BivalTyp

‘love (tea)’

Argument frame: X (love) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. loves tea .
Predicate label Ru: любить#чай#
Argument frame Ru: X (любить) Y (чай/яблоки)
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. любит чай .

Abaza bzəj ba

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
zaréma č’aj bzəj jə-l-b-ə́j-d
pn tea good 3 sg . n . abs -3 sg . f . erg -see- prs - dcl
‘Zarema loves tea.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) jə-č̣ʼese

Valency pattern: POSS_ABS
X: POSS
Y: ABS
Locus: X
pŝaŝe-m čʼajə-r jə-č̣ʼas
girl- obl tea- abs 3 sg . pr + poss -favourite
‘The girl loves tea.’

Aghul kːan-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s čaj kːan-e-f-e
pn - dat tea love- ptcp - nmlz - cop
‘Aslan loves tea.’

Alik Kryz xuş xhiyic

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
terlan-iz çay xuş şe-re
pn - dat tea( n ) good be. ipfv - prs . n
‘Terlan loves tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s čij ʟʼan ke-r
pn - dat tea want 4.become- ipfv
‘Pasha loves tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (so-called "stative" + 'become').

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic xoš atə

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
ayyé baxta xoš-o bitay=əla mən +čay
dem 3. f woman( f ) happiness( f )- p .3 f come. prog =3 f from tea( m )
‘This woman loves tea.’

Avar boƛ’ize

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-je čaj b-oƛ’-ula
pn - dat tea n -want- ipf
‘Ali loves tea.’

Azerbaijani xoşlamaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan çay xoşla-yır
pn tea like- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan loves tea.’

Bafut kɔ̀ŋə̂

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɔ̀ŋə̂ tíí
pn sm love tea
‘Ambe loves tea.’

Bambara bɛ́/tɛ́

Valency pattern: SBJ_fe
X: SBJ
Y: fe
Locus: Y
Sékù bɛ́ wòro` fɛ̀
pn be cola_nuts\ art by
‘Seku likes cola nuts.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Brazilian Portuguese adorar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ador-a chá
pn ( m ) love-3 sg . prs tea( m )
‘Pedro loves tea.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: DAT_ABL
X: DAT
Y: ABL
Locus: XY
aslan-ız çay-ın-a'r ħaz ʕaşxar-i
pn - dat tea- obl - abl pleasure come. ipf - prs
‘Aslan loves tea.’

Catalan agradar

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere li agrad-a el te
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) dat .3 sg like-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m tea( m )
‘Pere loves tea.’

Chirag b-ikː-

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i nig d-ikː-le
pn - obl - super milk( abs ) n . pl -love: ipf - dur . res .3
‘Ali loves milk.’
Note: Stative predicate.

Czech mít rád

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr rád čaj
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg glad tea( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr loves tea.’

Danish elske

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter elske-r te
pn love- prs tea( c ). sg
‘Peter loves tea.’

Dutch houden

Valency pattern: SBJ_van
X: SBJ
Y: van
Locus: Y
Piet houd-t van thee
pn ( c ) love-3 sg from tea( c )
‘Piet loves tea.’

Eastern Maninka dúman

Valency pattern: nye_SBJ
X: nye
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Tɛ́` dúman Sékù ɲɛ́.
tea\ art pleasant pn before
‘Seku loves tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predication.

English love

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter loves tea.

Estonian armastama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter armasta-b tee-d
pn . sg . nom love- prs .3 sg tea- part
‘Peeter loves tea.’

Finnish pitää

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka pit-ää tee-stä
pn . nom like- prs .3 sg tee- ela
‘Pekka loves tea.’

Forest Enets kɔmita

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ kare kɔmita
i man- nom . sg .1 sg fish like( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend likes fish’.

French aimer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul aime les pomme-s
pn ( m ) like. prs .3 sg def . pl apple( f )- pl
‘Paul loves apples.’

Georgian Ø-u-q'var-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s Ø-u-q'var-s čai-Ø
pn - dat io 3- ver : o -love- s 3 sg tea- nom
‘Petre loves tea.’

German lieben

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl lieb-t Tee
pn [ nom . sg ] love- prs .3 sg tea[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl loves tea.’

Guinean Kpelle wɛ́li káa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
kwíi tóù wɛ́li káa Hɛ́ni ɓâ
white_person palm\ l love be pn on1
‘Heni loves pineapples.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Icari Dargwa d=ičː-aq-uj

Valency pattern: SUPLAT_ABS
X: SUPLAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
Islam-lij čaˤj d=ičː-aq-u
pn - suplat tea. abs npl =like- caus - hab
‘Islam loves tea.’

