BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘kiss’

Argument frame: X (kiss) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. kissed M .
Predicate label Ru: целовать
Argument frame Ru: X (целовать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. поцеловал М .

Abaza ba hʷə

Valency pattern: ERG_IO
X: ERG
Y: IO
Locus: Y
fatíma l-aš’á ba j-a-l-hʷ-ṭ
pn 3 sg . f . io -brother kiss 3 sg . m . io - dat -3 sg . f . erg -say( aor )- dcl
‘Fatima kissed her brother.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-bewə

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pŝaŝe-r č̣ʼale-m je-bewə-ʁ
girl- abs guy- obl 3 sg . io + dat -kiss- pst
‘The girl kissed the guy.’

Aghul p’ac ik’.i-

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a šünükː.i-s p’ac ik’.i-ne
pn ( erg ) child- dat kiss { in }poke. pf - aor
‘Aslan kissed the child.’

Alik Kryz k'uf ğaynic

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPEREL
X: ERG
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
terlan-ir leyla-ğar k'uf ğayn-ic
pn - erg pn - superel kiss take. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan kissed Leyla.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu marin hijtbo
pn - obl ( erg ) pn kiss. pfv
‘Pasha kissed Marina.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic našək

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala nšik-a-l brata
boy( m ) kiss- ss .3 f - ls .3 m girl( f )
‘The boy kissed the girl.’

Avar q’očize

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ʕali marjam-i-da q’oč-ana
pn pn - obl - loc kiss- aor
‘Ali kissed Marjam.’

Azerbaijani öpmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Leyla-nı öp-dü
pn pn - acc kiss- pst (3)
‘Aslan kissed Leyla.’

Bambara súmusumu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sékù ye Fántà dá` súmusumu
pn pfv . tr pn mouth\ art smell
‘Seku kissed Fanta.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Brazilian Portuguese beijar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro beij-ou Maria
pn ( m ) kiss-3 sg . pst pn ( f )
‘Pedro kissed Maria.’

Catalan besar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va bes-ar la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind kiss- inf def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere kissed Maria.’

Chirag upːa b-arq’i

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imat-le gal-l-i upːa b-arq’-ib
pn - erg boy- obl - super kiss( abs ) n . sg -do: pf - aor .3
‘Patimat kissed her son.’

Czech políbit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr políbi-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] kiss( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr kissed Michal.’

Danish kysse

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter kysse-de Marie
pn kiss- pst pn
‘Peter kissed Marie.’

Dutch kussen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft Marie ge-kus-t
pn ( c ) have.3 sg pn ( c ) ptcp -kiss- ptcp
‘Piet kissed Marie.’

Eastern Maninka súnbu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bára Fántà súnbu.
pn prf pn kiss
‘Seku has kissed Fanta.’

English kiss

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter kissed Mary.

Estonian suudlema

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter suudle-s Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom kiss- pst .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter kissed Maret.’

Finnish suudella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka suutel-i Matti-a
pn . nom kiss- pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka kissed Matti.’

Forest Enets nʲujza

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-da nʲujza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- obl . sg .3 sg kiss( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend kissed his wife’.

French embracer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a embrassé Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg kiss. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f )
‘Paul kissed Marie.’

Georgian Ø-a-k'oc-eb-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-m mašo-s loq'a-ze Ø-a-k'oc-a
pn - erg pn - dat cheek- pstp : subl io 3- ver : n -kiss- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre kissed Masho on the cheek.’

German küssen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl küss-te Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] kiss- pst .3 sg pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl kissed Marie.’

Icari Dargwa mesa b=iːkː-uj

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPLAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam-il Madina-lij mesa b=iːčː-ib
pn - erg pn - suplat kiss. abs n =give: pf - aor
‘Islam kissed Madina.’

Irish póg

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=phóg Pól Máire.
pst =kiss pn pn
‘Pól kissed Máire.’

Italian baciare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha baciato Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs kiss. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo kissed Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad p'aj-0-ik-ib ʡašura-ke
pn kiss- m -fall. pfv - pret pn - super
‘Muhammad kissed Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani ćumindel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a ćuminď-a la Marijk-a ande buk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg kiss- pst .3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn - acc . sg in cheek- nom . sg
‘Murša kissed Marijka on the cheek.’

Karata

Valency pattern: ERG_CONT
X: ERG
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
ʕali-l marjam-i-č’o oba ge-e geh-e
pn - erg pn - obl - cont kiss do- pf do- pf
‘Ali kissed Marjam.’

Kaytag Dargwa уммайбеккара

Valency pattern: ERG_DATLAT
X: ERG
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja-l maša-j ummaj b-eč:-iv
pn - erg pn - datlat kiss n -give. pf - aor
‘Petja kissed Masha.’

Kazakh süy

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï süy-dі
pn pn - acc kiss- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya kissed Masha.’

Kazym Khanty mɔsǝλtǝti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en maša-j-en mɔsǝλtǝ-s-λe
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg kiss- pst -3 sg . so
‘Petja kissed Maša.’

Khoekhoe ǁoa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a go ǁoa
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl rpst kiss
‘Peter kissed Maria.’

Khwarshi uba buwa

Valency pattern: ERG_CONT
X: ERG
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
šamil-i uba-č b-u-ja isu-lo-č kande-qo
pn - erg kiss( iii )- its iii -make- pst . w dem . an . o . i - gen 2- its daughter- cont
‘Shamil kissed his daughter.’

Kina Rutul k’uxʲ kiwɨr

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a k’uxʲ ki-w-ɨ-r madina-s
pn - erg beak( nom ) pv -3- lv . pfv - cvb pn - dat
‘Rasul kissed Madina.’

