BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘hit’

Argument frame: X (hit) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. hit M .
Predicate label Ru: ударить
Argument frame Ru: X (ударять) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. ударил М .

Abaza

Valency pattern: ABS_IO
X: ABS
Y: IO
Locus: Y
a-ʁa a-phʷə́s d-lə-s-ṭ
def -enemy def -woman 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io -hit( aor )- dcl
‘The enemy hit the woman.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) je-we

Valency pattern: ABS_DAT
X: ABS
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
təʁʷaḳʷe-r č̣ʼale-m je-wa-ʁ
burglar- abs guy- obl 3 sg . io + dat -strike- pst
‘The burglar hit the guy.’

Aghul ačarx.u-

Valency pattern: ERG_IN
X: ERG
Y: IN
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-ʔ ačarx.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - in { in . lat }get. pf - aor
‘Aslan hit Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz vaxvic

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPEREL
X: ERG
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
terlan-ir rasul-ğar vaxv-ic
pn - erg pn - superel beat. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan hit Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
paša-mu muħammad-li-s daχdi
pn - obl ( erg ) pn - obl - dat 4.hit. pfv
‘Pasha hit Muhammad.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic maxə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
baxta məxy-a-la švot-o
woman( f ) beat. pst - ss .3 f - ls .3 f neighbour( f )- p .3 f
‘The woman hit her neighbor.’

Avar ƛ’ab(ʕ)ize

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
ʕali-ca aħmad-i-da ƛ’abʕ-ana
pn - erg pn - obl - loc strike- aor
‘Ali hit Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani vurmaq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan Rǝsul-u vur-du
pn pn - acc strike- pst (3)
‘Aslan hit Rasul.’

Bambara bùgɔ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye Fùséni bùgɔ
pn pfv . tr pn hit
‘Seku hit Fuseyni.’

Brazilian Portuguese bater

Valency pattern: SBJ_em
X: SBJ
Y: em
Locus: Y
Pedro bat-eu em Miguel
pn ( m ) hit-3 sg . pst in pn ( m )
‘Pedro hit Miguel.’

Catalan colpejar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va colpej-ar en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind hit- inf def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere hit Marc.’

Chirag b-a̰qi

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰li-le rasul-l-i (k’ak’am) b-a̰q-ib
pn - erg pn - obl - super stick( abs ) n . sg -hit: pf - aor .3
‘Ali hit Rasul (with a stick).’

Czech uhodit

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr uhodi-l Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hit( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr hit Michal.’

Danish slå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter slog Marie
pn hit. pst pn
‘Peter hit Marie.’

Dutch slagen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft Marie ge-slag-en
pn ( c ) have.3 sg pn ( c ) ptcp -hit- ptcp
‘Piet hit Marie.’

Eastern Maninka gbàsi

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù bára Fónbà gbàsi.
pn prf pn hit
‘Seku has hit Fomba.’

English hit

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter hit Mary.

Estonian lööma

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter lõ-i Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom hit- pst .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter hit Maret.’

Finnish lyödä

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka löi Matti-a
pn . nom hit. pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka hit Matti.’

Forest Enets dʲɔzi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
vasʲa modʲi kasa-jʔ dʲɔzie
pn i man- nom . sg .1 sg hit( pfv ).3 sg . s
‘Vasja hit my friend’.

French frapper

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a frappé Michel
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg hit. pst . ptcp . m pn ( m )
‘Paul hit Michel.’

Georgian da-Ø-a-rt'q'-am-s (FUT)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-m mašo-s xel-i da-Ø-a-rt'q'-a
pn - erg pn - dat hand- nom prv :downward- do 3- ver : n -strike- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre hit Masho.’

German schlagen

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl schlug Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] hit. pst .3 sg pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl hit Marie.’

Icari Dargwa b=aˤq-uj

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPLAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam-il Nadir-rij b=aˤq-ib
pn - erg pn - suplat n =hit: pf - aor
‘Islam hit Nadir.’

Irish buail

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Do=bhuail Pól Máire.
pst =hit pn pn
‘Pól hit Máire.’

