BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘lose (game)’

Argument frame: X (lose) to Y
Stimulus sentence: (P. played chess with M.) P. lost to M .
Predicate label Ru: проиграть
Argument frame Ru: X (проиграть) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (П. играл с М. в шахматы). П. проиграл М .

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Adyghe (West Circassian) tje-ḳʷe

Valency pattern: LOC.TOP_ABS
X: LOC.TOP
Y: ABS
Locus: X
pŝaŝe-r č̣ʼale-m tje-ḳʷa-ʁ
girl- abs guy- obl loc : top -go- pst
‘The guy lost to the girl.’

Aghul aq x.u-

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPER.ELAT
Locus: Y
aslan meʜemed.i-l-as aq x.u-ne
pn pn - super - elat down become. pf - aor
‘Aslan lost to Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz uduzmiş xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
terlan rasul-iz uduzmiş xhiy-id
pn pn - dat lose be. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan lost to Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_COMP
X: NOM
Y: COMP
Locus: Y
paša marin-ni-χur uqːʼˁa
pn pn - obl - comp 1.lose. pfv
‘Pasha lost to Marina.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +makrəm

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
+Ašur +mukrəm-lə ka axun-u
pn lose. pst - ls .3 m to brother( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur lost to his brother.’

Avar q’eze

Valency pattern: NOM_SUBEL
X: NOM
Y: SUBEL
Locus: Y
ʕali q’-una aħmad-i-ƛ’a
pn lose- ipf pn - obl - subel
‘Ali lost to Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani uduzmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a uduz-du
pn pn - dat / lat lose- pst (3)
‘Aslan lost to Rasul.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: SBJ_mbo
X: SBJ
Y: mbo
Locus: Y
àmbɛ́ lɨ́ wó m̀bô sùù
pn sm p 1 fail for pn
‘Ambe lost to Suh.’

Bambara cɛ̀

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù ye dùgumasara` cɛ̀ marasibɔ` lá
pn pfv . tr defeat\ art collect cards\ art in
‘Segu lost in cards.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is not overtly expressed.

Brazilian Portuguese perder

Valency pattern: SBJ_para
X: SBJ
Y: para
Locus: Y
Pedro perd-eu para Miguel
pn ( m ) lose-3 sg . pst towards pn ( m )
‘Pedro lost to Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-uz uduzmi saxha-ci
pn pn - dat losing ( m )be. pf - nar
‘Aslan lost to Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan perdre

Valency pattern: SBJ_contra
X: SBJ
Y: contra
Locus: Y
en Pere va perdre contra en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind lose. inf towards def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere lost to Marc.’

Chirag pas b-uχi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le rasul-l-i pas uχ-ub
pn ( abs ) pn - obl - super lose ( m . sg )become: pf - aor .3
‘Ali lost to Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Czech prohrát

Valency pattern: NOM_sINS
X: NOM
Y: sINS
Locus: Y
Petr prohrá-l s Michal-em
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] with pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Petr lost to Michal.’

Danish tabe

Valency pattern: SBJ_til
X: SBJ
Y: til
Locus: Y
Peter tab-te til Marie
pn lose- pst to pn
‘Peter lost to Marie.’

Dutch verliezen

Valency pattern: SBJ_van
X: SBJ
Y: van
Locus: Y
Piet heeft verlor-en van Marie
pn ( c ) have.3 sg lose- ptcp from pn ( c )
‘Piet lost to Marie.’

Eastern Maninka bè

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù bára bè.
pn prf fall
‘Seku has lost.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed.

English lose

Valency pattern: SBJ_to
X: SBJ
Y: to
Locus: Y
Peter lost to Mary.

Estonian kaotama

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Peeter kaota-s Mareti-le
pn . sg . nom lose- pst .3 sg pn - all
‘Peeter lost to Maret.’

Finnish hävitä

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka hävi-si Mati-lle
pn . nom lose- pst .3 sg pn - all
‘Pekka lost to Matti.’

