BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘hit’

Argument frame: X (hit) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. hit M .
Predicate label Ru: ударить
Argument frame Ru: X (ударять) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. ударил М .

Abaza

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
a-ʁa a-phʷə́s d-lə-s-ṭ
def -enemy def -woman 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io -hit( aor )- dcl
‘The enemy hit the woman.’

Aghul ačarx.u-

Valency pattern: ERG_IN
X: ERG
Y: IN
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-ʔ ačarx.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - in { in . lat }get. pf - aor
‘Aslan hit Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic maxə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
baxta məxy-a-la švot-o
woman( f ) beat. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 f neighbour( f )- p .3 f
‘The woman hit her neighbor.’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: SBJ_em
X: SBJ
Y: em
Locus: Y
Pedro bateu em Miguel
‘Педру ударил Мигела.’

Czech uhodit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr uhodi-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hit( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr hit Michal.’

Finnish lyödä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka löi Matti-a
pn . nom hit. pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka hit Matti.’

Forest Enets dʲɔzi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
vasʲa modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲɔzie
pn i man- nom . sg .1 sg hit( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘Vasja hit my friend’.

Latin percutio

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(Torquat-us) quod vero secur-i percuss-it fili-um
pn ( m )- nom . sg because truly axe( f )- abl . sg hit[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg son( m )- acc . sg
‘... (Torquatus), when he indeed struck his son with a pole-axe...’
Note: (Cic. De Fin. I, 23)

Modern Hebrew hika

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas hika et Menaχem
pn hit[ pst .3 sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas hit Menachem.’

Nanai pačila-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa pače.la-xa-ni
pn pn - obl hit. pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia hit Masha.’

Norwegian Bokmål å slå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per slo Ola
pn hit. pst pn
‘Per hit Ola.’

Polish uderzyć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Franek uderzy-ł Andrzej-a
pn [ nom . sg ] hit: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Franek hit Andrzej.’

Russian udaritʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja udari-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg hit( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja hit Maša.’

Rutul liwxir

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP.ELga
X: ERG
Y: SUP.ELga
Locus: Y
rasul-a asijet-ɨ-la ʁaʔ li-w-xi-r
pn - erg pn - obl ( sup )- el on pv -3-hit. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul hit Asijat.’
Note: Agreement marker on the verb cross-references the understood argument ‘hand’ (3rd class).

Skolt Saami čormmeed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čormmi-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom hit- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete hit Maria’

Slovenian udariti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je udari-l Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg hit: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter hit Pavel.’

Swedish att slå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn slog Maja
pn hit. pst pn
‘Björn hit Maja.’

Turkish vurmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a vur-du
pn pn - dat strike- pst
‘Mehmet hit Orhan.’

Ulcha pātila-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama ńima-nča-wa pātila-xa-ni
father neighbour- dem - acc hit- pst -3 sg
‘Father hit the neighbor.’

Zilo Andi dʒab.i

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ali-di dʒab.i muħammadi-ʔa
pn - erg beat. pst ( aor ) pn - super
‘Ali hit Muhammad.’