BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘look for’

Argument frame: X (look for) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. is looking for his keys .
Predicate label Ru: искать
Argument frame Ru: X (искать) Y (-а)
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. ищет ключи .

Abaza [zə-]pšʕa

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
á-č’ḳʷən a-c̣apχaṭə́ga d-a-zə́-pšʕ-əj-d
def -boy def -key 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . n . io - ben -look_for- prs - dcl
‘The boy is looking for the key.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) λə-χʷə

Valency pattern: ABS_LOC.AFTER
X: ABS
Y: LOC.AFTER
Locus: Y
č̣ʼale-r ʔʷənč̣ʼəbze-xe-m a-λ-e-χʷə
guy- abs key- pl - obl 3 pl . io - loc : after - dyn -look_for
‘The guy is looking for the keys.’

Aghul aruc.a-

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.LAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.LAT
Locus: Y
aslan güleg-ar.i-q-tːi aruc.a-a
pn key- pl - post - lat walk. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is looking for his keys.’

Alik Kryz vadq'vara aric

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir açar-bi vadq'vara yi-raʕaca
pn - erg lock- pl . nom n .find. cvb do. ipfv - prog . n
‘Terlan is looking for his keys.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša nakʼəm-mul irkːu-r-ši w-i
pn key- pl npl -seek- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be
‘Pasha is looking for his keys.’
Note: Binominative construction resolves into transitive.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +ṭavvə

Valency pattern: SBJ_bar
X: SBJ
Y: bar
Locus: Y
baxta +ṭavvuy=la +bar kdilə
woman( f ) seek. prog =3 f after key( m ). pl
‘The woman is looking for her keys.’

Avar balahize

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali k’ulal r-alah-ule-w w-ugo
pn keys pl -look- ipf . ptcp - m m - cop
‘Ali is looking for his keys.’
Note: This is a transitive verb. The bi-nominative construction is triggered by the present tense.

Azerbaijani axtarmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan açar-lar-ı axtar-ır
pn key- pl - poss 3 look_for- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is looking for his keys.’

Bambara ɲíni

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bɛ́_kà kónɲin` ɲíni
pn prog key\ art search
‘Seku is looking for a key.’

Brazilian Portuguese procurar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro está procur-ando a-s chave-s
pn ( m ) cop _ prog .3 sg . prs seek- prog def . f - pl key( f )- pl
‘Pedro is looking for his keys.’

Catalan buscar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està busc-ant les seves clau-s
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind seek- ger def . pl . f poss .3. f . pl key.( f )- pl
‘Pere is looking for his keys.’

Chirag b-ujčːi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le gilaw-me d-ujkː-le
pn - erg key- pl ( abs ) n . pl -look.for: ipf - dur . res .3
‘Ali is looking for his keys.’

Czech hledat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr hledá klíč-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] look_for( ipfv ). prs .3 sg key( m )- acc . pl
‘Petr is looking for his keys.’

Danish lede

Valency pattern: SBJ_efter
X: SBJ
Y: efter
Locus: Y
Peter lede-r efter sin-e nøgle-r
pn search- prs after poss . refl . c - pl key( c )- pl
‘Peter is looking for his keys.’

Dutch zoeken

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet zoek-t de sleutel-s
pn (С) look.for-3 sg art . def . c key(С)- pl
‘Piet is looking for the keys.’

Eastern Maninka ɲínin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé kóɲin` ɲínin-na.
pn be key\ art seek- inf . la
‘Seku looks for a key.’

English look

Valency pattern: SBJ_for
X: SBJ
Y: for
Locus: Y
Peter is looking for his keys.

Estonian otsima

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter otsi-b oma võtme-id
pn . sg . nom search- prs .3 sg poss . refl key- pl . part
‘Peeter is searching for his keys.’

Finnish etsiä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka etsi-i avaim-ia-an
pn . nom look.for- prs .3 sg key- part . pl - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka is looking for his keys.’

Forest Enets per

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ poga-da peŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg fishing_net- obl . sg .3 sg look_for( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is looking for his fishing net’.

French chercher

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul cherche ses clef-s
pn ( m ) look_for. prs .3 sg one’s. pl key( f )- pl
‘Paul is looking for his keys.’

Georgian Ø-e-ʒeb-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø gasaγeb-s Ø-e-ʒeb-s
pn - nom key- dat do 3- ver : r -look_for- s 3 sg
‘Petre is looking for his keys.’

German suchen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl such-t sein-en Schlüssel
pn [ nom . sg ] search- prs .3 sg his- m . acc . sg key[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl is looking for his key.’

Icari Dargwa ubc'-anaj

Valency pattern: ABS_POST.ELAT
X: ABS
Y: POST.ELAT
Locus: Y
Islam umx-n-a-ha-r ubc'-a-ca=w
pn . abs key- pl - obl - post - elat look_for: ipf - prs - cop = m
‘Islam is looking for his keys.’

