BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘kill’

Argument frame: X (kill) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. killed M .
Predicate label Ru: убивать
Argument frame Ru: X (убивать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. убил М .

Abaza š’ə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
murád a-ʁá də-j-š’ə́-d
pn def -enemy 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . erg -kill( aor )- dcl
‘Murad killed the enemy.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) wəč̣ʼə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
askerə-m pəjə-r ə-wəč̣ʼə-ʁ
soldier- obl enemy- abs 3 sg . erg -kill- pst
‘The soldier killed the enemy.’

Aghul k’.i-

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
aslan.a meʜemed k’.i-ne
pn ( erg ) pn kill. pf - aor
‘Aslan killed Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz q'ayic

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
terlan-ir rasul q'ay-id
pn - erg pn kill. pfv - aor . m
‘Terlan killed Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
paša-mu muħammad u<w>ču
pn - obl ( erg ) pn <1>kill. pfv
‘Pasha killed Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +kaṭəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
švava švot-u +kṭil-a-l
neighbour( m ) neighbour( f )- p .3 m kill. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 m
‘The neighbor (he) killed his neighbor (her).’

Avar č’waze

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-ca č’wa-na aħmad
pn - erg strike- aor pn
‘Ali killed Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani öldürmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u öl-dür-dü
pn pn - acc die- caus - pst (3)
‘Aslan killed Rasul.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ ʒwítə́ sùù
pn sm p 2 kill pn
‘Ambe killed Suh.’

Bambara fàga

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye wáraba` fàga
pn pfv . tr lion\ art kill
‘Seku killed a lion.’

Brazilian Portuguese matar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro mat-ou Miguel
pn ( m ) kill-3 sg . pst pn ( m )
‘Pedro killed Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
aslan-ır rosul at'u-ci
pn - erg pn ( m )kill. pf - nar
‘Aslan killed Rasul.’

Catalan matar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va mat-ar en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind kill- inf def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere killed Marc.’

Chirag elχːʷi

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
ʡa̰li-le qːačaʁ elχː-un
pn - erg robber( abs ) kill: pf - aor .3
‘Ali killed the robber.’

Czech zabít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr zabi-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] kill( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr killed Michal.’

Danish dræbe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter dræb-te Marie
pn kill- pst pn
‘Peter killed Marie.’

Dutch doden

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft Marie ge-dood
pn ( c ) have.3 sg pn ( c ) ptcp -kill
‘Piet killed Marie.’

Eastern Maninka fàa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bára Fónbà fàa.
pn prf pn kill
‘Seku has killed Fomba.’

English kill

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter killed Mary.

Estonian tapma

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Peeter tapp-is Mareti
pn . sg . nom kill- pst .3 sg pn . sg . gen
‘Peeter killed Maret.’

Finnish tappaa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka tapp-oi Mati-n
pn . nom kill- pst .3 sg pn - gen
‘Pekka killed Matti.’

Forest Enets kaza

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ saame kaza
i man- nom . sg .1 sg wolf obtain( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend killed a wolf’.

French tuer

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a tué Michel
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg kill. pst . ptcp . m pn ( m )
‘Paul killed Michel.’

Georgian mo-Ø-k'l-av-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
p'et're-m mašo-Ø mo-Ø-k'l-a
pn - erg pn - nom prv : prox - do 3-kill- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre killed Masho.’

German töten

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl töte-te Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] kill- pst .3 sg pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl killed Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle pǎa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pépèe àa Ámadù pǎa
pn 3 sg . prf pn kill
‘Pepee killed Amadu.’

Icari Dargwa ke=j=x-uj

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
Islam-il Nadir ke=j=x-ub
pn - erg pn . abs on = m =throw: pf - aor
‘Islam killed Nadir.’

Irish maraigh

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=mhairbh Pól Máire.
pst =kill pn pn
‘Pól killed Máire.’

Italian uccidere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha ucciso Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs kill. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo killed Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa ka-CL-uš-es / ka-CL-urš-es

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li rasul ka-0-wš-ib
pn - erg pn down - m -kill. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad killed Rasul.’

Kalderash Romani mudarəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a mudar-ď-a le źukl-es
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg kill- pst -3 sg art . m . obl dog- acc . sg
‘Murša killed a dog.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
maˁhaˁmad-ǯi ǯanavar ʁa-b-k’-nu
pn - erg wolf( abs ) pf - n . sg -kill- pst
‘Mahamad killed the wolf.’

Karata k’k’obaɬa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ʕali-l k’k’ob-e aħmat’
pn - erg kill- pf pn
‘Ali killed Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa kixwara

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l miša kiš-ur
pn - erg pn kill. pf - aor
‘Petja killed Misha.’

Kazakh öltіr

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï öltіr-dі
pn pn - acc kill- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya killed Masha.’

Kazym Khanty weλti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en waśa-j-en weλ-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg kill- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja killed Vasja.’

Khoekhoe ǃgam

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a ge ǃgam
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl pst kill
‘Peter killed Maria.’

Khwarshi j/ihaχa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
šamil-i b-iha-χ-χa ʁʷe
pn - erg iii -die- caus - pst . w dog( iii )
‘Shamil killed the dog.’

Kina Rutul riq’e rɨʔɨra

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a r-iq’-e r-ɨʔɨ-r=a asijet
pn - erg 2-die- imp 2-do. pfv - cvb =be pn ( nom )
‘Rasul killed Asijat.’

Kumyk öltürmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
basir musa-nɨ öl-tür-d-ü
pn pn - acc die- caus - pst -3 sg
‘Basir killed Musa.’

