
pn pn - com mockery make- prs
‘Mehmet is making fun of Filiz.’

Turoyo goḥək

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_7al
X: SBJ.SS
Y: 7al
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-goḥək ʕal Yuḥanən
pn prs -laugh. ipfv .3 m on pn
‘Gabriyel makes fun of Yuḥanən’ (lit. ‘Gabriyel laughs at Yuḥanən’).

Ulcha siŋgərəkəči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə əktə piktə-wə siŋgərə-kəč-i-n
male child female child- acc jeer- imit - prs -3 sg
‘The boy is making fun of the girl.’

Uzbek kulmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_ACCustidan
X: NOM
Y: ACCustidan
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ni ustidan kul-yab-ti
pn pn - acc over laugh- prs 1-3 sg
‘Petja is making fun of Maša.’

West Central Oromo k'oosa

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
obsaa-n tolaa-tti k'oos-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom pn - loc make_fun- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is making fun of Tola.’

Zilo Andi <j>-eɬː-o

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati muħammadi-ʔa j-eɬː-o
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn - super f -laugh- hab
‘Patimat is laughing at Muhammad.’