BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘love (person)’

Argument frame: X (love) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. loves M .
Predicate label Ru: любить#человека#
Argument frame Ru: X (любить) Y -а (сына)
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. любит М .

Abaza bzəj ba

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád fatíma bzə́j də-j-b-ə́j-d
pn pn well 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . erg -see- prs - dcl
‘Murad loves Fatima.’

Aghul kːande-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s fat’ima kːande-a
pn - dat pn love- prs
‘Aslan loves Fatima.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +bayyə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
gavr-o +bəbah-o=lə baxt-u
man( m )- p .3 f love. prog - p .3 f =3 m woman( f )- p .3 m
‘Husband loves his wife.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker. +bəbah is a dialect variant of the progressive stem (+byay in the Urmi dialect).

Brazilian Portuguese amar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro am-a Maria
pn ( m ) love-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Pedro loves Maria.’

Catalan estimar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere estim-a a la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) love-3 sg . prs . ind to def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere loves Maria.’

Czech milovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr miluje Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] love( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr loves Michal.’

Danish elske

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter elske-r Marie
pn love- prs pn
‘Peter loves Marie.’

Dutch houden

Valency pattern: SBJ_van
X: SBJ
Y: van
Locus: Y
Piet houd-t van Marie
pn ( c ) hold-3 sg from pn ( c )
‘Piet loves Marie.’

Estonian armastama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter armasta-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom love- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter loves Maret.’

Finnish rakastaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka rakast-aa Matti-a
pn . nom love- prs .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka loves Matti’

Forest Enets kɔmita

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-da kɔmita-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- obl . sg .3 sg like( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend loves his wife’.

Italian amare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo am-a Maria
pn ( m ) love-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo loves Maria.’

Kazakh süy

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï süy-edі
pn pn - acc love- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya loves Masha.’

Kazym Khanty sămǝŋa tǎjti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en maša-j-ǝλ săm-ǝŋ-a tǎj-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .3 sg heart- attr - dat have- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja loves Maša.’

Latin amo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
tener-as ama-t ille puell-as
tender- acc . pl . f love[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg that. nom . sg . m girl( f )- acc . pl
‘He loves tender girls.’
Note: (Ov. Amores. III, 3, 25)

Modern Hebrew ohev

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas ohev et Menaχem
pn love[ ptcp . sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas loves Menachem.’

Nanai uləsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa uləsi-ni
pn pn - obl love. ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia loves Masha.’

Norwegian Bokmål å elske

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per elske-r Kari
pn love- prs pn
‘Per loves Kari.’

Polish kochać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Ann-a kocha Mark-a
pn - nom . sg love: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Anna loves Marek.’

Russian ljubitʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja ljub-it Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg love( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja loves Maša.’

Rutul qɨgara

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s ǯu-du duχ q-ɨga-r=a
pn - obl - dat self.1. obl - attr son( nom ) re -1.love. ipfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul loves his son.’

Skolt Saami räʹǩsted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt rääʹǩǩast Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom love. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete loves Maria’

Slovenian ljubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a ljubi Petr-a
pn - nom . sg love: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Ana loves Peter.’

Spanish querer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro quier-e a María
pn [ sg . m ] love- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro loves Maria.’

Swedish att älska

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn älska-r Maja
pn love- prs pn
‘Björn loves Maja.’

Turkish sevmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i sev-iyor
pn pn - acc love- prs
‘Mehmet loves Filiz.’

Ulcha uləsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
əj xusə piktə ti əktə piktə-wə uləs-i-ni
this male child that female child- acc love- prs -3 sg
‘This boy loves that girl.’

Zilo Andi dʒiʔ.i-r

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<j>o dʒiʔ.i-r marjam
pn - aff < f > like. pst - prog pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Patimat likes Mariam.’