BivalTyp

‘lose’

Argument frame: X (lose) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. lost his keys .
Predicate label Ru: терять
Argument frame Ru: X (терять) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. потерял ключи .

Abaza [ĉ-]ʒə

Valency pattern: MAL_ABS
X: MAL
Y: ABS
Locus: X
á-č’ḳʷən a-c̣apχa-kʷá j-ĉə́-ʒ-ṭ
def -boy def -key- pl 3 sg . m . io - mal -get_lost( aor )- dcl
‘The boy lost his keys.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ʁe.ḳʷedə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
č̣ʼale-m ʔʷənč̣ʼəbze-xe-r ə-ʁe-ḳʷedə-ʁ
guy- obl key- pl - abs 3 sg . erg - caus -get_lost- pst
‘The guy lost his keys.’

Aghul gul.u-

Valency pattern: APUD.ELAT_ABS
X: APUD.ELAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-f-as güleg-ar gul.u-ne
pn - apud - elat key- pl disappear. pf - aor
‘Aslan lost his keys.’

Alik Kryz gula aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir açar-bi gula ar-ic
pn - erg lock- pl . nom get_lost. pfv do. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan lost his keys.’

Archi

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-n nakʼən i-tʼ-etːi
pn - gen key be- neg -4.become. pfv
‘Pasha lost his keys.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic talək

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata kdilə tulk-e-la
girl( f ) key( m ). pl lose. pst - ss ( o ).3 pl - ls .3 f
‘The girl lost her keys.’

Avar bilize

Valency pattern: APUDEL_NOM
X: APUDEL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-qa k’ulal r-il-ana
pn - apudel keys pl -disappear- aor
‘Ali lost his keys.’

Azerbaijani itirmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan açar-lar-ı-nı itir-di
pn key- pl - poss 3- acc lose- pst (3)
‘Aslan lost his keys.’

Bafut ???

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ bɨ̀-kwáʔà bàʔà dʒí
pn sm p 2 pl -opener door his
‘Ame lost his keys.’

Bambara bùrun

Valency pattern: ko_SBJ
X: ko
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
kónnɛgɛ` bùrun-na Sékù kɔ́
key\ art fall- pfv . intr pn behind
‘Seku has lost the key.’

Brazilian Portuguese perder

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro perd-eu a-s chave-s
pn ( m ) lose-3 sg . pst def . f - pl key( f )- pl
‘Pedro lost the keys.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır ug-o heçer-ber ʕagül-cü
pn - erg refl - gen key- pl lose. pf - nar
‘Aslan lost his keys.’

Catalan perdre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va perdre les clau-s
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind lose. inf def . pl . f key( f )- pl
‘Pere lost his keys.’

Chirag b-itaqi b-aqi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le gilaw-me d-itaq-i d-aq-ib-le
pn - erg key- pl ( abs ) n . pl -disappear: pf - inf n . pl - caus : pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali lost the keys.’

Czech ztratit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr ztrati-l klíč-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] key( m )- acc . pl
‘Petr lost his keys.’

Danish miste

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter miste-de sin-e nøgle-r
pn lose- pst poss . refl . c - pl key( c )- pl
‘Peter lost his keys.’

Dutch kwijt zijn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet is de sleutel-s kwijt
pn ( c ) cop .3 sg art . def . c key( c )- pl lost
‘Piet lost the keys.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Eastern Maninka túnun

Valency pattern: bolo_SBJ
X: bolo
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Kóɲin` bára túnun Sékù bólo.
key\ art prf disappear pn cntrl
‘Seku has lost the key.’

English lose

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter lost his keys.

Estonian kaotama

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter kaota-s oma võtme-d
pn . sg . nom lose- pst .3 sg poss . refl key- pl . nom
‘Peeter lost his keys.’

Finnish hukata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka hukka-si avaim-en
pn . nom lose- pst .3 sg key- gen
‘Pekka lost the key.’

Forest Enets dʲɔs

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ bɛʃi-za dʲɔʔɔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg iron- nom . pl .3 sg loose( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend lost his money’.

French perdre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a perdu ses clef-s
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg lose. pst . ptcp . m def . pl key( f )- pl
‘Paul lost his keys.’

Georgian da-Ø-k'arg-av-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m gasaγeb-i da-Ø-k'arg-a
pn - erg key- nom prv :downward- do 3-lose- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre lost his keys.’

German verlieren

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl verlor sein-en Schlüssel
pn [ nom . sg ] lose. pst .3 sg his- m . acc . sg key[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl lost his key.’

Guinean Kpelle pǐli

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àá gwɛ̀li píli
pn 3 sg . prf def \key lose
‘Pepee lost the key.’

Icari Dargwa d=it-aq-aq-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il umx-ni d=it-aˤq-aˤq-ib
pn - erg key- pl . abs npl =lose- lv : pf - caus - aor
‘Islam lost his keys.’

Irish caill

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=chaill Pól a chuid neochr-acha.
pst =lose pn poss .3 sg . m share keys- gp
‘Pól lost his keys.’

