BivalTyp

‘influence’

Argument frame: X (influence) Y
Stimulus sentence: Age influences memory .
Predicate label Ru: влиять
Argument frame Ru: X (влиять) на Y (-а)
Stimulus sentence Ru: Возраст] влияет на [память .

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Adyghe (West Circassian) *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
s-jə-č̣ʼelejeʁaǯʼe jə-feme.bžʼəme-xe-r qə-s-tje-ha-ʁe-x
1 sg . pr - poss -teacher poss -influence- pl - abs csl -1 sg . io - loc : top -enter- pst - pl
‘My teacher has influenced me.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence. This construction is only possible when the X-argument is human.

Aghul *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
me jaš.tːi-n kar e
demm age- gen matter cop
Lit. ‘Memory is the matter of age.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Alik Kryz tahsir aric

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
yaş-il-ir yaddaş-ciz tahsir yi-re
age- obl - erg memory- obl . dat consequence do. ipfv - prs . n
‘Age influences memory.’

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_GENlwana
X: NOM
Y: GENlwana
Locus: Y
pahmu ʕummul-li-n ɬːʷaːna b-ikir
age life- obl - gen according 3-be. iter
‘Age influences memory.’
Note: ɬːʷaːna functions as a postposition (not separable from the NP).

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Avar baze

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
rak’aldač’e-j rih-alda b-a-ra-b b-ugo
remember- msd delay- obl . loc n -hang- pf . ptcp - n n - cop
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Azerbaijani təsir etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
yaş yaddaş-a tǝsir ed-ir
age memory- dat / lat influence do- ipfv (3)
‘Age influences memory.’

Bafut *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Bambara dádigi

Valency pattern: SBJ_la
X: SBJ
Y: la
Locus: Y
kɔ̀rɔ` dádigi` kɛ́nɛya` lá
old.age\ art ipfv penalize health\ art in
‘Old age negatively influences health.’

Brazilian Portuguese influenciar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
a idade influenci-a a memória
def . f age( f ) influence-3 sg . prs def . f memory( f )
‘Age influences memory.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ya'ş-ın-ır ya'dda'ş-ca tesir siʔi-ri
year- obl - erg keepsake- loc effect n .do. ipf - prs
‘Age influences memory.’

Catalan afectar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
l'edat afect-a la memòria
def . sg . f -age( f ) influence-3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . f memory( f )
‘Age influences memory.’

Chirag *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʡumri-li-cːille pahme kam b-urχ-le
age- obl - com memory( abs ) little n . sg -become: ipf - dur . prs .3
‘With age, memory becomes worse.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Czech ovlivňovat

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
věk ovlivňuje paměť
age( m )[ nom . sg ] influence( ipfv ). prs .3 sg memory( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Age influences memory.’

Danish påvirke

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Alder påvirke-r hukommels-en
age( c ). sg affect- prs memory( c )- def . sg
‘Age affects memory.’

Dutch invloed hebben

Valency pattern: SBJ_op
X: SBJ
Y: op
Locus: Y
leeftijd heeft invloed op het geheugen
age(С) have.3 sg influence( c ) on art . def . n memory( n )
‘Age influences memory.’

Eastern Maninka lá

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sí-kasabi` dí sé nɔ̀` lá-la hánkili-diya` lá.
age-quantity\ art fut arrive 3 sg trace\ art lie- inf . la reason-pleasure\ art at
Lit. ‘When the age comes, its trace affects intellectual capacities.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence (and X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier).

English influence

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Age influences memory.

Estonian mõjutama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
vanus mõjuta-b mälu
age. sg . nom influence- prs .3 sg memory. sg . part
‘Age influences memory.’

Finnish vaikuttaa

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
ikä vaikutta-a muisti-in
age. nom influence- prs .3 sg memory- ill
‘Age influences memory.’

Forest Enets *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

French influer

Valency pattern: SBJ_sur
X: SBJ
Y: sur
Locus: Y
l’ âge influe sur la mémoire
def . sg . m age( m ) influence. prs .3 sg on def . sg . f memory( f )
‘Age influences memory.’