Kumyk upaj etmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat musa-nɨ upaj et-d-i
pn pn - acc kiss do- pst -3 sg
‘Patimat kissed Musa.’

Latin osculor

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
aliter homin-es amic-am, aliter liber-os oscula-ntur
differently man( m )- nom . pl girlfriend( f )- acc . sg differently child( m )- acc . pl kiss[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 pl
‘People kiss girlfriends and children in different ways.’
Note: (Sen. Ep. 75, 3)

Laz o-xel-u

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k Fatma-s g-Ø-a-xel-u
pn - b - erg pn - dat prv - io 3- ver : rel -kiss- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim kissed Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese qīnwěn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān qīnwěn le Lǐsì
pn kiss pfv pn
‘Zhangsan kissed Lisi.’

Mano *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER.LAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
Islam-ini umma d-aq'-ib Madina-če
pn - erg kiss npl -do: pfv - pst pn - super ( lat )
‘Islam kissed Madina.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-ǯun-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k anučia-s k-Ø-a-ǯun-u
pn - erg pn - dat aff - io 3- ver : r -kiss- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo kissed Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew niʃek

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas niʃek et Menaχem
pn kiss[ pst .3 sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas kissed Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul temeni hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a majram-ı-s temeni hıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn - obl - dat kiss n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad kissed Majram.’

Nanai oǯo-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa oǯo-xa-ni
pn pn - obl kiss- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia kissed Masha.’

Nivkh mоct

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Ajsana + mоc-t
pn pn + kiss- ind
‘Kaskazik kissed Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pataħi-de madina-ge c’:a-ani
pn - erg pn - loc kiss- aor
‘Patahi kissed Madina.’

Northern Mansi an’apaste

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
āji ɕān’-e an’ap-as-t-e
daughter mother- poss .3 sg kiss- pst - sg . o -3 sg . s
‘The daughter kissed her mother.’

Northern Yukaghir ubа̄=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ɣаnǝ mǝr ubа̄-m
pn pn - acc aff kiss- tr .3 sg
‘Semien kissed Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å kysse

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per kysse-t Kari
pn kiss- pst pn
‘Per kissed Kari.’

Polish pocałować

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Franek pocałowa-ł Mart-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] kiss: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Franek kissed Marta.’

Russian pocelovatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja pocelova-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg kiss( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja kissed Maša.’

Serbian poljubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je poljubi-o Marij-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg kiss- part . perf . m . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar kissed Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul k'üx kivɨ-n

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir k'üx kivɨ-r peri-s
pn ( erg ) kiss give. pf - aor pn - dat
‘Basir kissed Peri.’

Shughni bā čīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i Saida ču
pn =3 sg pn kiss do. pst
‘Ahmed kissed Saida.’

Skolt Saami cuʹmmsted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt cuʹmmst-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom kiss- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete kissed Maria’

Slovak pobozkať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter pobozka-l Mári-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] kiss( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter kissed Maria.’

Slovenian poljubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je poljubi-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg kiss: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter kissed Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish maç kirdin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa Perî=î maç kird-Ø
pn pn =3 sg . pc kiss do. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa kissed Pari.’

Southern Rutul hup'a hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a ayten-ı-s hup'a hıʔı-r
pn - erg pn - obl - dat kiss n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad kissed Ayten.’

Spanish dar un beso

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Pedro ha da-do un beso a María
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg give- ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . m kiss[ sg . m ] ndir . obj pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro kissed Maria.’

Standard Arabic qabbala

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n qabbala Maryam-a
pn - nom - indef kiss. pf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr kissed Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø lile-s xaq'ba-ži lä-x-qax-äːn
pn - nom pn - dat cheek- superess prv : slightly - io 3-kiss- pst
‘Maizer kissed Lile on (her) cheek.’

Swedish att kyssa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn kyss-te Maja
pn kiss- pst pn
‘Björn kissed Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
H<in>alik-an ni Pedro si Maria
< pv > pfv .kiss- lv pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro kissed Maria.’
Note: Ask Sergey

Telugu muddu peṭṭu

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pravīṇ madhuri-ki muddu peṭṭāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( f ). sg . obl - dat kiss( n ). sg . nom put. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen kissed Madhuri.’

Tsakhur uba haʔiy

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-ee sona-ys uba haʔu
pn - erg pn - dat kiss n .do. pf
‘Murad kissed Sona.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: ERG/LOC(LAT)_SUPER(LAT)
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi nešli-jaˤ č'op' ik-un
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) mother- super ( lat ) kiss ( m )say. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy kissed his mother.’

Tsugni Dargwa paj ag-i / ig-i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li baba-j paj ag-ib
boy- erg mother- dat kiss say. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy kissed his mother.’

Turkish öpmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i öp-tü
pn pn - acc kiss- pst
‘Mehmet kissed Filiz.’

Turoyo nošəq

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel nšəq-le Yuḥanən
pn kiss. pfv - ls .3 m pn
‘Gabriyel kissed Yuḥanən.’

Ulcha alawsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə əktə piktə-wə alawsa-xa-ni
male child female child- acc kiss- pst -3 sg
‘The boy kissed the girl.’

Uzbek o’pmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni o’p-ti
pn pn - acc kiss- pst .3 sg
‘Petja kissed Maša.’

West Central Oromo ɗungata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n boontuu ɗungat-e
pn - nom pn . abs kiss-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa kissed Bontu.’

Zilo Andi ts’omm.i

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
χadiʒati-di ts’omm.i marjam-ʔa
pn - erg kiss. pst ( aor ) pn - super
‘Khadizhat kissed Mariam.’