BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘like’

Argument frame: X (like) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. likes this shirt .
Predicate label Ru: нравиться
Argument frame Ru: X -у (нравиться) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. нравится эта рубашка .

Abaza gʷapχa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád arə́j as j-gʷapχ-ə́j-d
pn prox def +shirt 3 sg . m . erg -like- prs - dcl
‘Murad likes this shirt.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) gʷə rjəhə

Valency pattern: NominalPossessor_ABS
X: NominalPossessor
Y: ABS
Locus: X
č̣ʼale-m ǯʼane-r ə-gʷ r-j-e-hə
guy- obl this shirt- abs 3 sg . pr -heart loc : cont -3 sg . erg - dyn -carry
‘The guy likes this shirt.’
Note: Lit. ‘Something is bringing the shirt in the guy’s heart’.

Aghul begemiš-tːi + ‘be’

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s me berʜem begemiš-tːi a
pn - dat demm shirt <like>- adv { in }be: prs
‘Aslan likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Alik Kryz xvaş xhiyic

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
terlan-iz lu pirem xvaş şu-ryu
pn - dat this shirt( f ) good be. f . ipfv - prs . f
‘Terlan likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s ja-b χˁošon mu-ši b-akːu-r
pn - dat this-3 shirt be.good- cvb . ipfv 3-see- ipfv
‘Pasha likes this shirt.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic xoš atə

Valency pattern: BARE_men
X: BARE
Y: men
Locus: XY
+Ašur xoš-u bitay=əla mən d-a +sudra
pn happiness( f )- p .3 m come. prog =3 f from obl - dem 1. sg shirt( f )
‘Ashur likes this shirt.’

Avar bercin bixize

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-da ha-b gorde bercin b-ix-un b-ugo
pn - loc this- n shirt nice n -see- seq n - cop
‘Ali likes this shirt.’

Azerbaijani xoşu gəlmək

Valency pattern: GEN_ABL
X: GEN
Y: ABL
Locus: XY
Aslan-ın bu köynǝk-dǝn xoş-u gǝl-ir
pn - gen this shirt- abl good- poss 3 come- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan likes this shirt.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɔ̀ŋə̂ tsə̀ʔə̀ jú
pn sm like dress this
‘Ambe likes this shirt.’

Bambara dí

Valency pattern: ye_SBJ
X: ye
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
kùlusi ìn ka dí Sékù yé
pants this qual pleasant pn as
‘Seku likes these pants.’

Brazilian Portuguese gostar

Valency pattern: SBJ_de
X: SBJ
Y: de
Locus: Y
Pedro gost-a dess-a camisa
pn ( m ) like-3 sg . prs of+ dem . med - f shirt( f )
‘Pedro likes this shirt.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: DAT_PART
X: DAT
Y: PART
Locus: XY
ulu pirem-cekir aslan-ız ħaz ʕaşxar-i
prox shirt- obl . part pn - dat pleasure come. ipf - prs
‘Aslan likes this shirt.’

Catalan agradar

Valency pattern: DAT_SBJ
X: DAT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
al Pere li agrad-a aquesta samarreta
to. def . sg . m pn ( m ) 3 sg . dat like-3 sg . prs . ind this. sg - f shirt( f )
‘Pere likes this shirt.’

Chirag bat’arre ba̰ħi

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i jaˤ kːurtːe bat’ar-re b-a̰l-le
pn - obl - super prox shirt( abs ) beautiful- adv n . sg -see: ipf - dur . prs .3
‘Ali likes this shirt.’

Czech líbit se

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-ovi se líbí ta košil-e
pn ( m )- dat . sg refl . acc like( ipfv ). prs .3 sg this. f . nom . sg shirt( f )- nom . sg
‘Petr likes this shirt.’

Danish kunne lide

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter kan godt lide de-n skjorte
pn can. prs well like. inf dem - c . sg shirt( c )
‘Peter likes this shirt.’

Dutch mooi vinden

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Piet vind-t het hemd mooi
pn ( c ) find-3 sg art . def . n shirt( n ) beautiful
‘Piet likes the shirt.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Eastern Maninka dúman

Valency pattern: nye_SBJ
X: nye
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Kùrusi nìn dúman Sékù ɲɛ́.
pants this pleasant pn before
‘Seku likes these pants.’
Note: Non-verbal predication.

