BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘know’

Argument frame: X (know) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. knows M .
Predicate label Ru: знать
Argument frame Ru: X (знать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. знает М .

Abaza dər

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatíma murád də-l-də́r-əj-d
pn pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . erg -know- prs - dcl
‘Fatima knows Murad.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ṣ̂e

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
pŝaŝe-m č̣ʼale-r j-e-ṣ̂e
girl- obl guy- abs 3 sg . erg - dyn -know
‘The girl knows the guy.’

Aghul ʜa-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s ʜa-a meʜemed
pn - dat know- prs pn
‘Aslan knows Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz ats'ayc

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
terlan-iz rasul ats'ar-e
pn - dat pn know- prs . m
‘Terlan knows Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s moħommad sini
pn - dat pn know
‘Pasha knows Muhammad.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (so-called "stative").

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +yaṭṭə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+Ašur +bədday=əl švav-u
pn know. prog =3 m neighbour( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur knows his neighbor.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar ɬaze

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-da aħmad ɬa-la
pn - loc pn know- ipf
‘Ali knows Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani tanımaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u tanı-yır
pn pn - acc know- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan knows Rasul.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ ʒî sùù
pn sm know pn
‘Ambe knows Suh’

Bambara dɔ́n

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù Fántà dɔ́n
pn ipfv pn know
‘Seku knows Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese conhecer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro conhec-e Miguel
pn ( m ) know_someone-3 sg . prs pn ( m )
‘Pedro knows Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
aslan-ız rosul hats'ar-i
pn - dat pn m .know. ipf - prs
‘Aslan knows Rasul.’

Catalan conèixer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere coneix en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) know.3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere knows Marc.’

Chirag b-uχːu

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i rasul uχːu-le
pn - obl - super pn ( abs ) ( m . sg )know- prs . dur .3
‘Ali knows Rasul.’

Czech znát

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr zná Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] know( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr knows Michal.’

Danish kende

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter kende-r Marie
pn know- prs pn
‘Peter knows Marie.’

Dutch kennen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet ken-t Marie
pn (С) know-3 sg pn (С)
‘Piet knows Marie.’

Eastern Maninka lɔ́n

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà Fántà lɔ́n.
pn aor . tr pn know
‘Seku knows Fanta.’

English know

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter knows Mary.

Estonian tundma

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter tunne-b Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom know- prs .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter knows Maret.’

Finnish tuntea

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka tunt-ee Mati-n
pn . nom know- prs .3 sg pn - gen
‘Pekka knows Matti.’

Forest Enets tɛne

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-jʔ tɛnee-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- nom . sg .1 sg know( ipfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend knows my wife’.

French connaître

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul connaît Michel
pn ( m ) know_someone. prs .3 sg pn ( m )
‘Paul knows Michel.’

Georgian Ø-i-cn-ob-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s Ø-i-cn-ob-s
pn - nom pn - dat do 3- ver : s -know- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre knows Masho.’
Note: This verb refers to animate themes.

German kennen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl kenn-t Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] know- prs .3 sg pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl knows Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle kɔ́lɔŋ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe Hèhee kɔ́lɔŋ
pn 3 sg . b pn know
‘Pepee knows Hehee.’

Icari Dargwa w=ah-uj

Valency pattern: SUPLAT_ABS
X: SUPLAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
Islam-lij Nadir uχː-u
pn - suplat pn . abs ( m )know: ipf - hab
‘Islam knows Nadir.’

Irish bí aithne

Valency pattern: aige_ar
X: aige
Y: ar
Locus: XY
aithne aige Pól air Mháire.
be. prs knowledge at pn on pn
‘Pól knows Máirel.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian conoscere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo conosc-e Maria
pn ( m ) know_someone-3 sg . prs pn ( f )
‘Leo knows Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa CL-ah-es / CL-al-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li ʡašura r-al-a
pn - erg pn f -know. ipfv - th
‘Muhammad knows Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani źanel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a źan-el la Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg know- prs .3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Murša knows Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fatima.ji-z maˁhaˁmad aˁʁ-aˁ
pn - dat pn ( abs ) know- prs
‘Fatima knows Mahamad.’

Karata biʔaɬa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja aħmat’ w-uʔ-idja
pn . dat pn m -know- ipf
‘Ali knows Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa wahara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l miša v-arh-u
pn - erg pn m -know. ipf - evt
‘Petja knows Misha.’

Kazakh bil

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï bіl-edі
pn pn - acc know- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya knows Masha.’

Kazym Khanty wǫti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en maša-j-en wǫ-λ-λe
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg know- npst -3 sg . so
‘Petja knows Maša.’

Khoekhoe ǂan

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a a ǂan
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl aux know
‘Peter knows Maria.’
Note: The verb here is a stative verb and has to be used with auxiliaries.

Khwarshi j/iq'a

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
šamile-l c'aq' k'ʷet' j-iq'e-he fatima
pn - dat very well ii -know- prs pn
‘Shamil knows Fatima very well.’

Kina Rutul hac’ara

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s hac’a-r=a ramazan
pn - obl - dat 1.know. ipfv - cvb =be pn ( nom )
‘Rasul knows Ramazan.’

Kumyk tanɨmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
mahammat rasul-nu tanɨ-j
pn pn - acc know-3 sg
‘Muhammad knows Rasul.’

Latin nosco

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
qui Rom-ae nov-era-t nemin-em
which. nom . sg r ome( f )- dat . sg know- plup . ind - act .3 sg nobody- acc . sg
‘... one who knew nobody in Rome’
Note: (Cic. Rosc. 76)

Laz o-čin-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k Fatma-Ø Ø-i-čin-am-s
pn - b - erg pn - nom do 3- ver : s -know- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim knows Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese liǎojiě

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān liǎojiě Lǐsì
pn know pn
‘Zhangsan knows Lisi.’