Irish lorg

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pól ag lorg a eochr-acha.
be. prs pn at look_for. nmlz poss .3 sg . m key- gp
‘Pól is looking for his keys.’
Note: The Y argument is in the GP-form because the verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian cercare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo cerc-a le chiav-i
pn ( m ) look_for-3 sg . prs def . pl . f key- pl . f
‘Leo looks for the keys.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad ibxan-t-i-ke umc'-u-le
pn key pl - obl - super search. ipfv - prs - cvb
‘Muhammad is looking for his keys.’

Kalderash Romani rodel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a rod-el le te-i
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg look_for- prs .3 sg art . pl key- acc . pl
‘Murša is looking for his keys.’

Karata

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali rek’ul-di c’eχχ-eda idja
pn key- pl ask- ipf cop
‘Ali is looking for his keys.’
Note: This structure is binominative because of the progressive. The verb is transitive.

Kaytag Dargwa къяйц1вахьара

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
petja umxnal-ži q:aˁjc’vax-ulca
pn keys. obl - super m .look_for- prs
‘Petja is looking for his keys.’

Kazakh izde

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya kіlt іzde-p žür
pn key search- cvb go.3 sg
‘Petya is looking for keys.’

Kazym Khanty kǎnti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en tǒman-λ-aλ kǎn-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg key- pl - poss .3 sg look_for- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is looking for his keys.’

Khoekhoe ôa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǁî-b di ǁkhowaam-gu-a ôa
pn -3 m . sg decl 3-3 m . sg poss key-3 m . pl - obl look_for
‘Peter is looking for his keys.’

Khwarshi k'ʷeja

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šamil-i k'ʷe-ho leka-ba
pn - erg look.for- prs key( iii )- pl . abs
‘Shamil is looking for his keys.’

Kina Rutul aramiš haɁara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a güleg-mar aramiš haɁa-r=a
pn - erg key- pl ( nom ) seek npl .do. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is looking for his keys.’

Kumyk izlemek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat ačqɨč-la-nɨ izle-j
pn key- pl - acc search-3 sg
‘Patimat is looking for the keys.’

Latin quaero

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
haed-us fratr-um vestigi-a quaer-it
goatling( m )- nom . sg brother( m )- gen . pl trace( n )- acc . pl seek[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘The goatling searches for the traces of his brothers.’
Note: (Man. Astronomica. V, 312)

Laz o-gor-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k k'ola-muš-i Ø-go(r)-um-s
pn - b - erg key- poss 3- nom do 3-look_for- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is looking for his key.’

Mandarin Chinese zhǎo

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zài zhǎo tā-de yàoshi
pn prog look_for he- de key
‘Zhangsan is looking for his key(s).’

Mano nāā

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ̄ là nɛ́ nāā-pɛ̀lɛ̀
3 sg . exi 3 sg . poss child love- inf
‘S/he is looking for his/her child.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Pajzula-li-ni χal d-iq'-uwe le-r urx-ne
pn - obl - erg search npl -do: ipfv - cvb be- npl key- p l
‘Pajzula is looking for his keys.’

Mingrelian Ø-gor-un-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-Ø muš k'ila-s Ø-gor-un-s=u
pn - nom refl . poss key- dat do 3-look_for- sm - s 3 sg = ev
‘Chelo is looking for his keys.’

Modern Hebrew meχapes

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas meχapes et ha mafteχ-ot ʃel-o
pn search[ ptcp . sg . m ] do def key- pl poss -3 sg . m
‘Pinchas is looking for his keys.’

Mukhad Rutul haqhagun

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a ačar haqhabgu-ra a
pn - erg key( a ) a .seek. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is looking for his keys.’

Nanai gələgu-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia anako-wa gələ-gu-j-ni
pn key- obl ask- rep - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is looking for his keys.’

Nivkh ŋanɣt

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik pitɣəŋ + ŋanɣ-t
pn book + look.for- ind
‘Kaskazik is looking for the book.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: NOM_NOM(NO.AGR)
X: NOM
Y: NOM(NO.AGR)
Locus: Y
pataħi rik’aƛ:a eq:-edare gudi
pn keys look_for- ipf . ptcp . npl m . cop
‘Patahi is looking for his keys.’
Note: This structure is unusual (two nominatives). Probably, this is a remnant of the affective construction.

Northern Mansi kinsi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
am kins-ēj-um mil lōx
i look_for- npst -1 sg deep backwater
‘I am looking for deep backwater.’

Northern Yukaghir waŋči=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn mа̄čǝ-lǝ wаnči-nu-m-lǝ
pn lasso- acc look_for- ipf - tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien is looking for his lasso.’

Norwegian Bokmål å lete

Valency pattern: SBJ_etter
X: SBJ
Y: etter
Locus: Y
Per lete-r etter nøkl-ene
pn seek- prs after key- def . pl
‘Per is looking for his keys.’