Georgian ze-gavlena-s Ø-a-xd-en-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT.SUPERESS
X: ERG
Y: DAT.SUPERESS
Locus: Y
asak'-i mexsiereba-ze ze-gavlena-s Ø-a-xd-en-s
age- nom memory- pstp : superess prfx : superess -influence- dat do 3- fact -happen- fact - s 3 sg
‘Age influences memory.’
Note: Prefix ze- is optional.

German beeinflussen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
das Alter beeinfluss-t das Gedächtnis
def . n . nom . sg age[ nom . sg ] influence- prs .3 sg def . n . acc . sg memory[ acc . sg ]
‘Age influences memory.’

Guinean Kpelle *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Icari Dargwa asar b=irq'-uj

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPLAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
d=eːrč'-ib dus-m-a-lli ʕaˤq'lu-lij asar b=irq'-u
npl =pass: pf - aor year- pl - obl - erg mind- suplat influence. abs n =make: ipf - hab
‘The years one has lived affect one’s mind.’

Irish bí tionchar

Valency pattern: aige_ar
X: aige
Y: ar
Locus: XY
Bí-onn tionchar aige an t-aois air a’ gcuimhne.
be. hab - prs influence at def age on def memory
‘Age influences memory.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian influenzare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
l’ età influenz-a negativamente la memori-a
def . sg . f age. sg . f influence-3 sg . prs negatively def . sg . f memory- sg . f
‘Age negatively influences memory.’

Kadar Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
χugi iʁ-u=cada zat qum-art-an 0-ur-ar
big reach. ipfv - prs =as.much.as thing forget- lv . pfv - pot m -become. ipfv - th
‘As you get older, you get forgetful.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Kalderash Romani vliil

Valency pattern: NOM_pe
X: NOM
Y: pe
Locus: Y
le bərš vlii-n p-o pamiť-o
art . pl year[ nom . pl ] influence- prs .3 pl on- art . m . dir . sg memory- nom . sg
‘Age influences memory.’
Note: There is no inherited verb, the Russian verb is used.

Kandyk Tabasaran *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
jaš špaq fikir ʁu<b>z-u-dar
age( abs ) with thought( abs ) < n . sg >remain- prs - neg
‘Age influences memory.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Karata baʔaɬa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
pahmu rešin-da-r b-aʔ-a-b idja
memory year- pl . obl - lat n -come- pf . ptcp - n cop
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Kaytag Dargwa asar barara

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʕaˁmru-l-li asar b-ir-ulca qumurtanvirh-ulca
lifetime- obl - erg effect n -do. ipf - prs m .forget. ipf - prs
‘Age influences memory,’ lit. ‘Age influences, one forgets.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Kazakh äser et

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Žas žad-ï-ɣa äser et-edі
age memory- poss 3- dat influence do- prs 2.3 sg
‘Age influences memory.’

Kazym Khanty *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Khoekhoe tsâǀkha

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
kuri-n ge ǂâi-s-a ra tsâǀkha
year-3 c . pl decl memory-3 f . sg - obl ipfv touch
‘Age influences memory.’

Khwarshi j/ihaχa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
iłi daru-za pahmu b-ih-o:χa
dem . an . o . noni medicine( iii )- pl . erg memory ( iii ) iii -die- caus . gnt
Lit. ‘This medicine kills memory.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Kina Rutul ʁaqʷargʷardiš

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
q’aˁs-wol-i-kan išɨʁ ʁa-qʷ-argʷa-r-diš
old- abstr - obl - com light pv - re -4.see. ipfv - cvb - neg
‘With age, one becomes unable to see the light.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Kumyk etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ömür es-ge taʔsir et-e
life memory- dat impact do-3 sg
‘Life influences memory.’

Latin afficio

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(aconit-um) morde-t stomach-um et cor affic-it
aconite( n )- nom . sg bite[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg stomach( m )- acc . sg and heart( n ). acc . sg influence[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘(Aconite) bites the stomach and effects the heart.’
Note: (Larg. 188)

Laz o-k'in-u

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
c'ana-s nos-i d-Ø-ak'ː-in-en-Ø
year- dat reason- nom prv - s 3-decrease- r . ext - sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Reason decreases with age.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Mandarin Chinese yǒu yǐngxiǎng

Valency pattern: SBJ_dui
X: SBJ
Y: dui
Locus: Y
niánlíng duì jìyìlì yǒu yǐngxiǎng
age towards memory have influence
‘Age influences memory.’

