BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘make fun’

Argument frame: X (make fun) of Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. did something very stupid. Now,) P. is making fun of M .
Predicate label Ru: издеваться
Argument frame Ru: X (издеваться) над Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. сделал(а) что-то очень глупое. Теперь) П. издевается над М .

Abaza laq̇ərdə́ č’pa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
zaréma rasúl laq̇ərdə́ də-l-č’p-ə́j-d
pn pn fun 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . erg -make- prs - dcl
‘Zarema is making fun of Rasul.’

Aghul ihanat-ar aq’.a-

Valency pattern: ERG_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: ERG
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-k-as ihanat-ar aq’.a-a
pn ( erg ) pn - sub / cont - elat mocking- pl do. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is making fun of Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic gaxəc

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
+Ašur gaxəc bi švav-u
pn laugh. prs with neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur will make fun of his neighbor.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. The actual form of the verb stem in the example is [ɟaxət], most likely a dialect realization of gaxəc.

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro caçoa de Miguel
‘Педру издевается над Мигелом.’

Czech vysmívat se

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr se vysmívá Michal-ovi
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc make_fun( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Petr is making fun of Michal.’

Finnish pilkata

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka pilkka-a Matti-a
pn . nom make.fun- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka is making fun of Matti.’

Forest Enets piʃizi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da piʃiza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg ridicule( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is making fun of Vasja’.

Latin derideo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
deride-a-mus haruspic-es, van-os esse dic-a-mus
ridicule- prs . sbjv - act .1 pl haruspex( m )- acc . pl unreliable- acc . pl . m be. prs . inf . act say- prs . sbjv - act .1 pl
‘Let us ridicule haruspices, let us say they are unreliable.’
Note: (Cic. Div. 1, 36)

Modern Hebrew maknit

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas maknit et Menaχem
pn tease[ ptcp . sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas is making fun of Menachem.’

Nanai siŋgərə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa siŋgərə-j-ni
pn pn - obl иmake_fun- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is making fun of Masha.’

Norwegian Bokmål å gjøre narr

Valency pattern: SBJ_av
X: SBJ
Y: av
Locus: Y
gjø-r Per narr av Ola
now make- prs pn fool of pn
‘Now Per is making fun of Ola.’

Polish drwić

Valency pattern: NOM_zGEN
X: NOM
Y: zGEN
Locus: Y
Mefistofeles drwi z Bog-a
pn [ nom . sg ] make_fun: ipfv . prs .3 sg from god- gen . sg
‘Mephistopheles is making fun of God.’

Russian izdevatʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja izdeva-et-sja nad Maš-ej
pn ( m )- nom . sg make_fun( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl above pn ( f )- ins . sg
‘Petja is making fun of Maša.’

Rutul jiʁ laɢara

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP
X: ERG
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
rasul-a ramazan-ɨ jiʁ laɢa-r=a
pn - erg pn - obl ( sup ) mock lv . ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is making fun of Ramazan.’

Skolt Saami luânnjad

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt luânnj Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom make.fun.of. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete is making fun of Maria’

Slovenian norčevati se

Valency pattern: NOM_izGEN
X: NOM
Y: izGEN
Locus: Y
Peter se norčuje iz Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl make_fun: ipfv . prs .3 sg from pn - gen . sg
‘Peter is making fun of Pavel.’

Swedish att göra narr

Valency pattern: SBJ_av
X: SBJ
Y: av
Locus: Y
Björn gör narr av Maja
now make. prs fool of pn
‘Björn is making fun of Maja.’

Turkish alay etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-le alay ed-ıyor
pn pn - com mockery make- prs
‘Mehmet is making fun of Filiz.’

Ulcha siŋgərəkəči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə əktə piktə-wə siŋgərə-kəč-i-n
male child female child- acc jeer- imit - prs -3 sg
‘The boy is making fun of the girl.’

Zilo Andi <j>-eɬː-o

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati muħammadi-ʔa j-eɬː-o
pn [ f ][ nom ] pn - super f -laugh- hab
‘Patimat is laughing at Muhammad.’