BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘help’

Argument frame: X (help) Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. didn’t manage to do her homework by herself.) P. helped M .
Predicate label Ru: помочь
Argument frame Ru: X (помогать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. не могла сама сделать домашнее задание). П. помог М .

Abaza [c-]qraʕa

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
l-an zaréma də-l-c-qráʕa-d
3 sg . f . io -mother pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - com -help( aor )- dcl
‘Mother helped Zarema.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) qə-d-je-ʔe

Valency pattern: ABS_COM.DAT
X: ABS
Y: COM.DAT
Locus: Y
bzəλfəʁe–halelə-r pŝaŝe-m qə-d-je-ʔa-ʁ
woman–generous- abs girl- obl csl - com - dat -touch- pst
‘The kind woman helped the girl.’

Aghul kümek q’.u-

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-s kümek q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - dat help do. pf - aor
‘Aslan helped Muhammad’

Alik Kryz kumak aric

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
terlan-ir rasul-uz kumak ar-ic
pn - erg pn - dat help do. pfv - aor . n
‘Terlan helped Rasul.’

Archi

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
paša-mu marin-ni-s kumak a<b>u
pn - obl ( erg ) pn - obl - dat help <3>do. pfv
‘Pasha helped Marina.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic avəd comac

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
+Ašur comac vəd-lə ka +xor-u
pn help( f ) do. pst - ls .3 m to friend( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur helped his friend.’

Avar kumek habize

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali-ca marjam-ije kumek ha-b-una
pn - erg pn - dat help do- n - aor
‘Ali helped Ahmad.’

Azerbaijani kömək etmək

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-a kömǝk et-di
pn pn - dat / lat help do- pst (3)
‘Aslan helped Rasul.’

Bafut

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ kwɛ́tə̂ sùù
pn sm p 2 help pn
‘Ambe helped Suh.’

Bambara dɛ̀mɛ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù ye Fántà dɛ̀mɛ
pn pfv . tr pn help
‘Seku helped Fanta.’

Brazilian Portuguese ajudar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ajud-ou Miguel
pn ( m ) help-3 sg . pst pn ( m )
‘Pedro helped Miguel.’

Budugh

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan-ır rosul-uz kumok süʔür-cü
pn - erg pn - dat help( a ) a .do. pf - nar
‘Aslan helped Rasul.’

Catalan ajudar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere va ajud-ar en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) go.3 sg . prs . ind help- inf def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere helped Marc.’

Chirag kumag b-arq’i

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPER
X: ERG
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰li-le rasul-l-i kumag b-arq’-ib
pn - erg pn - obl - super help( abs ) n . sg -do: pf - aor .3
‘Ali helped Rasul.’

Czech pomoci

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr Michal-ovi pomoh-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] pn ( m )- dat . sg help( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr helped Michal.’

Danish hjælpe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter hjalp Marie
pn help. pst pn
‘Peter helped Marie.’

Dutch helpen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft Marie ge-holp-en
pn ( c ) have.3 sg pn ( c ) ptcp -help- ptcp
‘Piet helped Marie.’

Eastern Maninka dɛ̀mɛn

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù kà Fántà dɛ̀mɛn.
pn aor . tr pn help
‘Seku helped Fanta.’

English help

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter helped Mary.

Estonian aitama

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter aita-s Mareti-t
pn . sg . nom help- pst .3 sg pn - sg . part
‘Peeter helped Maret.’

Finnish auttaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka autt-oi Matti-a
pn . nom help- pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka helped Matti.’

Forest Enets pɛrezi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da pɛrezie-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg help( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend helped Vasja’.

French aider

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a aidé Marie
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg help. pst . ptcp . m pn ( f )
‘Paul helped Marie.’

Georgian da-Ø-e-xmar-eb-a (FUT)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-s da-Ø-e-xmar-a
pn - nom pn - dat prv :downward- io 3- ver : r -help- s 3 sg . pst
‘Petre helped Masho.’
Note: da-Ø-e-xmar-a with PRV:downward da- means that the help was provided by a superior to an inferior. When both the provider and the recepient are on an equal ground, PRV:PROX mo- is used.

German helfen

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Karl hilf-t Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] help- prs .3 sg pn [ dat . sg ]
‘Karl is helping Marie.’

Guinean Kpelle kpɔ̀ŋmáà tɛ̌ɣɛ

Valency pattern: SBJ_bha
X: SBJ
Y: bha
Locus: Y
Pépèe àá kpɔ̀ŋmáà tɛ̀ɣɛ Hɛ́ni ɓâ
pn 3 sg . prf help give pn on1
‘Pepee helped Heni.’