Mano *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_CONT.LAT
X: NOM
Y: CONT.LAT
Locus: Y
χʷala w-aʔ-ri ʡaˤq'lu-li-ze irʁ-an
big m -arrive: pfv - nmlz intelligence- obl - cont ( lat ) hear- hab
‘Age influences memory.’

Mingrelian muš-i-s Ø-o-rt-u(n)-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
xan-i muš-i-s Ø-o-rt-u(n)-Ø gošina-s
age- nom refl . poss - b - dat do 3- ver : n -do- sm - s 3 sg . inact memory- dat
‘Age affects memory’ (lit. ‘Age does its thing to memory.’)

Modern Hebrew maʃpia

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
gil maʃpia al ha zikaron
age influence[ ptcp . sg . m ] on def memory
‘Age influences memory.’

Mukhad Rutul jik'ıı ʁadgın

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ješ ruʔu-di-re šıv-ga jik'-ıı ʁalga-rdiš
age ( n ) ipf .be- obl - erg what- indef heart- super ipf .remain_on- ipf . neg
‘Because age is coming, nothing remains in memory.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Nanai *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh beʁuruƛa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
zama mada ri-ɬɬi rak’wa-ro-ge čula b-eʁ-ušide
time n .go. pf . ptcp time- obl heart- obl - loc things n -stand- neg . prs
‘Age influences memory’, lit.: ‘When the time goes, things do not remain on the heart’.
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Yukaghir para=

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
lǝjrī-l sukunmolˈɣаl-ɣаt pаrа-nˈǝ-j
remember- nlzr year- abl root- prop - intr .3 sg
‘Age influences memory.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Norwegian Bokmål å påvirke

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
alder-en påvirke-r hukommels-en
age- def . m . sg influence- prs memory- def . m . sg
‘Age influences memory.’

Polish wpływać

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
wiek wpływa na pamięć
age[ nom . sg ] influence: ipfv . prs .3 sg on memory[ acc . sg ]
‘Age influences memory.’

Russian vlijatʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
vozrast vlija-et na pamjatʹ
age( m )[ nom . sg ] influence( ipfv )- prs .3 sg on memory( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Age influences memory.’

Serbian uticati

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
uzrast utiče na pamćenj-e
age. nom . sg influence. prs .3 sg on memory- acc . sg
‘Age influences memory.’

Shinaz Rutul asɨl h-iši-n

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ješ-mɨ-la asɨl ɨj hik'i-j ʁatkɨ-n
year- pl . obl - el depending cop heart. obl - super n .remain. pf - msd
‘Memory depends on age.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Shughni tāsīr čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP
X: NOM
Y: SUP
Locus: Y
sol wux̌-ti tāsīr kix̌-t
years memory- sup influence do-3 sg
‘Age influences memory.’

Skolt Saami vaikkted

Valency pattern: NOM_ILL
X: NOM
Y: ILL
Locus: Y
ââʹǩǩ vaaikat muštt-u
age. sg . nom influence. prs .3 sg memory- sg . ill
‘Age influences memory.’

Slovak ovplyvňovať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Vek ovplyvňuje pamäť
age( m )[ nom . sg ] influence( ipfv ). prs .3 sg memory( f )[ acc . sg ]
‘Age influences memory.’

Slovenian vplivati

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
starost vpliva na spomin
age[ nom . sg ] influence: ipfv . prs .3 sg on memory[ acc . sg ]
‘Age influences memory.’

Sorani Kurdish kariĝer bûn

Valency pattern: SBJ_le.ser
X: SBJ
Y: le.ser
Locus: Y
temen le-ser bîrge karîger-e
age from-head memory influential-be. prs .3 sg
‘Age influence memory.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Southern Rutul teʔsir hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
yaş-a-ra yaddaş-a-s teʔsir haʔa-r
age- obl - erg memory- obl - dat influence ( n )do. ipf - prs
‘Age influences memory.’