Forest Enets mɔtelta

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi genka-xa-nʲiʔ tʃasi-jʔ mɔtelta-u
i pn - dat . sg - obl . sg .1 sg watch- nom . sg .1 sg lose( pfv )-1 sg . so sg
‘I lost my watch to Genka’.

French perdre

Valency pattern: SBJ_contre
X: SBJ
Y: contre
Locus: Y
Paul a perdu une partie d’ échec-s contre Michel
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg lose. pst . ptcp . m indf . sg . f game( f ) of chess- pl against pn ( m )
‘Paul lost a game of chess to Michel.’

Georgian c'a-Ø-a-g-eb-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT.SOC
X: ERG
Y: DAT.SOC
Locus: Y
p'et're-m mašo-s-tan č'adrak'-ši [tamaš-i] c'a-Ø-a-g-o
pn - erg pn - dat - pstp : soc chess- pstp : iness [game- nom ] prv :away- io 3- ver : n -lose- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre lost to Masho at chess.’
Note: “The game” can be omitted.

German verlieren

Valency pattern: NOM_gegenACC
X: NOM
Y: gegenACC
Locus: Y
Karl hat gegen Marie verloren
pn [ nom . sg ] have. prs .3 sg against pn [ acc . sg ] lose. ptcp 2
‘Karl lost to Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle yée pɛ́li

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe yée àa pɛ́li Hèhee ɓà
pn hand 3 sg . prf be_able pn e on1
‘Hehee lost to Pepee.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Icari Dargwa gu=w=w=ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_ELAT
X: ABS
Y: ELAT
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-ri-r gu=w=w=ih-ub
pn . abs pn - obl - elat sub = ess = m =be- aor
‘Islam lost to Nadir.’

Irish caill

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Chaill le Mary.
pst /lose he with pn
‘He lost to Máire.’

Italian perdere

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo ha perso con Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs lose. pst . ptcp with pn ( f )
‘Leo lost to Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa č'ur-CL-uh-es / č'ur-CL-ur-es

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
meħamad č'ur-0-uh-ub rasu-j-s
pn lose- m -become. pfv - pret pn - obl - dat
‘Muhammad lost to Rasul.’

Kalderash Romani xasarəl

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
o Murš-a xasar-ď-a la Marijk-akə
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg lose- pst -3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - dat . sg
‘Murša lost to Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul maˁhˁame.da-z proigrat ʁa-x-nu
pn ( abs ) pn - dat lose pf -( h . sg )become- pst
‘Rasul lost Mahamad.’

Karata beʁanɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
ʕali aħmat’-i-č’o w-oʁ-an
pn pn - obl - cont m -lose- pf
‘Ali lost to Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa kalgana

Valency pattern: NOM_ANTEL
X: NOM
Y: ANTEL
Locus: Y
petja miša-sar kalg-un
pn pn - antel remain. pf - aor
‘Petja lost to Misha.’

Kazakh utïl-ïp qal

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ɣa ut-ïl-ïp qal-dï
pn pn - dat lose- pass - cvb remain- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya lose to Masha.’

Kazym Khanty nŏχ pitti + PASS

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en waśa-j-en-ǝn nŏχ pit-s-a
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg - loc upward fall- pst - pass [3 sg ]
‘Petja lost to Vasja.’
Note: This is a passive construction.

Khoekhoe ǂnai

Valency pattern: SBJ_!oa
X: SBJ
Y: !aoa
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge Maria-s ǃoa go ǂnai
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg to rpst lose
‘Peter lost to Maria.’

Khwarshi j/iʁʷa

Valency pattern: ABS_CONT
X: ABS
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
da šamil-qo šaχmate-za-l iʁ-ʁa
1 sg . abs pn - cont chess- pl . o - dat [ i ]lose- pst . w
‘I lost to Shamil at chess.’

Kina Rutul jawa jišira

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.EL
X: NOM
Y: SUP.EL
Locus: Y
rasul jawa jiši-r=a asijet-ɨ-la
pn ( nom ) weak 1.become. pfv - cvb =be pn - obl ( sup )- el
‘Rasul lost to Asijat.’

Kumyk utulmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir musa-ʁa ut-ul-d-u
pn pn - dat win- pass - pst -3 sg
‘Basir lost to Musa.’