Irish is breá

Valency pattern: le_SBJ
X: le
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Is breá le Pól tae.
cop . prs pleasant with pn tea
‘Pól loves tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian piacere

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo piac-e il
to pn ( m ) like-3 sg . prs def . sg . m tea. sg . m
‘Leo loves tea.’

Kadar Dargwa dig-aq-es (IPFV)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
meħamad-i-s čaj dig-aq-u
pn - obl - dat tea love. ipfv - caus - th
‘Muhammad loves tea.’

Kalderash Romani plaćal

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
le Murš-as plaća-n le phab-a
art . m . obl . sg pn - acc . sg like- prs .3 pl art . pl apple- nom . pl
‘Murša loves apples.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
maˁhaˁmad.a-z meʔli čaj kːun-i-b vu
pn - dat sweet tea( abs ) love- part - n . sg cop ( prs )
‘Mahamad loves sweet tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (participle).

Karata ƛ’abaɬaɬa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja čaj ƛ’ab-a
pn . dat tea love- pf
‘Ali loves tea.’

Kaytag Dargwa dič:aχvara

Valency pattern: DATLAT_NOM
X: DATLAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
petja-j č:aˁj d-ič:uχ-u
pn - datlat tea( npl ) npl -love. ipf - evt
‘Petja loves tea.’

Kazakh žaqsï kör

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya šay-dï žaqsï kör-edі
pn tea- acc good see- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya loves tea.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe ǀnam

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge dai-i-a a ǀnam
pn -3 m . sg decl milk-3 c . sg - obl aux love
‘Peter loves milk.’
Note: The verb here is a stative verb and has to be used with auxiliaries.

Khwarshi goqa

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
di-l c'aq' go:qa k'ora
1 sg . o - dat very like\ gnt cheese
‘I like cheese very much.’

Kina Rutul qɨgara

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s q-ɨga-r=a čej
pn - obl - dat re -4.love. ipfv - cvb =be tea( nom )
‘Rasul loves tea.’

Kumyk süjmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat čaj süj-e
pn tea want-3 sg
‘Patimat loves tea.’

Latin amo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Bacch-us ama-t flor-es
pn ( m )- nom . sg love[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg flower( m )- acc . pl
‘Bacchus loves the flowers.’
Note: (Ov. Fasti. V, 345)

Laz k'ai o-c'on-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s čai-Ø k'ai d-Ø-a-c'on-en-Ø
pn - b - dat tea- nom good prv - io 3- ver : sup -like- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim likes tea greatly.’

Mandarin Chinese xǐ'ài

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān xǐ'ài chá
pn love tea
‘Zhangsan loves tea.’

Mano nāā

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
ŋ́ŋ̀ nàà ká
1 sg . ipfv love: ipfv 2 sg with
‘I love you.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-is d-ig-an čaj
pn - dat npl -want: ipfv - hab tea[ r ]
‘Islam loves tea.’

Mingrelian Ø-u-ʔor-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
čelo-s čai-Ø Ø-u-ʔor-s
pn - dat tea- nom io 3- ver : o -love- s 3 sg
‘Chelo loves tea.’

Modern Hebrew ohev

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas ohev te
pn love[ ptcp . sg . m ] tea
‘Pinchas loves tea.’

Mukhad Rutul jıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s čej jıga-d i
pn - obl - dat tea n .want. ipf - attr ( n ) cop
‘Murad loves tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (close to a headless relative clause).

Nanai uləsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia čaj-wa uləsi-ni
pn tea- obl love. ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia loves tea.’

Nivkh ezmud

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik cʰaj + smо-d
pn tea + like- ind
‘Kaskazik loves tea.’

Northern Akhvakh kunuƛa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-ƛa čeje kw-ini
pn - dat tea like- ipf
‘Patahi loves tea.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir amudˈī=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ilǝ sаmnаldаŋnˈǝ-lǝ mǝr аmudˈī-m
deer mushroom- acc aff like- tr .3 sg
‘The deer likes mushrooms.’

Norwegian Bokmål å elske

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per elske-r te
pn love- prs tea
‘Per loves tea.’

Polish lubić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Michał lubi herbat-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] love: ipfv . prs .3 sg tea- acc . sg
‘Michał loves tea.’