Icari Dargwa kumek b=arq'-uj

Valency pattern: ERG_SUPLAT
X: ERG
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam-il Nadir-rij kumek b=aˤrq'-ib
pn - erg pn - suplat help. abs n =do: pf - aor
‘Islam helped Nadir.’

Irish cabhraigh

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Do=chabhraigh Pól le Máire.
pst =help pn with pn
‘Pól helped Máire.’

Italian aiutare

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha aiutato Maria
pn ( m ) aux .3 sg . prs help. pst . ptcp pn ( f )
‘Leo helped Maria.’

Kadar Dargwa kumek CL-ar-es / CL-ir-es

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
meħamad-li kumek b-ar-ib ʡašura-s
pn - erg help n -do. pfv - pret pn - dat
‘Muhammad helped Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani aźutil

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a aźuti-sarď-a la Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn [ m ]- nom . sg help- prs -3 sg art . f . obl . sg pn [ f ]- acc . sg
‘Murša helped Marijka.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
fatima-ji dada.ji-z kmek ʁ-ap’-nu
pn - erg mother- dat help pf -do- pst
‘Fatima helped (her) mother.’

Karata kumak gahaɬa

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
ʕali-l marjam-ja kumak geh-e
pn - erg pn - dat help do- pf
‘Ali helped Marjam.’

Kaytag Dargwa kumekbarara

Valency pattern: ERG_DATLAT
X: ERG
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja-l kumek b-ar-iv maša-j
pn - erg help n -do. pf - aor pn - datlat
‘Petja helped Misha.’

Kazakh kömekte-s

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ɣa kömekte-s-tі
pn pn - dat help- rec - pst 1.3 sg
‘Petya helped Masha.’

Kazym Khanty ńɔtti

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pet’a-j-en maša-j-en-a ńɔt-ǝs
pn - ep - poss .2 sg pn - ep - poss .2 sg - dat help- pst [3 sg ]
‘Petja helped Maša.’
Note: The transitive pattern is also possible with this verb.

Khoekhoe hui

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge Maria-s-a ge hui
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl pst help
‘Peter helped Maria.’

Khwarshi j/uwa

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
učitel-i kumak b-uj-ja c'aldoq'ane-l
teacher- erg help( iii ) iii -make- pst . w pupil- dat
‘The teacher helped the pupil.’

Kina Rutul kumag hɨɁɨra

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a nadir-ɨ-s kumag hɨɁɨ-r=a
pn - erg pn - obl - dat help( nom ) 4.do. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul helped Nadir.’

Kumyk kömek etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
musa patimat-ʁa kömek et-d-i
pn pn - dat help do- pst -3 sg
‘Musa helped Patimat.’

Latin juvo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Titian-um et Cels-um nox juv-it
pn ( m )- acc . sg and pn ( m )- acc . sg night( f ). nom . sg help[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘The night helped Titian and Celsus.’
Note: (Tac. Hist. II, 44, 12)

Laz o-švel-u

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Käzim-i-k Fatma-s n-u-švel-am-s
pn - b - erg pn - dat io 3- ver : o -help- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim helps Fatma.’

Mandarin Chinese bāngzhù

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān bāngzhù le Lǐsì
pn help pfv pn
‘Zhangsan helped Lisi.’

Mano gbṵ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
āà gbṵ̄ ŋ̄ mɔ̀
3 sg . pst unite 1 sg on
‘S/he helped me.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Islam-ini Nadir-li-s kumak b-aq'-ib
pn - erg pn - obl - dat help n -do: pfv - pst
‘Islam helped Nadir.’

Mingrelian Ø-o-xvar-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
čelo-k anučia-s m-Ø-e-xvar-(u)
pn - erg pn - dat prv - io 3- ver : r -help- s 3 sg . pst
‘Chelo helped Anuchia.’
Note: This verb is a recent borrowing from Georgian.

Modern Hebrew azar

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas azar le Menaχem
pn help[ pst .3 sg . m ] to pn
‘Pinchas helped Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul kümeg hıʔın

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a q'urban-ı-s kümeg hıʔı-ri
pn - erg pn - obl - dat help n .do. pf - aor
‘Murad helped Kurban.’

Nanai bələči-

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-du bələči-xə-ni
pn pn - dat help- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia helped Masha.’

Nivkh rоd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik Ajsana + rо-d
pn pn + help- ind
‘Kaskazik helped Ajsana.’

Northern Akhvakh komoki guruƛa

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pataħi-de madina-ƛa komoki gw-eri
pn - erg pn - dat help do- uwpst
‘Patahi helped Madina.’