Latin vinco + PASS

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
vict-us ergo est magis etiam consili-o Thimistocl-i, quam arm-is Graeci-ae
win. prf . ptcp . pass - nom . sg . m consequently be. prs . ind . act .3 sg more even decision( n )- abl . sg pn ( m )- gen . sg than weapon( n )- abl . pl g reece( f )- gen . sg
‘He was defeated even more by Themistocle’s decision than by the Greek weapons.’
Note: (Nepos. Vitae. Them. 4, 5).

Laz o-ǯg-in-u

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Fatma-s ge-Ø-i-ǯg-in-u
pn - nom pn - dat prv - s 3- ver : s -be_better- r . ext - s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim lost to Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese shū

Valency pattern: SBJ_gei
X: SBJ
Y: gei
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān shū gěi le Lǐsì
pn lose for pfv pn
‘Zhangsan lost to Lisi.’

Mano kɔ̀ bɛ̀ī

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
kɔ̀ bɛ̀ī ŋ̄ mɔ̀
2 sg arm 3 sg . pst be.able 1 sg on
‘I lost to you.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ESS
Locus: Y
Islam durʡaˤ uh-ub Nadir-li-če-w
pn losing m .become: pfv - aor pn - obl - super - m ( ess )
‘Islam lost to Nadir.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian c'a-Ø-a-g-en-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_SOC
X: ERG
Y: SOC
Locus: Y
čelo-k anučia-c'k'uma c'a-Ø-a-g-u
pn - erg pn - pstp : soc prv - do 3- ver : sup -lose- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo lost to Anuchia.’
Note: This verb phrase is a recent borrowing from Georgian.

Modern Hebrew ifsid

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas ifsid le Menaχem
pn lose[ pst .3 sg . m ] to pn
‘Pinchas lost to Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul gergın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
murad gergı-ri
pn m .lose. pf - aor
‘Murad lost.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed.

Nanai pərə-

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-du pərə-xə-ni
pn pn - dat lose- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia lost to Masha.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh bituruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
pataħi w-ut-ari musa-gune
pn m -lose- aor pn - el
‘Patahi lost to Musa.’

Northern Mansi patwes

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
am pet’a jot kasǝr-l-as-um, taw-e-n pat-we-s-um
1 sg pn com card- vbz - pst -1 sg 3 sg - obl - lat fall- pass - pst -1 sg
‘I played cards with Peter and lost to him.’
Note: This is a passive construction based on an intransitive verb.

Northern Yukaghir albǝdˈī=

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаt аlbǝdˈi-č
pn pn - abl lose- intr .3 sg
‘Semien lost to Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å tape

Valency pattern: SBJ_mot
X: SBJ
Y: mot
Locus: Y
Per tap-te mot Ola
pn lose- pst towards pn
‘Per lost to Ola.’

Polish przegrać

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Józef przegra-ł z Eugeniusz-em
pn [ nom . sg ] lose: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] with pn - ins . sg
‘Józef lost to Eugeniusz.’

Russian proigratʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja proigra-l Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja lost to Maša.’

Serbian izgubiti

Valency pattern: NOM_odGEN
X: NOM
Y: odGEN
Locus: Y
Petar je izgubi-o od Marij-e
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg lose- part . perf . m . sg from.near pn - gen . sg
‘Petar lost to Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul aa gjarkɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
basir aa gjarkɨ-r karam-ɨla
pn low m .stay_under. pf - aor pn - el
‘Basir lost to Karam.’

Shughni na-yêdow

Valency pattern: NOM_EL
X: NOM
Y: EL
Locus: Y
Šamil=i as Azima na-yo-d
pn =3 sg el pn neg -win- pst
‘Shamil lost to Azim.’

Skolt Saami taaʹppjed

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
Peâtt taaʹppj-i Märjj-a
pn . sg . nom be.beaten- pst .3 sg pn - sg . ill
‘Pete lost to Maria’

Slovak prehrať

Valency pattern: NOM_nadINS
X: NOM
Y: nadINS
Locus: Y
Peter prehra-l nad Mark-om
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] over pn ( m )- ins . sg
‘Peter lost to Marek.’