Italian perdere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha perso le chiav-i
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs lose. pst . ptcp def . pl . f key- pl . f
‘Leo lost the keys.’

Kadar Dargwa awgar-CL-ar-es / awgar-CL-ir-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li ibxan-t awgar-d-ar-ib
pn - erg key- pl be.absent. part - npl -do. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad lost his keys.’

Kalderash Romani xasarəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a xasar-ď-a le te-i
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg lose- pst -3 sg art . pl key- acc . pl
‘Murša lost his keys.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
maˁhaˁmad-ǯi ǯülg-er ʁu-du<r>g-nu
pn - erg key- pl ( abs ) pf -< pl >lose- pst
‘Mahamad lost his keys.’

Karata betaɬa

Valency pattern: CONTEL_NOM
X: CONTEL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-č’ogal rek’ul-di r-et-a
pn - contel key- pl npl -lose- pf
‘Ali lost his keys.’

Kaytag Dargwa derq’aχara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l d-erq’iχ-iv umxni
pn - erg npl -lose. pf - aor key. pl . nom
‘Petja lost his keys.’

Kazakh žoɣal

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya kіlt-і-n žoɣal-tï
pn key- poss 3- acc lose- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya lost the keys.’

Kazym Khanty wǫtšǝti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en λǫp-ǝt wǫtšǝ-s
pn - ep - poss .2 sg oar- pl lose- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja lost his oars.’

Khoekhoe gāxū-he

Valency pattern: SBJ_xa
X: SBJ
Y: xa
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge ǁî-b ǁkhowaam-gu xa go gāxū-he
pn -3 m . sg decl 3-3 m . sg key-3 m . pl by rpst lose- pass
‘Peter lost his keys.’

Khwarshi j/ita

Valency pattern: CONT_ABS
X: CONT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
šamil-qo l-it-ta leq'a-ba
pn - cont nhpl -be.lost- pst . w key( iii )- pl . abs
‘Shamil lost his keys.’

Kina Rutul sugura

Valency pattern: APUD.EL_NOM
X: APUD.EL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-da: güleg-mar su-gu-r=a
pn - apud . el key- pl ( nom ) pv - npl .lose. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul lost his keys.’

Kumyk tas etmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir ačqɨč-la-nɨ tas et-gen
pn key- pl - acc lost do- pf
‘Basir lost the keys.’

Latin perdo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
perdid-istin tu anul-um?
lose[ prf . ind ]- act .2 sg you. nom ring( m )- acc . sg
‘Have you lost a ring?’
Note: (Pl. Cur. 584)

Laz o-ndun-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s k'ola-Ø g-Ø-u-ndun-u
pn - b - dat key- nom prv - io 3- ver : o -lose- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim lost the key(s).’

Mandarin Chinese nòng diū

Valency pattern: SBJ_ba
X: SBJ
Y: ba
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān yàoshi nòng diū le
pn ba key make lost pfv
‘Zhangsan lost his keys.’
Note: The status of the "bǎ"-construction is controversial.

Mano gínī

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
māà pɛ̄ dò gínī
1 sg . prf thing indef lose
‘I have lost something.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: CONT.EL_NOM
X: CONT.EL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-ize-la ar-d-uʔ-ur urx-ne
pn - cont - el pv - npl -lose: pfv - aor key- p l
‘Islam lost his keys.’

Mingrelian mi-Ø-o-din-u-an-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k muš-(i) k'ila-Ø mi-Ø-o-din-(u)
pn - erg refl . poss -( nom ) key- nom prv - do 3- fact -lose- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo lost his keys.’

Modern Hebrew ibed

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas ibed et ha mafteχ-ot ʃel-o
pn lose[ pst .3 sg . m ] do def key- pl poss -3 sg . m
‘Pinchas lost his keys.’

Mukhad Rutul suga hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a ačar-bır suga hıʔı-ri
pn - erg key- pl . nom n .lose n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad lost his keys.’

Nanai xuədə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia anoko-wa xuədə-xə-ni
pn key- obl lose- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia lost his keys.’

Nivkh vəkzd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik pitɣəŋ pəkz-d
pn book lose- ind
‘Kaskazik lost his book.’

Northern Akhvakh buquruƛa

Valency pattern: POSS_NOM
X: POSS
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-ƛƛi rik’aƛƛa r-uq-ari
pn - gen keys npl -lose- aor
‘Patahi lost his keys.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Northern Mansi xotūstǝs

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
am os ta kasaj-um xot-ūst-ǝs-um
1 sg add ptcl knife- poss .1 sg off-lose- pst -1 sg
‘I lost my knife again.’

Northern Yukaghir saɣusǝ=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn mа̄čǝ-lǝ sаɣusǝ-m-lǝ
pn lasso- acc lose- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien lost the lasso.’

Norwegian Bokmål å miste

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per miste-t nøkl-ene
pn lose- pst key- def . pl
‘Per lost his keys.’

