BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘kiss’

Argument frame: X (kiss) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. kissed M .
Predicate label Ru: целовать
Argument frame Ru: X (целовать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. поцеловал М .

Abaza ba hʷə

Valency pattern: ERG_IO
X: ERG
Y: IO
Locus: Y
fatíma l-aš’á ba j-a-l-hʷ-ṭ
pn 3 sg . f . io -brother kiss 3 sg . m . io - dat -3 sg . f . erg -say( aor )- dcl
‘Fatima kissed her brother.’

Aghul p’ac ik’.i-

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a šünükː.i-s p’ac ik’.i-ne
pn ( erg ) child- dat kiss { in }poke. pf - aor
‘Aslan kissed the child.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic našək

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
yala nšik-a-l brata
boy( m ) kiss- ss .3 f - ls .3 m girl( f )
‘The boy kissed the girl.’

Brazilian Portuguese beijar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro beij-ou Maria
pn ( m ) kiss-3 sg . pst pn ( f )
‘Pedro kissed Maria.’

Catalan besar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va bes-ar a la Maria
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind kiss- inf to def . sg . f pn ( f )
‘Pere kissed Maria.’

Czech políbit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr políbi-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] kiss( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr kissed Michal.’

Danish kysse

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter kysse-de Marie
pn kiss- pst pn
‘Peter kissed Marie.’

Dutch kussen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft Marie ge-kus-t
pn ( c ) have.3 sg pn ( c ) ptcp -kiss- ptcp
‘Piet kissed Marie.’

Estonian suudlema

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter suudle-s Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom kiss- pst .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter kissed Maret.’

Finnish suudella

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka suutel-i Matti-a
pn . nom kiss- pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka kissed Matti.’

Forest Enets nʲujza

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ nɛ-da nʲujza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg woman- obl . sg .3 sg kiss( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend kissed his wife’.

Italian baciare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha baciato Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs kiss. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo kissed Maria.’

Kazakh süy

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï süy-dі
pn pn - acc kiss- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya kissed Masha.’

Kazym Khanty mɔsǝλtǝti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en maša-j-en mɔsǝλtǝ-s-λe
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg kiss- pst -3 sg . so
‘Petja kissed Maša.’

Latin osculor

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
aliter homin-es amic-am, aliter liber-os oscula-ntur
differently man( m )- nom . pl girlfriend( f )- acc . sg differently child( m )- acc . pl kiss[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 pl
‘People kiss girlfriends and children in different ways.’
Note: (Sen. Ep. 75, 3)

Modern Hebrew niʃek

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas niʃek et Menaχem
pn kiss[ pst .3 sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas kissed Menachem.’

Nanai oǯo-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa oǯo-xa-ni
pn pn - obl kiss- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia kissed Masha.’

Norwegian Bokmål å kysse

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per kysse-t Kari
pn kiss- pst pn
‘Per kissed Kari.’

Polish pocałować

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Franek pocałowa-ł Mart-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] kiss: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Franek kissed Marta.’

Russian pocelovatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja pocelova-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg kiss( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja kissed Maša.’

Rutul k’uxʲ kiwɨr

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a k’uxʲ ki-w-ɨ-r madina-s
pn - erg beak( nom ) pv -3- lv . pfv - cvb pn - dat
‘Rasul kissed Madina.’

Skolt Saami cuʹmmsted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt cuʹmmst-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom kiss- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete kissed Maria’

Slovenian poljubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je poljubi-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg kiss: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter kissed Ana.’

Spanish dar un beso

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Pedro ha da-do un beso a María
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg give- ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . m kiss[ sg . m ] ndir . obj pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro kissed Maria.’

Swedish att kyssa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn kyss-te Maja
pn kiss- pst pn
‘Björn kissed Maja.’

Turkish öpmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Filiz-i öp-tü
pn pn - acc kiss- pst
‘Mehmet kissed Filiz.’

Ulcha alawsi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə əktə piktə-wə alawsa-xa-ni
male child female child- acc kiss- pst -3 sg
‘The boy kissed the girl.’

Zilo Andi ts’omm.i

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
χadiʒati-di ts’omm.i marjam-ʔa
pn - erg kiss. pst ( aor ) pn - super
‘Khadizhat kissed Mariam.’