Slovenian izgubiti

Valency pattern: NOM_zINS
X: NOM
Y: zINS
Locus: Y
Peter je izgubi-l s Pavl-om
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg lose: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] with pn - ins . sg
‘Peter lost to Pavel.’

Sorani Kurdish dor̂andin

Valency pattern: SBJ_be
X: SBJ
Y: be
Locus: Y
Hîwa be Sirwan=î dor̂and-Ø
pn to pn =3 sg . pc lose. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa lost to Sirwan.’

Southern Rutul aˤcuˤz yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad aydın-ı-s aˤcuˤz yişi-r
pn pn - obl - dat weak m .be. pf - aor
‘Murad lost to Aydin.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Spanish perder

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pedro ha perdi-do una partida de ajedrez con María
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg lose- ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . f game[ sg . f ] from chess[ sg . m ] with pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro lost a game of chess with Maria.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Standard Arabic ḫasira

Valency pattern: NOM_maaGEN
X: NOM
Y: maaGEN
Locus: Y
Aḥmad-u ḫasira maʕa Muḥammad-in
pn - nom lose. pf .3 m with pn - gen
‘Ahmad lost to Muhammad.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø gegi-s deš a-x-c'ind-a
pn - nom pn - dat neg . pot prv : dist - io 3-win- pst
‘Maizer failed to win against Gegi.’
Note: There is no dedicated lexical item meaning ‘lose (a game).’

Swedish att förlora

Valency pattern: SBJ_mot
X: SBJ
Y: mot
Locus: Y
Björn förlora-de mot Maja
pn lose- pst against pn
‘Björn lost to Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Na-talo si Pedro kay Miguel
< pfv > stem -lose[ av ] pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro lost to Miguel.’

Telugu ōḍipōvu

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
pravīṇ maheṣ-tō ōḍipōyāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - com be_defeated. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen lost to Mahesh.’

Tsakhur avur aхviy

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
aˁli ehmed-ıle avu-r aхu
pn pn - superel under- h ( m )stay. pf
‘Murad lost to Ahmed.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa gub ha-b-ič-iz/ha-b-irč-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.ABL2
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.ABL2
Locus: Y
uršːi gu-wa w-ajč-ib juldaš-li-jа-kar
boy sub - m . lat m -fall. pfv - pret (3) friend- obl - super - abl 2
‘The boy lost to his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa gu-b-b-iχ-i / gu-b-b-irχ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB.ESS
X: NOM
Y: SUB.ESS
Locus: Y
durħaˤ tatːi-gu-w gu-w-w-iχ-ub
boy father- sub - m . ess sub - m . ess - m -be. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy lost to his father.’

Turkish kaybetmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a kaybet-ti
pn pn - dat lose- pst
‘Mehmet lost to Orhan.’

Turoyo xoṣər

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_7am
X: SBJ.SS
Y: 7am
Locus: Y
Šabo xaṣər ʕam i Maryam
pn lose. pfv .3 m with art . f pn
‘Shabo lost to Maryam.’

Ulcha dabda-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
təmu ńī-n mərgə-n=də dabda-xa
underwater_world human-3 sg hero-3 sg = emph lose_game- pst
‘And the hero of the underwater world's people lost the game.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y cannot be overtly expressed. This example is taken from natural texts.

Uzbek yutqazmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ga yutqaz-di
pn pn - dat lose- pst .3 sg
‘Petja lost to Maša.’

West Central Oromo moʔa + PASS

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
obsaa-n tolaa-ɗaan moʔ-am-e
pn - nom pn - ins win- pass -3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa lost to Tola.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib Eldar-a-z meǧlub xha-na
pn pn - obl - dat defeated become. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib lost to Eldar.’

Zilo Andi <w>-uʁ.an

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
ali muħammadi-ʔo w-uʁ.an
pn [ m ][ nom ] pn - super . lat m -lose. pst ( aor )
‘Ali lost to Muhammad.’