Russian ljubitʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja ljub-it čaj
pn ( m )- nom . sg love( ipfv )- prs .3 sg tea( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petja loves tea.’

Serbian voleti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar voli čaj
pn . nom . sg like. prs .3 sg tea. acc . sg
‘Petar loves tea.’

Shinaz Rutul begemiš h-iši-n

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ɨs begemiš ij čej
pn - dat like. cov cop tea
‘Basir loves tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni žīwǰdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim=i čoy žīwǰ
pn =3 sg tea love
‘Azim loves tea.’

Skolt Saami tuʹǩǩeed

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt tuʹǩǩad čee-st
pn . sg . nom like. prs .3 sg tea- sg . loc
‘Pete likes tea.’

Slovak mať rád

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter rád čaj
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg glad tea( m )[ acc . sg ]
‘Peter loves tea.’

Slovenian imeti rad

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a ima rad-a čaj
pn - nom . sg have: ipfv . prs .3 sg happy- f . sg tea[ acc . sg ]
‘Ana loves tea.’

Sorani Kurdish ḧez bûn

Valency pattern: EXT_le
X: EXT
Y: le
Locus: XY
Hîwa ḧez=î zor le ça-ye
pn joy=3 sg . pc very from tea-be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa loves tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Southern Rutul qhıgın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s çey qhıga-r
pn - obl - dat tea ( n )love. ipf - prs
‘Murad loves tea.’

Spanish gustar

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Pedro le gust-a el
ndir . obj pn [ sg . m ] he. ndir . obj like- prs .3 sg art . def . sg . m tea[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro loves tea.’

Standard Arabic Ɂaḥabba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un yuḥibbu š-šāy-a
pn - nom love. ipf .3 m def -tea- acc
‘Badr loves tea.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s čai-Ø x-a-lät'
pn - dat tea- nom io 3- ver : sup -love
‘Maizer loves tea.’

Swedish att älska

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn älska-r te
pn love- prs tea
‘Björn loves tea.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: SBJNV_LOC
X: SBJNV
Y: LOC
Locus: XY
mahilig sa tsaa si Pedro
like. adj dat tea pers . subj pn
‘Pedro loves tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (adjective).

Telugu iṣṭamu + COP

Valency pattern: DAT_ante
X: DAT
Y: ante
Locus: XY
pravīṇ-ki ṭī aṁṭē iṣṭamu
pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat tea( n ). sg . nom that_is liking( n ). sg . nom
‘Praveen loves tea.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsakhur ıkkıykıniy

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s čey ıkkan
pn - obl - dat tea n .want. ipf
‘Murad loves tea.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-ikː-aq-iz

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-z čaj d-ikː-aq-u
boy- dat tea npl -like/want- caus - hab . prs 3
‘The boy loves tea.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-ič:-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j čaˤj d-ikː-u
boy- dat tea npl -like- hab . prs 3
‘The boy loves tea.’

Turkish sevmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet çay sev-er
pn tea love- aor
‘Mehmet loves tea.’

Turoyo roḥəm

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel ko-roḥəm i tiyo
pn prs -love. ipfv .3 m art . f tea( f )
‘Gabriyel loves tea.’

Twi dᴐ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kofi dᴐ tee
pn love(3 sg . prs ) tea
‘Kofi loves tea.’

Ulcha uləsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama čaj-wa uləs-i-ni
father tea- acc love- prs -3 sg
‘Father loves tea.’

Uzbek yaxši qormoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya čoy yaxši qor-a-di
pn tea well see- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja loves tea.’

West Central Oromo dʒaallata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n ʃaajii dʒaallat-a
pn - nom tea. abs love-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa loves tea.’

Wolof bëgg

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
waa Senegaal dañu bëgg ceeb-u jén
people pn f oc v .s i :3 pl like rice( b )- cstr fish( w )
‘The Senegalese like rice and fish.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z çay ppara kkan-da
pn - obl - dat tea much want- evt
‎‎‎‘Sahib loves tea.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: SBJ.TR_ra.PSTP
X: SBJ.TR
Y: ra.PSTP
Locus: Y
a t͡ʃaj=ra hɛs kɛ-n-a
3 sg . f . abs tea=from love make. prs - aug -3 sg . f
‘She loves tea.’

Zilo Andi dʒiʔ.i-r

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<b>o dʒiʔ.i-r tʃaj
pn - aff < inan 1> like. pst - prog tea[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Patimat likes tea.’