Mano dɔ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ ŋ̄ dɔ̄
3 sg . ipfv 1 sg know: ipfv
‘S/he knows me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: CONT.LAT_NOM
X: CONT.LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pajzula-li-ze w-alh-an Musa
pn - obl - cont ( lat ) m -know: ipfv - hab pn
‘Pajzula knows Musa.’

Mingrelian Ø-i-čin-en-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-s Ø-i-čin-en-s
pn - nom pn - dat s 3- ver : s -recognize- sm - s 3 sg
‘Chelo (personally) knows Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew makir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas makir et Menaχem
pn know[ ptcp . sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas knows Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul hac'ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s q'urban hac'a-ra
pn - obl - dat pn m .know. ipf - hab
‘Murad knows Kurban.’

Nanai saa-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa saa-ri-ni
pn pn - obl know- npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia knows Masha.’

Nivkh jajmd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Ajsana j-ajm-d
pn pn 3 sg -know- ind
‘Kaskazik knows Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh beq’uruɬa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-ƛa musa woq’-ero gudi
pn - dat pn m .know- ipf . ptcp . m m . cop
‘Patahi knows Musa.’

Northern Mansi wāji

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
am wāj-l-um ti ōjka-riɕ
i know-3 sg . o -1 sg . s this old_man- dim
‘I know this old man.’

Northern Yukaghir kurilˈī=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ kurilˈī-m
pn pn - acc aff know- tr .3 sg
‘Semien knows Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å kjenne

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per kjenne-r Ola
pn know- prs pn
‘Per knows Ola.’

Polish znać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Józef zna Adam-a
pn [ nom . sg ] know: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Józef knows Adam.’

Russian znatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja zna-et Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg know( ipfv )- prs .3 sg pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja knows Maša.’

Serbian poznavati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar poznaje Marij-u
pn . nom . sg know. prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar knows Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul hac'ɨ-n

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ɨs hac'ɨ-j karam
pn - dat m .know. pf - aor . m pn
‘Basir knows Karam.’

Shughni fāmtow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed Saida fām-t
pn pn know-3 sg
‘Ahmed knows Saida.’

Skolt Saami tobddâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt tåbdd Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom know. prs .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete knows Maria’

Slovak poznať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter pozná Mark-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] know( ipfv ). prs .3 sg pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Peter knows Marek.’

Slovenian poznati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter pozna Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] know: ipfv . prs .3 sg pn - acc . sg
‘Peter knows Pavel.’

Sorani Kurdish nasîn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa Sakar-î de-nas-ê
pn pn - obl ind -know. prs -3 sg
‘Hiwa knows Sakar.’
Note: The OBL morpheme is used as a residual case marker here.

Southern Rutul hats’ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s natig hats'a-r
pn - obl - dat pn m .know. ipf - prs
‘Murad knows Natig.’

Spanish conocer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro conoc-e a María
pn [ sg . m ] know- prs .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro knows Maria.’

Standard Arabic ʕarafa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un yaʕrifu Maryam-a
pn - nom know. ipf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr knows Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø gegi-s x-o-tr-a
pn - nom pn - dat io 3- ver : o -know
‘Maizer knows Gegi.’

Swedish att känna

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn känn-er Maja
pn know- prs pn
‘Björn knows Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_SBJNV
X: ACT
Y: SBJNV
Locus: Y
Kilala ni Pedro si Miguel
knows pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro knows Miguel.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (pseudo-verb). The interpretation of X as ACT is partially arbitrary (it is based on the analogy with constructions with voice markers).

Telugu teliyu

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pravīṇ-ki maheṣ telusu
pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat pn ( m ). sg . nom be_known
‘Praveen knows Mahesh.’
Note: This predicate is used without agreement markers and without copula.

Tsakhur qhıvaats’iy

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-k’le aydın qhıvaats’a-na
pn - obl - aff pn ( m )know. ipf - h
‘Murad knows Aydin.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa b-aχ-iz/b-alχ-iz

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-li-z unra r-alχ-a
boy- obl - dat neighbor f -know. ipfv -3 hab . prs
‘The boy knows his (female) neighbor.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-aχ-i / b-alχ-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j zumra r-alχ-a
boy- dat neighbor f -know. ipfv -3 hab . prs
‘The boy knows his (female) neighbor.’

Turkish tanımak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i tanı-yor
pn pn - acc know- prs
‘Mehmet knows Filiz.’

Turoyo oḏəʕ

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_DO.LS
X: SBJ.SS
Y: DO.LS
Locus: Y
Gabriyel k-oḏəʕ Yuḥanən
pn prs -know. ipfv .3 m pn
‘Gabriyel knows Yuḥanən.’

Ulcha sā-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
bi nam piktə-wə-n sā-ri-ji
i s/he child- acc -3 sg know- prs -1 sg
‘I know his/her child.’

Uzbek bilmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni bil-a-di
pn pn - acc know- prs 2-3 sg
‘Petja knows Maša.’

West Central Oromo beeka

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n boontuu beek-a
pn - nom pn . abs know-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa knows Bontu.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Sahib-a-z Eldar ççi-zva
pn - obl - dat pn know. ipfv - prs
‎‎‎‘Sahib knows Eldar.’

Zilo Andi ts’inn-e

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-<j>o ts’inn-e marjam
pn - aff < f > know- hab pn [ f ][ nom ]
‘Ali knows Mariam.’