BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘lose (game)’

Argument frame: X (lose) to Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. played chess with M.) P. lost to M .
Predicate label Ru: проиграть
Argument frame Ru: X (проиграть) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. играл с М. в шахматы). П. проиграл М .

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Aghul aq x.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-l-as aq x.u-ne
pn pn - super - elat down become. pf - aor
‘Aslan lost to Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +makrəm

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
+Ašur +mukrəm-lə ka axun-u
pn lose. pst - ls .3 m to brother( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur lost to his brother.’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: SBJ_para
X: SBJ
Y: para
Locus: Y
Pedro perdeu para Miguel
‘Педру проиграл Мигелу.’

Czech prohrát

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr prohrá-l s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr lost to Michal.’

Finnish hävitä

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka hävi-si Mati-lle
pn . nom lose- pst .3 sg pn - all
‘Pekka lost to Matti.’

Forest Enets mɔtelta

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi genka-xa-nʲiʔ tʃasi-jʔ mɔtelta-u
i pn - dat . sg - obl . sg .1 sg watch- nom . sg .1 sg lose( pfv )-1 sg . so sg
‘I lost my watch to Genka’.

Latin vinco + PASS

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
vict-us ergo est magis etiam consili-o Thimistocl-i, quam arm-is Graeci-ae
win. prf . ptcp . pass - nom . sg . m consequently be. prs . ind . act .3 sg more even decision( n )- abl . sg pn ( m )- gen . sg than weapon( n )- abl . pl g reece( f )- gen . sg
‘He was defeated even more by Themistocle’s decision than by the Greek weapons.’
Note: (Nepos. Vitae. Them. 4, 5).

Modern Hebrew ifsid

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas ifsid le Menaχem
pn lose[ pst .3 sg . m ] to pn
‘Pinchas lost to Menachem.’

Nanai pərə-

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-du pərə-xə-ni
pn pn - dat lose- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia lost to Masha.’

Norwegian Bokmål å tape

Valency pattern: SBJ_mot
X: SBJ
Y: mot
Locus: Y
Per tap-te mot Ola
pn lose- pst towards pn
‘Per lost to Ola.’

Polish przegrać

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Józef przegra-ł z Eugeniusz-em
pn [ nom . sg ] lose: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] with pn - ins . sg
‘Józef lost to Eugeniusz.’

Russian proigratʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja proigra-l Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja lost to Maša.’

Rutul jawa jišira

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul jawa jiši-r=a asijet-ɨ-la
pn ( nom ) weak 1.become. pfv - cvb =be pn - obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul lost to Asijat.’

Skolt Saami taaʹppjed

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt taaʹppj-i Märjj-a
pn . sg . nom be.beaten- pst .3 sg pn - sg . ill
‘Pete lost to Maria’

Slovenian izgubiti

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter je izgubi-l s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg lose: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter lost to Pavel.’

Swedish att förlora

Valency pattern: SBJ_mot
X: SBJ
Y: mot
Locus: Y
Björn förlora-de mot Maja
pn lose- pst against pn
‘Björn lost to Maja.’

Turkish kaybetmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a kaybet-ti
pn pn - dat lose- pst
‘Mehmet lost to Orhan.’

Ulcha dabda-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
təmu ńī-n mərgə-n=də dabda-xa
underwater_world human-3 sg hero-3 sg = emph lose_game- pst
‘And the hero of the underwater world's people lost the game.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed. This example is taken from natural texts.

Zilo Andi <w>-uʁ.an

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali muħammadi-ʔo w-uʁ.an
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - super . lat m -lose. pst ( aor )
‘Ali lost to Muhammad.’