BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘kill’

Argument frame: X (kill) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. killed M .
Predicate label Ru: убивать
Argument frame Ru: X (убивать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. убил М .

Abaza š’ə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád a-ʁá də-j-š’ə́-d
pn def -enemy 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . erg -kill( aor )- dcl
‘Murad killed the enemy.’

Aghul k’.i-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a meʜemed k’.i-ne
pn ( erg ) pn kill. pf - aor
‘Aslan killed Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +kaṭəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
švava švot-u +kṭil-a-l
neighbour( m ) neighbour( f )- p .3 m kill. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 m
‘The neighbor (he) killed his neighbor (her).’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro matou Miguel
‘Педру убил Мигела.’

Czech zabít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr zabi-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] kill( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr killed Michal.’

Finnish tappaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka tapp-oi Mati-n
pn . nom kill- pst .3 sg pn - gen
‘Pekka killed Matti.’

Forest Enets kaza

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ saame kaza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg wolf obtain( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend killed a wolf’.

Latin neco

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(Oppianic-us) eodem venen-o C. Oppianic-um fratr-em neca-v-it
pn ( m )- nom . sg same. abl . sg . n poison( n )- abl . sg pn pn ( m )- acc . sg brother( m )- acc . sg kill- prf - ind . act .3 sg
‘(Oppianicus) killed his brother Caius Oppianicus with the same poison.’
Note: (Cic. Pro Cluentio. 31)

Modern Hebrew harag

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas harag et Menaχem
pn kill[ pst .3 sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas killed Menachem.’

Nanai waa-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa waa-xa-ni
pn pn - obl kill- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia killed Masha.’

Norwegian Bokmål å drepe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per drep-te Ola
pn kill- pst pn
‘Per killed Ola.’

Polish zabić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Janek zabi-ł Magdalen-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] kill: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Janek killed Magdalena.’

Russian ubitʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja ubi-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg kill( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja killed Maša.’

Rutul riq’e rɨʔɨra

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a r-iq’-e r-ɨʔɨ-r=a asijet
pn - erg 2-die- imp 2-do. pfv - cvb =be pn ( nom )
‘Rasul killed Asijat.’

Skolt Saami kåʹdded

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kooʹdd-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom kill- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete killed Maria’

Slovenian ubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je ubi-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg kill: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter killed Ana.’

Swedish att döda

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn döda-de Maja
pn kill- pst pn
‘Björn killed Maja.’

Turkish öldürmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Orhan-ı öldür-dü
pn pn - acc kill- pst
‘Mehmet killed Orhan.’

Ulcha wā-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama buju-wə wā-xa-ni
father bear- acc kill- pst -3 sg
‘Father killed the bear.’

Zilo Andi dʒab.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di muħammadi dʒab.i
pn - erg pn [ m ][ nom ] beat. pst ( aor )
‘Ali killed Muhammad.’