Latin neco

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(Oppianic-us) eodem venen-o C. Oppianic-um fratr-em neca-v-it
pn ( m )- nom . sg same. abl . sg . n poison( n )- abl . sg pn pn ( m )- acc . sg brother( m )- acc . sg kill- prf - ind . act .3 sg
‘(Oppianicus) killed his brother Caius Oppianicus with the same poison.’
Note: (Cic. Pro Cluentio. 31)

Laz o-γur-(in)-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k Fatma-Ø d-Ø-o-γu(r)-in-u
pn - b - erg pn - nom prv - do 3- caus -die- caus - s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim killed Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese shāsǐ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān shāsǐ le Lǐsì
pn kill pfv pn
‘Zhangsan killed Lisi.’

Mano zɛ̄

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà miī zɛ̄
3 sg . prf person kill
‘S/he has killed a person.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Islam-ini w-aˤbʡ-ib Nadir
pn - erg m -kill: pfv - pst pn
‘Islam killed Nadir.’

Mingrelian do-Ø-ʔvil-un-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
čelo-k anučia-Ø do-Ø-ʔvil-u
pn - erg pn - nom prv - do 3-kill- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo killed Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew harag

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas harag et Menaχem
pn kill[ pst .3 sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas killed Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul jiq'e hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'urban jiq'e hıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn m .die m .do. pf - aor
‘Murad killed Kurban.’

Nanai waa-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa waa-xa-ni
pn pn - obl kill- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia killed Masha.’

Nivkh iɣd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Irgun i-ɣ-d
pn pn 3 sg -kill- ind
‘Kaskazik killed Irgun.’

Northern Akhvakh ƛ’ƛ’waruruƛa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
pataħi-de musa ƛ’ƛ’war-ari
pn - erg pn strike- aor
‘Patahi killed Musa.’

Northern Mansi ɕamalas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ti xum ɕam-al-as mōt xum
this man to.death-kill- pst [3 sg ] another man
‘This man killed another man.’

Northern Yukaghir punˈ=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Čiǝri-ɣаnǝ punˈi-m
pn pn - acc aff kill- tr .3 sg
‘Semien killed Cheri.’

Norwegian Bokmål å drepe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per drep-te Ola
pn kill- pst pn
‘Per killed Ola.’

Polish zabić

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Janek zabi-ł Magdalen-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] kill: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Janek killed Magdalena.’

Russian ubitʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja ubi-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg kill( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja killed Maša.’

Serbian ubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je ubi-o Marij-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg kill- part . perf . m . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar killed Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul h-iq'e hɨʔɨ-n

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
basir h-iq'e hɨʔɨ-r karam
pn ( erg ) m -die. cov m .do. pf - aor pn
‘Basir killed Karam.’

Shughni zīdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Šamil=i Azim zīd
pn =3 sg pn kill. pst
‘Shamil killed Azim.’

Skolt Saami kåʹdded

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kooʹdd-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom kill- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete killed Maria’

Slovak zabiť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter zabi-l Mári-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] kill( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter killed Maria.’

Slovenian ubiti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je ubi-l An-o
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg kill: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter killed Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish kuʂtin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Hîwa Sîrwan=î kuʂt-Ø
pn pn =3 sg . pc kill. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa killed Sirwan.’

Southern Rutul yiq'e hıʔın

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a aydın yiq'e hıʔı-r
pn - erg pn m .die m .do. pf - aor
‘Murad killed Aydin.’

Spanish matar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ha mata-do a María
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg kill- ptcp : prf dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro killed Maria.’

Standard Arabic qatala

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un qatala Maryam-a
pn - nom kill. pf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr killed Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
maizer-d gegi-Ø ad-Ø-gäːr
pn - erg pn - nom prv : dist - do 3-kill. pst
‘Maizer killed Gegi.’

Swedish att döda

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn döda-de Maja
pn kill- pst pn
‘Björn killed Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
P<in>atay ni Pedro si Miguel
< pv > pfv .kill pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro killed Miguel.’

Telugu caṁpēyu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni caṁpēsāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc kill. intens . pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen killed Mahesh.’

Tsakhur gik’iy

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-ee хoče givk’u
pn - erg snake a .kill. pf
‘Murad killed the snake.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa ka-b-uš-iz/ka-b-urš-iz

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
uršːi-le ħunri ka-b-ušː-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) mosquito down -kill. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy killed a mosquito.’

Tsugni Dargwa k-aq'-i / k-alq'-i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
durħaˤ-li žibin k-aq'-ur
boy- erg mosquito down -kill. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy killed a mosquito.’

Turkish öldürmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet Orhan-ı öldür-dü
pn pn - acc kill- pst
‘Mehmet killed Orhan.’

Turoyo qoṭəl

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel qṭi-le Yuḥanən
pn kill. pfv - ls .3 m pn
‘Gabriyel killed Yuḥanən.’

Ulcha wā-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama buju-wə wā-xa-ni
father bear- acc kill- pst -3 sg
‘Father killed the bear.’

Uzbek o’ldirib qoymoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni o’l-dir-ib qoy-di
pn pn - acc die- caus - cvb put- pst .3 sg
‘Petja killed Maša.’

West Central Oromo addʒeesa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n tolaa addʒees-e
pn - nom pn . abs kill-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa killed Tola.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Sahib-a murdar qˈe-na
pn - erg snake kill. pfv - aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib killed the snake.’

Zilo Andi dʒab.i

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
ali-di muħammadi dʒab.i
pn - erg pn [ m ][ nom ] beat. pst ( aor )
‘Ali killed Muhammad.’