Spanish influir

Valency pattern: SBJ_en
X: SBJ
Y: en
Locus: Y
la edad influy-e en la memoria
art . def . sg . f age[ sg . f ] influence- prs .3 sg in art . def . sg . f memory[ sg . f ]
‘Age influences memory.’

Standard Arabic Ɂaṯṯara

Valency pattern: NOM_alaaGEN
X: NOM
Y: alaaGEN
Locus: Y
Ɂal-ʕumr-u yuɁaṯṯiru ʕalā ḏ-ḏākirat-i
def -age( m )- nom influence. ipf .3 m on def -memory( f )- gen
‘Age influences memory.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
al bepwšw-s liprebäːl-Ø xola-Ø x-aː-r
dem . prox child- dat excessive_affection- nom bad- nom io 3- ver : sup -have
‘Excessive affection spoils the child.’
Note: This root is used to mark alienable possession.

Swedish att påverka

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ålder-n påverka-r minne-t
age- def . c . sg influence- prs memory- def . n . sg
‘Age influences memory.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
naka-ka~impluwensya sa memorya ang edad
pot . av - ipfv ~influence dat memory subj age
‘Age influences memory.’
Note: This kind of marking co-exists with the [SUBJ; GEN] encoding, hence the verb is classified as ACT_UND.

Telugu māru

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
vayasu jñāpakašakti-ni mārustuṁdi
age( n ). sg . nom memory_force( n ). sg . obl - acc change. npst .3 sg . nm
‘Age changes memory.’
Note: Not included in the database because this translation is semantically inaccurate.

Tsakhur taˁʔsir haʔiy

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
yeš-ın bič’-ı-s taˁʔsir haʔa-n
age- erg memory- obl - dat influence n .do. ipf - n
‘Age influences memory.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
ʡumru ar d-ax-ni-le d-aχril asar b-irq'-u
life away/back npl -go- msd - erg / loc ( lat ) npl -knowledge away/off n -do. ipf - hab . prs
‘With life passing by, knowledge goes down.’
Note: Not included in the database because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.

Tsugni Dargwa *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Turkish etkilemek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
yaş akl-ı etkile-r
age mind- acc affect- aor
‘Age influences memory.’

Turoyo ḥokəm

Valency pattern: SBJ_7al
X: SBJ
Y: 7al
Locus: Y
u ʕəmro ko-ḥokəm ʕal u hawno
art . m age( m ) prs -govern. ipfv .3 m on art . m cognition( m )
‘Age influences cognition.’

Twi kentene

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
mfeε kentene nkaeε
age influence(3 sg . prs ) memory
‘Age influences memory.’

Ulcha *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Uzbek ta’sir qilmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
odam-niŋ yoš-i xotira-si-ga ta’sir qil-a-di
man- gen age- poss .3 sg memory- poss .3 sg - dat affect do- prs 2-3 sg
‘Age influences memory.’

West Central Oromo ɗiibbaa k'aba

Valency pattern: NOM_ABSirratti
X: NOM
Y: ABSirratti
Locus: Y
umurii-n jaadattʃuu irra-tti ɗiibbaa k'ab-a
age- nom memory. abs on- loc influence have-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Age influences memory.’

Wolof am njeexital

Valency pattern: SBJ_ci
X: SBJ
Y: ci
Locus: Y
sa-y at dafa-y am njeexital ci sa xel
poss :2 sg -cl y year( m ) f oc v .s i :3 sg - incpl have end( l ) loc poss :2 sg mind( m )
‘Age influences memory,’ lit. ‘Your years have an end on your mind.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
yaș-di yaddaș-di-z tesir-zva
age- erg memory- obl - dat influence- prs
‎‎‎‘Age influences memory.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
sɛrr-i tɛsir-e vir-i k-ɛn-e
year- pl . abs effect- ez . m memory- m . obl do. prs - aug -3 pl
‘Age influences memory,’ lit. ‘Year makes the memory’s effect.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Zilo Andi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
zaman b-uʔonn.i-r-qχi pamjat b-itʃ’.o-r
time inan 1-go. pst - msd - inst memory inan 1-die. pst - prog
‘With time passing, memory dies.’
Note: Not included in the dataset because the translation deviates too far from the stimulus sentence.