Italian colpire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha colpito Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs hit. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo hit Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad-li rasu-j-ke b-aˤq-ib
pn - erg pn - obl - super n -beat. pfv - pret
‘Muhammad hit Rasul.’

Kalderash Romani del

Valency pattern: NOM_ande
X: NOM
Y: ande
Locus: Y
o Murš-a ď-a ande man-de
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg give- pst .3 sg in i - loc
‘Murša hit me.’

Karata

Valency pattern: ERG_CONT
X: ERG
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
ʕali-l aħmat’-i-č’o č’:war-e
pn - erg pn - obl - cont beat- pf
‘Ali hit Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa бергьара

Valency pattern: ERG_DATLAT
X: ERG
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja-l miša-j b-erh-iv
pn - erg pn - datlat n -strike. pf - aor
‘Petja hit Misha.’

Kazakh ur

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-nï ur-dï
pn pn - acc hit- pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya hit Masha.’

Kazym Khanty χǎtśǝti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en waśa-j-en χǎtśǝ-s-λe
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg hit- pst -3 sg . so
‘Petja hit Vasja.’

Khoekhoe ǂnau

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a go ǂnau
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl rpst hit
‘Peter hit Maria.’

Khwarshi j/ek'a

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN2
X: ERG
Y: GEN2
Locus: Y
šamil-i l-ejk'a ʁʷe-lo
pn - erg iv -hit\ pst . w dog( iii )- gen 2
‘Shamil hit the dog.’

Kina Rutul liwxir

Valency pattern: ERG_SUP.ELga
X: ERG
Y: SUP.ELga
Locus: Y
rasul-a asijet-ɨ-la ʁaʔ li-w-xi-r
pn - erg pn - obl ( sup )- el on pv -3-hit. pfv - cvb
‘Rasul hit Asijat.’
Note: Agreement marker on the verb cross-references the understood argument ‘hand’ (3rd class).

Kumyk urmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir musa-ʁa ur-d-u
pn pn - dat hit- pst -3 sg
‘Basir hit Musa.’

Latin percutio

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
(Torquat-us) quod vero secur-i percuss-it fili-um
pn ( m )- nom . sg because truly axe( f )- abl . sg hit[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg son( m )- acc . sg
‘... (Torquatus), when he indeed struck his son with a pole-axe...’
Note: (Cic. De Fin. I, 23)

Laz o-il-u

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k Fatma-Ø do-Ø-il-u
pn - b - erg pn - nom prv - do 3-hit- s 3 sg . pst
‘Käzim hit Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān le Lǐsì
pn hit pfv pn
‘Zhangsan hit Lisi.’

Mano mɛ̀

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
āà mīī mɛ̀
3 sg . prf person hit
‘S/he has hit a person.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER.LAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
Islam-in b-aˤq-ib Nadir-li-če
pn - erg n -hit: pfv - pst pn - obl - super ( lat )
‘Islam hit Nadir.’

Mingrelian xe-s mi-Ø-o-g-an-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k anučia-s xe-Ø mi-Ø-o-g-u
pn - erg pn - dat hand- nom prv - io 3- ver : sup -hit- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo hit Anuchia.’

Modern Hebrew hika

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas hika et Menaχem
pn hit[ pst .3 sg . m ] do pn
‘Pinchas hit Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul jıˤvχıˤn

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
murad-a q'urban jıˤχıˤ-ri
pn - erg pn m .strike. pf - aor
‘Murad hit Kurban.’

Nanai pačila-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia Maša-wa pače.la-xa-ni
pn pn - obl hit. pfv - pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia hit Masha.’

Nivkh zad

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Irgun + za-d
pn pn + hit- ind
‘Kaskazik hit Irgun.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: ERG_LOC
X: ERG
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pataħi-de musa-ge ƛ’:war-ari
pn - erg pn - loc strike- aor
‘Patahi hit Musa.’

Northern Mansi junijtas

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pijriɕ āji junijt-as
boy girl hit- pst [3 sg ]
‘The boy hit the girl.’

