BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘look’

Argument frame: X (look) at Y
Stimulus sentence: P. is looking at the clouds (trying to determine if it will rain).
Predicate label Ru: смотреть
Argument frame Ru: X (смотреть) на Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. смотрит на тучи (он хочет понять, будет ли дождь).

Abaza pšə

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
fatíma á-psthʷa-kʷa də-r-pš-ə́j-ṭ
pn def -cloud- pl 3 sg . h . abs -3 pl . io -look- prs - dcl
‘Fatima is looking at the clouds.’

Aghul χutːurf.a-

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan dif-ar.i-s χutːurf.a-a
pn fog- pl - dat look. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is looking at the clouds.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic gašək

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
yala gašuk=əl +al +ayvə cumə
boy( m ) observe. prog =3 m on cloud( f ). pl black. pl
‘The boy is looking at the clouds.’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: SBJ_para
X: SBJ
Y: para
Locus: Y
Pedro olha para a nuvem
‘Педру смотрит на тучи.’

Czech pozorovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr pozoruje mrak-y
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] look( ipfv ). prs .3 sg cloud( m )- acc . pl
‘Petr is looking at the clouds.’

Finnish katsoa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka katso-o pilv-i-ä
pn . nom look- prs .3 sg cloud- pl - part
‘Pekka is looking at the clouds.’

Forest Enets seŋir

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLdez
X: NOM
Y: OBLdez
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ ŋa dʲez seŋiŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg sky in_the_direction look( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is looking at the sky’.

Latin aspecto

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(victor) aspecta-t Olymp-um
winner( m ). nom . sg watch[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg o lympus( m )- acc . sg
‘(The winner) looks at Olympus.’
Note: (Man. Astronomica. IV, 907)

Modern Hebrew mistakel

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
Pinχas mistakel al ha anan-im
pn look[ ptcp . sg . m ] on def cloud- pl
‘Pinchas is looking at the clouds.’

Nanai ičəǯə-

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
Petia təwəksə-či ičə-ǯə-j-ni
pn cloud- dir see- res - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is looking at the clouds.’

Norwegian Bokmål å se

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Per se-r de mørke sky-ene
pn see- prs on det . pl dark. pl cloud- def . pl
‘Per is looking at the clouds.’

Polish patrzeć

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Ann-a patrzy na chmur-y
pn - nom . sg look: ipfv . prs .3 sg on cloud- acc . pl
‘Anna is looking at the clouds.’

Russian smotretʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja smotr-it na tuč-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg look( ipfv )- prs .3 sg on cloud( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja is looking at the clouds.’

Rutul gʲaɢara

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB
X: NOM
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul gʲ-aɢa-r=a gɨbli-mɨ-χda
pn ( nom ) pv -1.look. ipfv - cvb =be cloud- pl . obl - sub
‘Rasul is looking at the clouds.’

Skolt Saami ǩiiččeed

Valency pattern: NOM_GENarra
X: NOM
Y: GENarra
Locus: Y
Peâtt lij ǩiičče-men põõlv-i årra
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg watch- prog . ptcp cloud- pl . gen towards
‘Pete is looking at the clouds.’

Slovenian gledati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a gleda oblak-e
pn - nom . sg look: ipfv . prs .3 sg cloud- acc . pl
‘Ana is looking at the clouds.’

Swedish att titta

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Björn titta-r moln-en
pn see- prs on cloud- def . n . pl
‘Björn is looking at the clouds.’

Turkish bakmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet yağmur bulut-lar-ı-na bak-ıyor
pn rain cloud- pl - p .3- dat look- prs
‘Mehmet is looking at the rainclouds.’

Ulcha ičəǯə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama təwəksə-wə ičə-ǯ-i-ni
father cloud- acc see- res - prs -3 sg
‘Father is looking at the clouds.’

Zilo Andi haltʃ’.o-mado

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
pat’imat hiroda-ʔo haltʃ’.o-mado
pn [ f ][ nom ] cloud. pl . obl - super . lat look. pst - prog
‘Patimat is looking at the clouds.’