Polish szukać

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Sylwi-a szuka klucz-y
pn - nom . sg look_for: ipfv . prs .3 sg key- gen . pl
‘Sylwia is looking for her keys.’

Russian iskatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja išč-et ključ-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg look_for( ipfv )- prs .3 sg key( m )- acc . pl
‘Petja is looking for his keys.’

Serbian tražiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar traži ključ-eve
pn . nom . sg look.for. prs .3 sg key- acc . pl
‘Petar is looking for his keys.’

Shinaz Rutul harsɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
basir harsa-r a gülej-maši-χda
pn m . ipf .look_for- simul exist key- pl . obl - apud
‘Basir is looking for his keys.’

Shughni x̌ikīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim xu wix̌īӡ-en x̌ikīr-t
pn refl key- pl look.for-3 sg
‘Azim is looking for his keys.’

Skolt Saami ooccâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt lij oocc-men suu lokkčouddj-id
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg seek- prog . ptcp 3 sg . gen key- pl . acc
‘Pete is looking for his keys.’

Slovak hľadať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter hľadá svoj-e kľúč-e
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] look_for( ipfv ). prs .3 sg one's- acc . pl key( m )- acc . pl
‘Peter is looking for his keys.’

Slovenian iskati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a išče ključ-e
pn - nom . sg look_for: ipfv . prs .3 sg key- acc . pl
‘Ana is looking for her keys.’

Sorani Kurdish ger̂an

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa le kilîl-ek-an=î de-ger̂-ê
pn from key- def - pl =3 sg . pc ind -search. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa is looking for his keys.’
Note: The exact nature of the 3SG.PC marker is not clear (ambiguous).

Southern Rutul harsın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a aˤçaˤr-bı harsa-r
pn - erg key- pl . nom n . ipf .search- prs
‘Murad is looking for his keys.’

Spanish buscar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro busc-a la-s llave-s
pn [ sg . m ] look_for- prs .3 sg art . def . f - pl key[ sg . f ]- pl
‘Pedro is looking for his keys.’

Standard Arabic baḥaṯa

Valency pattern: NOM_anGEN
X: NOM
Y: anGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-u-n yabḥaṯu ʕan il-mafātīḥ-i
pn - nom - indef search. ipf .3 m off def -keys- gen
‘Badr is looking for his keys.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø k'ǝl-ar-s x-e-txeːl-i
pn - nom key- pl - dat io 3- ver : r -look_for- prs
‘Maizer is looking for (his) keys.’

Swedish att leta

Valency pattern: SBJ_efter
X: SBJ
Y: efter
Locus: Y
Björn leta-r efter sina nyckl-ar
pn seek- prs after poss . refl . pl key- pl
‘Björn is looking for his keys.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
H<in>a~hanap ni Pedro ang kaniya-ng susi
< pv > ipfv ~find pers . gen pn subj 3. sg . dat - lin keys
‘Pedro is looking for his keys.’

Telugu vetuku

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLkosamu
X: NOM
Y: OBLkosamu
Locus: Y
pravīṇ tāḷaṁcēvu-la kōsamu vetukutunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom key( n )- pl . obl for search. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is looking for the keys.’

Tsakhur t’abal haʔiy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee mık’ey-bı t’abal haʔa
pn - erg key- pl . nom search n .do. ipf
‘Murad is looking for his keys.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi umxu-ja hitːi w-ax-ule=saj
boy key- super ( lat ) post (after) m -walk- prog . cnv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is looking for his key.’

Tsugni Dargwa hitːe b-aš-i

Valency pattern: NOM_POST
X: NOM
Y: POST
Locus: Y
durħaˤ umxːu-gitːe hitːe w-ax-ule=caj
boy key- post post (after) m -walk- cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is looking for his key.’

Turkish aramak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet anahtar-lar-ı arı-yor
pn key- pl - acc search- prs
‘Mehmet is looking for his keys’.

Turoyo korəx

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_7al
X: SBJ.SS
Y: 7al
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ko-korəx ʕal a qliḏ-ayḏe
pn prs -look. ipfv .3 m on art . pl key- p .3 m
‘Gabriyel is looking for his keys.’

Ulcha gələǯu-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə aŋaqo-wa gələ-ǯ-i-ni
male child key- acc search- rep - prs -3 sg
‘The boy is looking for his key.’

Uzbek qidirmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya kalit qidir-yab-ti
pn key search- prs 1-3 sg
‘Petja is looking for his keys.’

West Central Oromo barbaada

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n furtuu-wwan isaa barbaad-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom key- pl . abs 3 sg . m . poss look_for- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is looking for his keys,’

Zilo Andi kusd.i-r

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pat’imati-di kusd.i-r rek’ulol
pn - erg search. pst - prog key[ inan 2]. pl [ nom ]
‘Patimat is looking for the keys.’