English like

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter likes this shirt.

Estonian meeldima

Valency pattern: ALL_NOM
X: ALL
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peetri-le meeldi-b see särk
pn - all appeal_to- prs .3 sg dem shirt. sg . nom
‘Peeter likes this shirt.’

Finnish pitää

Valency pattern: NOM_ELA
X: NOM
Y: ELA
Locus: Y
Pekka pit-ää tä-stä paida-sta
pn . nom like- prs .3 sg this- ela shirt- ela
‘Pekka likes this shirt.’

Forest Enets kɔmita

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ tʃike lubaxa kɔmita-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg this cloth like( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend likes this shirt’.

French plaire

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
cette chemise plaît beaucoup à Paul
this. sg . f shirt( f ) please. prs .3 sg much to pn ( m )
‘Paul likes this shirt.’

Georgian mo-s-c'on-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s mo-s-c'on-s es p'erang-i
pn - dat prv : prox - io 3-like- s 3 sg dem . prox _ nom . sg shirt- nom
‘Petre likes this shirt.’

German gefallen

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Karl gefäll-t das Hemd
pn [ dat . sg ] please- prs .3 sg def . n . nom . sg shirt[ nom . sg ]
‘Karl likes this shirt.’

Guinean Kpelle líi hǒŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: TR
Hɛ́ni àa Pépèe líi hǒŋ
pn 3 sg . prf pn heart catch
‘Pepee likes Heni.’

Icari Dargwa b=ičː-aq-uj

Valency pattern: SUPLAT_ABS
X: SUPLAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
Islam-lij kːurti b=ičː-aq-u
pn - suplat this. abs shirt. abs n =like: ipf - caus - hab
‘Islam likes this shirt.’

Irish is maith

Valency pattern: le_SBJ
X: le
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Is maith le Pól an léine sea
cop . prs good with pn def shirt dem
‘Pól likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian piacere

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Leo piac-e quest-a camici-a
to pn ( m ) like-3 sg . prs this- sg . f shirt- sg . f
‘Leo likes this shirt.’

Kadar Dargwa ʡaˤħ-CL-iz-es / ʡaˤħ-CL-ilz-es

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
meħamad-i-s ʡaˤħ-b-ilz-u-le b-0-ar ħawa
pn - obl - dat good- n -stand. ipfv - prs - cvb n -be. ipfv - th this shirt
‘Muhammad likes this shirt.’

Kalderash Romani plaćal

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
le Murš-as plaća-l les kad-o gad
art . m . obl pn - acc . sg like- prs .3 sg he. cl this- m . dir . sg shirt[ nom . sg ]
‘Murša likes this shirt.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fatima.ji-z ha-mu kːurt q’abul du-b-x-na
pn - dat emph -3. p dress( abs ) like res - n . sg -become- res
‘Fatima likes this dress.’

Karata rak’wal baʔaɬa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja ho-b gordi rak’wa-l b-e-bχwa idja
pn . dat 3- n shirt heart- erg n -come- n . pf - cv cop
‘Ali likes this shirt.’

Kaytag Dargwa ʕaˁħkabirc:ara

Valency pattern: DATLAT_NOM
X: DATLAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
petja-j hel penžek ʕaˁħkabirc:-ulca
pn - datlat dem jacket n .please. ipf - prs
‘Petja likes this shirt.’

Kazakh una

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petya-ɣa bul žeyde una-ydï
pn - dat this shirt like- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya likes this shirt.’

Kazym Khanty mǫstǝti

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pet’a-j-en-a mǫst-əλ śi jɛrnas-λ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg - dat like- npst [3 sg ] foc shirt- poss .3 sg
‘Petja likes this shirt.’

Khoekhoe ǃgâi-ba-he

Valency pattern: SBJ_xa
X: SBJ
Y: xa
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge nē hem-s xa a ǃgâi-ba-he
pn -3 m . sg decl this shirt-3 f . sg by aux be_good- appl - pass
‘Peter likes this shirt.’
Note: The verb here is a stative verb and has to be used with auxiliaries.

Khwarshi goqa

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
isu-l goqa-ha deba gud
dem . an . o . i - dat like- prs 2 sg . o . gen 1 shirt( v )
‘He likes your shirt.’

