BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘look’

Argument frame: X (look) at Y
Stimulus sentence: P. is looking at the clouds (trying to determine if it will rain).
Predicate label Ru: смотреть
Argument frame Ru: X (смотреть) на Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. смотрит на тучи (он хочет понять, будет ли дождь).

Abaza pšə

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
fatíma á-psthʷa-kʷa də-r-pš-ə́j-ṭ
pn def -cloud- pl 3 sg . h . abs -3 pl . io -look- prs - dcl
‘Fatima is looking at the clouds.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-pλə

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pŝaŝe-r weŝʷapšʼe-me ja-pλə
girl- abs cloud- obl . pl 3 pl . io + dat -look
‘The girl is looking at the clouds.’

Aghul χutːurf.a-

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan dif-ar.i-s χutːurf.a-a
pn fog- pl - dat look. ipf - prs
‘Aslan is looking at the clouds.’

Alik Kryz buludarxvan ikayc

Valency pattern: ERG_DIR
X: ERG
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
terlan-ir bulud-ar-xvan ikats'-ire
pn - erg cloud- pl - dir look. ipfv - prs . n
‘Terlan is looking at the clouds.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUP.LAT
Locus: Y
paša doɬːor-če-tːi-k su<w>kːa-r-ši w-i 
pn cloud. pl - obl . p l- sup - lat <1>look- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be
‘Pasha is looking at the clouds.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic gašək

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
yala gašuk=əl +al +ayvə cumə
boy( m ) observe. prog =3 m on cloud( f ). pl black. pl
‘The boy is looking at the clouds.’

Avar balahize

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
ʕali nak’k’-az-uq w-alah-un w-ugo
pn cloud- pl . obl - apud m -look- seq m - cop
‘Ali is looking at the clouds.’

Azerbaijani baxmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan bulud-lar-a bax-ır
pn cloud- pl - dat / lat look- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan is looking at the clouds.’

Bambara fílɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bɛ́_kà kàbanɔgɔ-w fílɛ
pn prog cloud- pl look
‘Seku looks at the clouds.’

Brazilian Portuguese olhar

Valency pattern: SBJ_para
X: SBJ
Y: para
Locus: Y
Pedro olh-a para a nuvem
pn ( m ) look-3 sg . prs towards def . f cloud( f )
‘Pedro is looking at the cloud.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: ERG_DIR
X: ERG
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
aslan-ır bultor-oxun irħa-ra'vi
pn - erg cloud. pl - dir look. pf - prog
‘Aslan is looking at the clouds.’

Catalan mirar

Valency pattern: SBJ_a
X: SBJ
Y: a
Locus: Y
en Pere està mir-ant als núvol-s
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind look- ger to. def . pl . m cloud( m )- pl
‘Pere is looking at the clouds.’
Note: Cf. "en Pere hi està mirant"

Chirag uˤl-b-irgi

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le qːir-ma-j uˤl-irg-le
pn ( abs ) clouds- pl - super eye-( m . sg )stay: ipf - dur . prs .3
‘Ali is looking at the clouds.’

Czech pozorovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr pozoruje mrak-y
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] look( ipfv ). prs .3 sg cloud( m )- acc . pl
‘Petr is looking at the clouds.’

Danish se

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Peter se-r sky-er-ne
pn look- prs on cloud( c )- pl - def
‘Peter is looking at the clouds.’

Dutch kijken

Valency pattern: SBJ_naar
X: SBJ
Y: naar
Locus: Y
Piet kijk-t naar de wolk-en
pn ( c ) look-3 sg on art . def . c cloud( c )- pl
‘Piet is looking at the clouds.’

Eastern Maninka máfɛnɛn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Fántà yé fàanin` máfɛnɛn-na.
pn be clothes\ art look- inf . la
‘Fanta looks at the clothes.’

English look

Valency pattern: SBJ_at
X: SBJ
Y: at
Locus: Y
Peter is looking at the clouds.

Estonian vaatama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter vaata-b pilv-i
pn . sg . nom look- prs .3 sg cloud- pl . part
‘Peeter is looking at the clouds.’