Polish zgubić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Marek zgubi-ł klucz-e
pn [ nom . sg ] lose: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] key- acc . pl
‘Marek lost his keys.’

Russian poterjatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja poterja-l ključ-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] key( m )- acc . pl
‘Petja lost his keys.’

Serbian izgubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je izgubi-o ključ-eve
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg lose- part . perf . m . sg key- acc . pl
‘Petar lost his keys.’

Shinaz Rutul suga hɨʔɨn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir suga hɨʔɨ-r gülej-mar
pn ( erg ) ( n )lose. cov n .do. pf - aor key- pl . nom
‘Basir lost his keys.’

Shughni binêstow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
yu=yi xu wix̌īӡ-en binês-t
d 3. m . sg =3 sg refl key- pl lose- pst
‘He lost his keys.’

Skolt Saami läʹpped

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt laaʹpp-i suu lokkčouddi
pn . sg . nom lose- pst .3 sg 3 sg . gen key. sg . acc
‘Pete lost his key.’

Slovak stratiť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter strati-l svoj-e kľúč-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] lose( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] one's- acc . pl key( m )- acc . pl
‘Peter lost his keys.’

Slovenian izgubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je izgubi-l ključ-e
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg lose: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] key- acc . pl
‘Peter lost his keys.’

Sorani Kurdish win kirdin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa kilîl-ek-an=î win kird-Ø
pn key- def - pl =3 sg . pc disappear do. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa lost his keys.’

Southern Rutul sugva hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a aˤçaˤr sugva hıʔı-r
pn - erg key ( n )lose n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad lost his keys.’

Spanish perder

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha perdi-do la-s llave-s
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg lose- ptcp : prf art . def . f - pl key[ sg . f ]- pl
‘Pedro lost the keys.’

Standard Arabic ḍayyaʕa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un ḍayyaʕa l-mafātīḥ-a
pn - nom lose. pf .3 m def -keys- acc
‘Badr lost the keys.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d k'ǝl-ar-Ø ad-Ø-karw-e
pn - erg key- pl - nom prv : dist - do 3-lose- pst
‘Maizer lost (his) keys.’

Swedish att tappa bort

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn tappa-de bort sina nyckl-ar
pn lose- pst away poss . refl . pl key- pl
‘Björn lost his keys.’
Note: Phrasal verb (bort is not a flagging device).

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
na-wala ni Pedro ang kaniya-ng susi
pot . pv . pfv -lose pers . gen pn subj 3. sg . dat - lin key
‘Pedro lost his keys.’

Telugu pōgoṭṭukōnu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ atani tāḷaṁcēvu-lu pōgoṭṭukunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom that_man( m ). sg . obl key( n )- pl . nom lose. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen lost his keys.’

Tsakhur ak’an haʔiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee mık’ey-bı ak’an haʔu
pn - erg key- pl . nom n .lose. ipf n .do. pf
‘Murad lost his keys.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa paˤχ-li b-už-iz/b-ulž-iz

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-la umxne paˤχ-li d-ug-un
boy- gen key. pl away- erg / loc ( lat ) npl -stay. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy lost his keys.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Tsugni Dargwa b-it-aq-i / b-it-iq-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li umxne d-it-aq-ib
boy- erg key. pl npl -thither-go_through. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy lost his keys.’

Turkish kaybetmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet anahtar-lar-ı kaybet-ti
pn key- pl - p .3 lose- pst
‘Mehmet lost his keys.’

Turoyo mṣakər

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel mṣakar-le a qliḏ-ayḏe
pn lose. pfv - ls .3 m art . pl key- p .3 m
‘Gabriyel lost his keys.’

Twi year

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kofi yera-a ne n-safoa
pn lose- pst 3 sg ( poss ) pl -key
‘Kofi lost his keys.’

Ulcha wədə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama anaqu-wa wədə-xə-ni
father key- acc lose- pst -3 sg
‘Father lost the keys.’

Uzbek yo’qotib olmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya kalt-ni yo’qot-ib ol-di
pn key- acc lose- cvb take- pst .3 sg
‘Petja lost his keys.’

West Central Oromo gata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n furtuu-wwan isaa gat-e
pn - nom key- pl . abs 3 sg . m . poss lose-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa lost his keys.’

Wolof sànk

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
sànk naa sama caabi y-i
lose prf .s i :1 sg poss :1 sg key( j ) cl y - def
‘I lost my keys.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a açar-ar kvadar-na
pn - erg key- pl lose. caus - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib lost his keys.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ.TR
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ɛj kɨlid-e xo vindi kɛrd-i
3 sg . m . obl key- ez . pl refl lost make. pst - pl . abs
‘He lost his keys.’

Zilo Andi <r>-ot’-oɬ.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di r-ot’-oɬ.i rek’ulol
pn - erg inan 2- pl \get_lost- caus . pst ( aor ) key[ inan 2]. pl [ nom ]
‘Ali lost the keys.’