Kina Rutul q’abɨl wuruɁura

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s q’abɨl wu-ruɁu-r=a mi uχun
pn - obl - dat like 3-become. ipfv - cvb =be this shirt( nom )
‘Rasul likes this shirt.’

Kumyk ušatmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat šu gölek-ni ušat-a
pn that shirt- acc like-3 sg
‘Patimat likes this shirt.’

Latin placeo

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
non place-t mi cen-a quae bil-em move-t
not like[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg i . dat dinner( f )- nom . sg which. nom . sg . f bile( f )- acc . sg move[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘I don't like a dinner which moves the bile.’
Note: (Pl. Bac. 537)

Laz o-c'on-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s po(r)ča-Ø mo-Ø-c'on-s
pn - b - dat shirt- nom prv - io 3-like- s 3 sg
‘Käzim likes the shirt.’

Mandarin Chinese xǐhuan

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān xǐhuan zhè-jiàn chènshān
pn like this- clf shirt
‘Zhangsan likes this shirt.’

Mano zò kṵ́

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ zò kṵ̄
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg heart catch: ipfv
‘I like him/her.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above).

Mehweb

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-is žigʷa b-ilz-uwe le-b hel ħawa
pn - dat beautiful n -stand.up: ipfv - cvb be- n that shirt
‘Islam likes this shirt.’

Mingrelian mo-Ø-c'on-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
čelo-s te osare-Ø mo-Ø-c'on-s
pn - dat dem . prox shirt- nom prv - io 3-like- s 3 sg
‘Chelo likes this shirt.’
Note: This verb is a recent borrowing from Georgian.

Modern Hebrew ohev

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas ohev et ha χultsa ha z-o
pn love[ ptcp . sg . m ] do def shirt def this[ sg ]- f
‘Pinchas likes this shirt.’

Mukhad Rutul begemiš jišin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s mi rubaška begemiš viʔi
pn - obl - dat prox shirt( a ) please a . cop
‘Murad likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai ulə-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia əj tətuə-wə ulə.si-ni
pn this garment- obl love. ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia likes this shirt.’

Nivkh maʁod

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik tu + lar̥q + maʁo-d
pn dem . prox + shirt + like- ind
‘Kaskazik likes this shirt.’

Northern Akhvakh kunuƛa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-ƛa ha ƛ’onko kw-ini
pn - dat this shirt like- ipf
‘Patahi likes this shirt.’

Northern Mansi jomas

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
āji-riɕ-na ti sup jomas
girl- dim - lat this dress good
‘The girl likes this dress.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Northern Yukaghir amudˈī=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn tu-ŋ urbа̄hа-lǝ аmudˈī-m
pn prxm - at shirt- acc like- tr .3 sg
‘Semien likes this shirt.’

Norwegian Bokmål å like

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per like-r den skjort-a
pn like- prs det . f . sg shirt- def . f . sg
‘Per likes this shirt.’

Polish podobać się

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Feliks-owi podoba się ta koszul-a
pn - dat . sg like: ipfv . prs .3 sg refl this. f . nom . sg shirt- nom . sg
‘Feliks likes this shirt.’

Russian nravitʹsja

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pet-e nrav-it-sja èt-a rubašk-a
pn ( m )- dat . sg please( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl this- f . nom . sg shirt( f )- nom . sg
‘Petja likes this shirt.’

Serbian sviđati se

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u se sviđa ta košulj-a
pn - dat . sg refl like. prs .3 sg this. nom . sg . f shirt- nom . sg
‘Petar likes this shirt.’

Shinaz Rutul bɨt'ra-na hagu-n

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ɨs bɨt'ra-na havgu-v ha-d vɨχɨn
pn - dat nice- adv a .see. pf - aor . a med- attr shirt( a )
‘Basir likes this shirt.’

Shughni xuš vidow

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Azim-ard ik-am kurtā xuš
pn - lat em - d 1. sg shirt pleasant
‘Azim likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

Skolt Saami tuʹǩǩeed

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
Peâtt tuʹǩǩad tän pääiʹdest
pn . sg . nom like. prs .3 sg prox . sg . gen shirt. sg . loc
‘Pete likes this shirt.’