Finnish katsoa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka katso-o pilv-i-ä
pn . nom look- prs .3 sg cloud- pl - part
‘Pekka is looking at the clouds.’

Forest Enets seŋir

Valency pattern: NOM_OBLdez
X: NOM
Y: OBLdez
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ ŋa dʲez seŋiŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg sky in_the_direction look( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is looking at the sky’.

French regarder

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul regarde les nuage-s
pn ( m ) look_at. prs .3 sg def . pl cloud( f )- pl
‘Paul is looking at the clouds.’

Georgian Ø-u-q'ur-eb-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø γrubl-eb-s Ø-u-q'ur-eb-s
pn - nom cloud- pl - dat io 3- ver : o -look_at- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre is looking at the clouds.’

German schauen

Valency pattern: NOM_aufACC
X: NOM
Y: aufACC
Locus: Y
Karl schau-t auf die Wolken
pn [ nom . sg ] look- prs .3 sg on def . acc . pl cloud. acc . pl
‘Karl is looking at the clouds.’

Guinean Kpelle ɲɛ́i kpàŋɔ̂ŋ

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
gàá ɲɛ̀í kpàŋɔ́-zì míì
3 sg \ cop 3 sg \face push- inf 1 sg .on1
‘He is staring at me.’

Icari Dargwa war-ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam qːir-b-aj war-ih-a-ca=w
pn . abs cloud- pl - suplat look-( m ) lv : ipf - prs - cop = m
‘Islam is looking at the clouds.’

Irish féach

Valency pattern: SBJ_ar
X: SBJ
Y: ar
Locus: Y
Pól ag féach-aint air na scamaill.
be. prs pn at look. nmlz on def . pl cloud. pl
‘Pól is looking at the clouds.’
Note: The verb is nominalized as part of the progressive construction.

Italian guardare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo guard-a le nuvol-e
pn ( m ) look_at-3 sg . prs def . pl . f cloud- pl . f
‘Leo looks at the clouds.’

Kadar Dargwa t'ar-CL-uk'-as (IPFV)

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad t'ar-0-uk'-u-le w-0-ar diriw-t-i-ke
pn look- m -say. ipfv - prs - cvb m -be. ipfv - th fog- pl - obl - super
‘Muhammad is looking at the clouds.’

Kalderash Romani dikhəl

Valency pattern: NOM_pe
X: NOM
Y: pe
Locus: Y
o Murš-a dikhə-l p-o ćeri
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg look- prs .3 sg on- art . m . dir . sg sky[ nom . sg ]
‘Murša is looking at the sky.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the NOM_peLOC structure would be used.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maˁhaˁmad zavar.i-z lig-ura
pn ( abs ) sky- dat look- prs
‘He is looking at the sky.’

Karata bek’anɬa

Valency pattern: NOM_POST
X: NOM
Y: POST
Locus: Y
ʕali hanƛ’aba-q w-ok’-an idja
pn cloud. pl . obl - post m -look- pf cop
‘Ali is looking at the clouds.’

Kaytag Dargwa č:iwhara

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
petja q:irbal-ži č:ivh-ulca
pn cloud. pl . obl - super m .look. ipf - prs
‘Petja is looking at the clouds.’

Kazakh qara

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya bult-tar-ɣa qara-p tur
pn raincloud- pl - dat look- cvb stand.3 sg
‘Petya is looking at the rainclouds.’

Kazym Khanty wantti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMpela
X: NOM
Y: NOMpela
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en χot pελa want-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg house at look- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is looking at the house.’

Khoekhoe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǃâu-di-a ra
pn -3 m . sg decl cloud -3 f . pl - obl ipfv look
‘Peter is looking at the clouds.’

Khwarshi gic'a

Valency pattern: ABS_CONT.LAT
X: ABS
Y: CONT.LAT
Locus: Y
šamil gic'a-ha as-za-qo-l
pn look- prs cloud( iv )- pl . o - cont - lat
‘Shamil is looking at the clouds.’