Northern Yukaghir pа̄j=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn Čiǝri pāj-mǝ-lǝ
pn pn hit- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien hit Cheri.’

Norwegian Bokmål å slå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per slo Ola
pn hit. pst pn
‘Per hit Ola.’

Polish uderzyć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Franek uderzy-ł Andrzej-a
pn [ nom . sg ] hit: pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Franek hit Andrzej.’

Russian udaritʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja udari-l Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg hit( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja hit Maša.’

Serbian udariti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar je udari-o Marij-u
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg hit- part . perf . m . sg pn - acc . sg
‘Petar hit Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul č'ipχɨ-n

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
basir č'ipχɨ-r karam-ɨ
pn a .beat. pf - aor pn - super
‘Basir hit Karam.’

Shughni δêdow1

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Šamil=i Azim δod
pn =3 sg pn give. pst
‘Shamil hit Azim.’

Skolt Saami čormmeed

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt čormmi-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom hit- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete hit Maria’

Slovak udrieť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter udre-l Mári-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hit( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter hit Maria.’

Slovenian udariti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter je udari-l Pavl-a
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg hit: pfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - acc . sg
‘Peter hit Pavel.’

Sorani Kurdish dan

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Hîwa le Marî-î da-Ø
pn from pn - obl give. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa hit Marie.’

Southern Rutul lixhin

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPEREL
X: NOM
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: Y
murad-a aydın-ııle livxhi-r
pn - erg pn - superel a .put_on. pf - aor
‘Murad hit Aydin.’

Spanish dar un golpe

Valency pattern: SBJ_NDIR.OBJ
X: SBJ
Y: NDIR.OBJ
Locus: Y
Pedro ha da-do un golpe a María
pn [ sg . m ] aux .3 sg give- ptcp : prf art . ndef . sg . m strike[ sg . m ] ndir . obj pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro hit Maria.’

Standard Arabic ḍaraba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n ḍaraba Maryam-a
pn - nom - indef hit. pf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr hit Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-d gegi-s ši-Ø x-a-qid
pn - erg pn - dat hand- nom io 3- ver : sup -hit
‘Maizer hit Gegi with (his) hand.’

Swedish att slå

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn slog Maja
pn hit. pst pn
‘Björn hit Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
S<in>untok ni Pedro si Miguel
< pv > pfv .hit pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro hit Miguel’

Telugu koṭṭu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ maheṣ-ni koṭṭāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - acc beat. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen hit Mahesh.’

Tsakhur ıˁхiy

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-ee aydın-ı-s ıˁхiyn
pn - erg pn - obl - dat strike. pf . n
‘Murad hit Aydin.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: ERG/LOC(LAT)_DAT
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
uršːi-le q'ʷaˤl-li-z b-aˤq-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) cow- obl - dat n -hit. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy hit the cow.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-aˤq-i / b-uˤrq-i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li q'ʷaˤl-li-j b-aˤq-ib
boy- erg cow- obl - dat n -hit. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy hit the cow.’

Turkish vurmak

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a vur-du
pn pn - dat strike- pst
‘Mehmet hit Orhan.’

Turoyo moḥe

Valency pattern: SBJ_IO
X: SBJ
Y: IO
Locus: Y
Gabriyel mḥe-le l Yuḥanən
pn hit. pfv - ls .3 m to pn
‘Gabriyel hit Yuḥanən.’

Ulcha pātila-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama ńima-nča-wa pātila-xa-ni
father neighbour- dem - acc hit- pst -3 sg
‘Father hit the neighbor.’

Uzbek urvolmoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya Maša-ni urvol-di
pn pn - acc hit- pst .3 sg
‘Petja hit Maša.’

West Central Oromo rukkuta

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n boontuu rukkut-e
pn - nom pn . abs hit-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa hit Bontu.’

Zilo Andi dʒab.i

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ali-di dʒab.i muħammadi-ʔa
pn - erg beat. pst ( aor ) pn - super
‘Ali hit Muhammad.’