Slovak mať rád

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter rád toto tričk-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg glad this. n . acc . sg shirt( n )- acc . sg
‘Peter likes this shirt.’

Slovenian biti všeč

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petr-u je všeč ta srajc-a
pn - dat . sg be. prs .3 sg pleasant this. nom . sg . f shirt- nom . sg
‘Peter likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Sorani Kurdish ḧez bûn

Valency pattern: EXT_le
X: EXT
Y: le
Locus: XY
Hîwa êsta ḧez=î le-ew kirase-ye
pn now liking=3 sg . pc from-this shirt-be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa now likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. Lit. ≈ ‘Hiwa, to him is now liking from this shirt’

Southern Rutul q'abıl yişin

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ye-s ğu-du uxun q'abıl vişi-r
1. obl - dat 2- attr shirt( a ) pleasure a .be. pf - aor
‘I like your shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Spanish gustar

Valency pattern: NDIR.OBJ_SBJ
X: NDIR.OBJ
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
a Pedro le gust-a est-a camisa
ndir . obj pn [ sg . m ] he. ndir . obj like- prs .3 sg this- f shirt[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro likes this shirt.’

Standard Arabic Ɂaʕǧaba

Valency pattern: ACC_NOM
X: ACC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Ɂal-qamīs-u yuʕǧibu Badr-an
def -shirt( m )- nom please. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr likes this shirt.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s al pupäik'a-Ø xoča-Ø x-a-bž-a
pn - dat jersey- nom good- nom io 3- ver : sup -deem- prs
‘Maizer likes this jersey (lit. ‘This jersey seems good to Miazer’).’

Swedish att gilla

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn gilla-r den här tröja-n
pn like- prs def . c . sg this. c . sg here shirt- def . c . sg
‘Björn likes this shirt.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_SBJNV
X: ACT
Y: SBJNV
Locus: Y
Gusto ni Pedro ito-ng damit
like pers . gen pn 3. sg . subj - lin shirt
‘Pedro likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The interpretation of X as ACT is partially arbitrary (it is based on similarity on the analogy with constructions with voice markers).

Telugu iṣṭamu + COP

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pravīṇ-ki ī cokka aṁṭē iṣṭamu
pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat dem . prox shirt( n ). sg . nom that_is liking( n ). sg . nom
‘Praveen likes this shirt.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsakhur q’abılхhay

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
i-n gurt murad-ı-s q’abıl-хhayn
prox - n jacket pn - obl - dat please- aux . pf . n
‘Murad likes this jacket.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa ʡaˤχ b-icː-iz/b-ilcː-iz

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-z mašina ʡaˤχ b-ilcː-unne=sab
boy- dat car good n -stand. ipfv - prog . cnv = cop . n (3)
‘The boy likes the car.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-ičː-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j mašin b-ikː-u
boy- dat car n -like- hab . prs 3
‘The boy likes the car.’

Turkish beğenmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet bu gömleğ-i beğen-iyor
pn this shirt- acc like- prs
‘Mehmet likes this shirt.’

Turoyo roḥəm

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel rḥəm-le u gumlak-ayḏe
pn like. pfv - ls .3 m art . m shirt( m )- p .3 m
‘Gabriyel likes his shirt.’

Ulcha uləsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
əktə piktə dāda-ŋgu-ni tətu-wə-ni uləs-i-ni
female child grandmother- poss -3 sg garment- acc -3 sg love- prs -3 sg
‘The girl likes her grandma’s gown.’

Uzbek yoqmoq

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petya-ga bu ko’ylak yoq-ib tur-ib-ti
pn - dat this dress like- cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja likes this dress.’

West Central Oromo dʒaallata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n ʃamizii kana dʒaallat-a
pn - nom shirt this. abs like-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa likes this shirt.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: DAT_SUB/POSTEL
X: DAT
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: XY
Sahib-a-z in pperem-di-kaa xuș qve-zva
pn - obl - dat this shirt- obl - sub / postel pleasant come. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib likes this shirt.’

Zilo Andi dʒiʔ.i-j

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pat’imati-<r>o dʒiʔ.i-j ɡurdo
pn - aff < inan 2> like. pst - pf shirt[ inan 2][ nom ]
‘Patimat likes [this] shirt.’