Kina Rutul gʲaɢara

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB
X: NOM
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
rasul gʲ-aɢa-r=a gɨbli-mɨ-χda
pn ( nom ) pv -1.look. ipfv - cvb =be cloud- pl . obl - sub
‘Rasul is looking at the clouds.’

Kumyk qaramaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
patimat bulut-la-ʁa qara-j
pn cloud- pl - dat look-3 sg
‘Patimat is looking at the clouds.’

Latin aspecto

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(victor) aspecta-t Olymp-um
winner( m ). nom . sg watch[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg o lympus( m )- acc . sg
‘(The winner) looks at Olympus.’
Note: (Man. Astronomica. IV, 907)

Laz o-c'k'-ed-u

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k ca-s Ø-o-c'k'-en-Ø
pn - b - erg sky- dat io 3- ver : sup -watch- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim is looking at the sky.’

Mandarin Chinese guānchá

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān zhèngzài guānchá yún
pn prog observe cloud
‘Zhangsan is looking at the clouds.’

Mano mɛ́ ɲɛ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ sɔ̄ mɛ́ ɲɛ̄
3 sg . ipfv cloth prev finish: ipfv
‘S/he looks at the fabric.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
Islam dirig-une-če ħule le-w
pn cloud- pl - super ( lat ) look be- m
‘Islam is looking at the clouds.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian Ø-u-ǯin-en-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø munapa-s Ø-u-ǯin-e(n)-Ø
pn - nom cloud- dat io 3- ver : o -look_at- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo is looking at the cloud.’

Modern Hebrew mistakel

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
Pinχas mistakel al ha anan-im
pn look[ ptcp . sg . m ] on def cloud- pl
‘Pinchas is looking at the clouds.’

Mukhad Rutul gaqın

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
murad gıbli-mı-χda gaqa-ra a
pn cloud. obl - pl . obl - apud ( m )look. ipf - simul be_in
‘Murad is looking at the clouds.’

Nanai ičəǯə-

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
Petia təwəksə-či ičə-ǯə-j-ni
pn cloud- dir see- res - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is looking at the clouds.’

Nivkh tʰərd

Valency pattern: SBJ_DAT/ADD
X: SBJ
Y: DAT/ADD
Locus: Y
Kaskazik tʰlə-rоχ tʰər-d
pn sky- dat / add look- ind
‘Kaskazik is looking at the sky.’

Northern Akhvakh eqquruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
pataħi hira-ga eqq-ohe gudi
pn cloud- lat look- cv m . cop
‘Patahi is looking at the clouds.’

Northern Mansi sunsi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
am suns-ēj-um televizor
1 sg watch- npst -1 sg television
‘I am watching television.’

Northern Yukaghir ičuo=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn sukun-dаwа-pǝ-lǝ ičuo-m
pn sky-skin- pl - acc see- tr .3 sg
‘Semien looked at the clouds.’

Norwegian Bokmål å se

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Per se-r de mørke sky-ene
pn see- prs on det . pl dark. pl cloud- def . pl
‘Per is looking at the clouds.’

Polish patrzeć

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Ann-a patrzy na chmur-y
pn - nom . sg look: ipfv . prs .3 sg on cloud- acc . pl
‘Anna is looking at the clouds.’

Russian smotretʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja smotr-it na tuč-i
pn ( m )- nom . sg look( ipfv )- prs .3 sg on cloud( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja is looking at the clouds.’

Serbian gledati

Valency pattern: NOM_uACC
X: NOM
Y: uACC
Locus: Y
Petar gleda u oblak-e
pn . nom . sg look. prs .3 sg in cloud- acc . pl
‘Petar is looking at the clouds.’

Shinaz Rutul gjaqhɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_APUD
X: NOM
Y: APUD
Locus: Y
basir gjaqha-r a gɨbli-mɨ-χda
pn ( m )look. ipf - simul exist cloud. obl - pl . obl - apud
‘Basir is looking at the clouds.’

Shughni čīx̌tow

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Azim tar abri-yen čos-t
pn eq cloud- pl look-3 sg
‘Azim is looking at the clouds.’

