BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘hold’

Argument frame: X (hold) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. is holding a book (in his hands).
Predicate label Ru: держать
Argument frame Ru: X (держать) Y (-а)
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. держит книгу (в руках).

Abaza ma

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
a-phʷə́spa á-pχ’aga lə́-ma-ṗ
def -girl def -book 3 sg . f . io -be- npst . dcl
‘The girl is holding the book.’

Aghul χil.i-ʔ a-

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
aslan.a-n χil.i-ʔ kitab a-a
pn - gen hand- in book { in }be- prs
‘Aslan is holding a book in his hands.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic davək

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
brata ctava dvəkt-u=la id-o
girl( f ) book( m ) seize. res . f - p .3 m =3 f with hand( f )- p .3 f
‘The girl is holding a book in her hands.’

Brazilian Portuguese segurar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro segur-a o livro
pn ( m ) hold-3 sg . prs def . m book( m )
‘Pedro is holding a book.’

Catalan agafar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere està agaf-ant un llibre
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind hold- ger indf . sg . m book( m )
‘Pere is holding a book.’

Czech držet

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr drží knih-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hold( ipfv ). prs .3 sg book( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr is holding a book.’

Danish holde

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter holde-r en bog
pn hold- prs indf . sg book( c )
‘Peter is holding a book.’

Dutch houden

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet houd-t het boek vast
pn (С) hold-3 sg art . def . n book( n ) tightly
‘Piet is holding the book tightly.’

Estonian hoidma

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter hoia-b raamatu-t käe-s
pn . sg . nom hold- prs .3 sg book- sg . part hand- iness
‘Peeter is holding the book in his hands.’

Finnish pitää

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka pit-ää kirja-a käde-ssä-än
pn . nom hold- prs .3 sg book- part hand- ine - poss .3 sg
‘Pekka is holding a book in his hand.’

Forest Enets nɔɔbera

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ tʃezi-da nɔɔbera
i man- nom . sg .1 sg lasso- obl . sg .3 sg hold( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is holding his lasso’.

German halten

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl hält ein Buch
pn [ nom . sg ] hold. prs .3 sg indf [ n . acc . sg ] book[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl is holding a book.’

Italian tenere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo tien-e un libr-o in man-o
pn ( m ) hold-3 sg . prs indf . sg . m book- sg . m in hand- sg . f
‘Leo is holding a book in his hands.’

Kazakh usta

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya kіtap usta-p tur
pn book hold- cvb stand.3 sg
‘Petya is holding a book.’

Kazym Khanty jɔšən tǎjti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en kinška jɔš-ən tǎj-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg book hand- loc have- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja is holding a book in his hands.’

Latin teneo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
is-que hac ara-t infelix, hac tene-t arm-a man-u
he[ nom . sg ]-and this. abl . sg . f plough[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg unhappy. nom . sg this. abl . sg . f hold[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg weapon( n )- acc . pl hand( f )- abl . sg
‘And he, an impious man, is ploughing with one arm, holding weapons in the other.’
Note: (Ov. Tristia. V, 10, 24)

Modern Hebrew maχzik

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas maχzik sefer
pn hold[ ptcp . sg . m ] book
‘Pinchas is holding a book.’

Nanai ǯapača-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia ŋaala-do-i daŋsa-wa ǯapa-ča-j-ni
pn hand- dat - p . refl . sg book- obl grab- res - npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia is holding a book in his hands.’

Nivkh evd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik pitɣəŋ e-v-d
pn book 3 sg -hold- ind
‘Kaskazik is holding a book.’

Norwegian Bokmål å holde

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per holde-r ei bok i hend-ene
pn hold- prs indf . f . sg book in hand- def . pl
‘Per is holding a book in his hands.’

Polish trzymać

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Franek trzyma książk-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] hold: ipfv . prs .3 sg book- acc . sg
‘Franek is holding a book.’

Russian deržatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja derž-it knig-u v ruk-ax
pn ( m )- nom . sg hold( ipfv )- prs .3 sg book( f )- acc . sg in hand( f )- loc . pl
‘Petja is holding a book in his hands.’

Rutul χaq’ɨra

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
rasul-a kitab (χɨl-e) χ-aq’ɨ-r=a
pn - erg book( nom ) (hand. obl - in ) pv -4.catch. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul is holding a book (in his hands).’

Serbian drži

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar drži knjig-u
pn . nom . sg держать. prs .3 sg книга- acc . sg
‘Петар держит книгу.’

Shughni anǰīvdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Ahmed=i mu kitob anǰūv-d
pn =3 sg 1 sg . obl book hold- pst
‘Ahmed was holding my book.’

Skolt Saami tuõʹllʼjed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt tuõʹlla-i ǩeeʹrj
pn . sg . nom hold. prs .3 sg book. sg . acc
‘Pete is holding a book.’

Slovenian držati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter drži knjig-o
pn [ nom . sg ] hold: ipfv . prs .3 sg book- acc . sg
‘Peter is holding a book.’

Spanish tener

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro tien-e un libro en la-s mano-s
pn [ sg . m ] have- prs .3 sg art . ndef . sg . m book[ sg . m ] in art . def . f - pl hand[ sg . f ]- pl
‘Pedro is holding a book in his hands.’

Swedish att hålla

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn håll-er en bok i händ-erna
pn hold- prs indf . c . sg book in hand- def . pl
‘Björn is holding a book.’

Turkish tutmak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet kitap tut-uyor
pn book hold- prs
‘Mehmet is holding a book.’

Ulcha ǯapča-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
xusə piktə ŋāla-ǯi daŋsa-wa ǯap-č-i-ni
male child hand- ins book- acc take- res - prs -3 sg
‘The boy is holding a book in his hands.’

Zilo Andi 0

Valency pattern: CONT_NOM
X: CONT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-tʃ’u kodu χutʃa
pn - cont hands. in book[ inan 2][ nom ]
‘Ali is holding a book.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.