Skolt Saami ǩiiččeed

Valency pattern: NOM_GENarra
X: NOM
Y: GENarra
Locus: Y
Peâtt lij ǩiičče-men põõlv-i årra
pn . sg . nom be. prs .3 sg watch- prog . ptcp cloud- pl . gen towards
‘Pete is looking at the clouds.’

Slovak pozerať sa

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Peter sa pozerá na mrak-y
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] refl . acc look( ipfv ). prs .3 sg on cloud( m )- acc . pl
‘Peter is looking at the clouds.’

Slovenian gledati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a gleda oblak-e
pn - nom . sg look: ipfv . prs .3 sg cloud- acc . pl
‘Ana is looking at the clouds.’

Sorani Kurdish çav kirdin

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa xerîk-e çaw le hewr-ek-an de-k-a
pn busy-be. prs .3 sg eye from cloud- def - pl ind -do. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa is looking at the clouds.’

Southern Rutul kaqhın

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT
X: NOM
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
murad kıblımı-k kaqhı-r
pn cloud. pl . obl - cont ( m )look. pf - aor
‘Murad is looking at the clouds.’

Spanish mirar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro mir-a la-s nube-s
pn [ sg . m ] look- prs .3 sg art . def . f - pl cloud[ sg . f ]- pl
‘Pedro is looking at the clouds.’

Standard Arabic naẓara

Valency pattern: NOM_ilaaGEN
X: NOM
Y: ilaaGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un yanẓuru Ɂilā l-ġuyūm-i
pn - nom look. ipf .3 m towards def -clouds- gen
‘Badr is looking at the clouds.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø dec-s x-o-sgd-i
pn - nom sky- dat io 3- ver : o -look_at- prs
‘Maizer is looking at the skies.’

Swedish att titta

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Björn titta-r moln-en
pn see- prs on cloud- def . n . pl
‘Björn is looking at the clouds.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
T<in>i~tign-an ni Pedro ang ulap
< ipfv > ipfv ~look- lv pers . gen pn subj cloud
‘Pedro is looking at the clouds.’

Telugu gamaniṁcu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ mēgha-la-ni gamanistunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom cloud( n )- pl . obl - acc pay_attention. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen is observing the clouds.’

Tsakhur ılyakkiy

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
murad rasul-ıqha ılyakka
pn pn - lat ( m )look. ipf
‘Murad is looking at Rasul.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa ħer b-ič'-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi dirix-ma-ja ħer ik'-ule=saj
boy cloud- pl . obl - super ( lat ) look ( m )say- prog . cnv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is looking at the clouds.’

Tsugni Dargwa er b-urč'-i

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER(LAT)
X: ERG
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ qːir-ma-ge er-urk'-ule=caj
boy- erg cloud- pl . obl - super ( lat ) look-( m )leave. pfv - cnv . prog = cop : m (3)
‘The boy is looking at the clouds.’

Turkish bakmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet yağmur bulut-lar-ı-na bak-ıyor
pn rain cloud- pl - p .3- dat look- prs
‘Mehmet is looking at the rainclouds.’

Turoyo ḥoyər

Valency pattern: SBJ_7al
X: SBJ
Y: 7al
Locus: Y
Gabriyel ḥər-le ʕal ʕayw-e
pn look. pfv - ls .3 m on art . pl cloud- pl
‘Gabriyel looked at the clouds.’

Ulcha ičəǯə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama təwəksə-wə ičə-ǯ-i-ni
father cloud- acc see- res - prs -3 sg
‘Father is looking at the clouds.’

Uzbek ko’ramoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya bulut-lar-ga ko’ra-b tur-ib-ti
pn cloud- pl - dat look- cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja is looking at the clouds.’

West Central Oromo ilaala

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n duumessa ilaal-aa dʒir-a
pn - nom cloud. abs look- prog aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa is looking at the cloud.’

Zilo Andi haltʃ’.o-mado

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
pat’imat hiroda-ʔo haltʃ’.o-mado
pn [ f ][ nom ] cloud. pl . obl - super . lat look. pst - prog
‘Patimat is looking at the clouds.’