Northern Mansi n‘oti

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
n’āwram n’ōt-i ɕān’-e-n
child help- npst [3 sg ] mother- poss .3 sg - lat
‘The child helps his/her mother.’

Northern Yukaghir čambī=

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ŋinˈ čаmbī-m
pn pn - dat aff help- tr .3 sg
‘Semien helped Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å hjelpe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per hjalp Ola
pn help. pst pn
‘Per helped Ola.’

Polish pomóc

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Stanisław pomóg-ł Roman-owi
pn [ nom . sg ] help\ pst : pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Stanisław helped Roman.’

Russian pomočʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja pomog Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg help( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja helped Maša.’

Serbian pomoći

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petar je pomoga-o Marij-i
pn . nom . sg be. prs .3 sg help- part . perf . m . sg pn - dat . sg
‘Petar helped Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul kumag vɨ-n

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
basir kumag vɨ-r karam-ɨs
pn ( erg ) help give. pf - aor pn - dat
‘Basir helped Karam.’

Shughni yordam čīdow

Valency pattern: NOM_LAT
X: NOM
Y: LAT
Locus: Y
Šamil=i Lola-yard yordam čūd
pn =3 sg pn - lat help do. pst
‘Shamil helped Lola.’

Skolt Saami vieʹǩǩted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vieʹǩǩt-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom help- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete helped Maria’

Slovak pomôcť

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter pomoho-l Mári-i
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] help( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ] pn ( m )- dat . sg
‘Peter helped Maria.’

Slovenian pomagati

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je pomaga-l An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg help: pfv / ipfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Peter helped Ana.’

Sorani Kurdish yarmetî dan

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Hîwa yarmet-î Kamran=î da-Ø
pn help- izf pn =3 sg . pc give. pst -3 sg
‘Hiwa helped Kamran.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Southern Rutul xıl yıˤxıˤn

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-a aydın-ı-s xıl yıˤvxıˤ-r
pn - erg pn - obl - dat hand( a ) a .strike. pf - aor
‘Murad helped Aydin.’

Spanish ayudar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ayud-ó a María
pn [ sg . m ] help- aor .3 sg dir . obj . anm pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro helped Maria.’

Standard Arabic sāʕada

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-un sāʕada Maryam-a
pn - nom help. pf .3 m pn - acc
‘Badr helped Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
maizer-d gegi-s lo-x-murǯ-e
pn - erg pn - dat prv : slightly . ver : o - io 3-help- pst
‘Maizer helped Gegi.’

Swedish att hjälpa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn hjälp-te Maja
pn help- pst pn
‘Björn helped Maja.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: ACT_LOC
X: ACT
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
T<in>u~lung-an ni Pedro si Miguel
< pfv > pfv ~help- lv pers . gen pn pers . subj pn
‘Pedro helped Miguel.’

Telugu sahāyamu cēyu

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pravīṇ maheṣ-ki sahāyamu cēsāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat help( n ). sg . nom do. pst .3 sg . m
‘Praveen helped Mahesh.’

Tsakhur kumag haʔıy

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
murad-ee rasul-us kumag haʔu
pn - erg pn - dat help( n ) n .do. pf
‘Murad helped Rasul.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa iq'al b-arq'-iz/b-irq'-iz

Valency pattern: ERG/LOC(LAT)_DAT
X: ERG/LOC(LAT)
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
uršːi-le juldaš-i-z iq'al b-arq'-ib
boy- erg / loc ( lat ) friend- obl - dat help n -do. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy helped his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa kumek b-arq'-i / b-irq'-i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
durħaˤ-li šːi-j kumek b-arq'-ib
boy- erg village- dat help n -do. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy helped the village.’

Turkish yardım etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e yardım et-ti
pn pn - dat help make- pst
‘Mehmet helped Filiz.’

Turoyo mʕawən

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Gabriyel mʕawal-le Maryam
pn help. pfv - ls .3 m pn
‘Gabriyel helped Maryam.’

Ulcha bələči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ti asi-n ... ti ən-bə-n bələč-i, mama-wa bələč-i
that wife-3 sg ... that mother- acc -3 sg help- prs old_woman- acc help- prs
‘This wife of his helps his mother, helps the old woman.’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Uzbek yordam bermoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ga yordam ber-di
pn pn - dat help give- pst .3 sg
‘Petja helped Maša.’

West Central Oromo gargaara

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n boontuu gargaar-e
pn - nom pn . abs help-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa helped Bontu.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Eldar-a-z kümek-na
pn - erg pn - obl - dat help- aor
‎‎‎‘Sahib helped Eldar.’

Zilo Andi kumeki dʒid.i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pat’imati-di marjamu-ɬu kumeki dʒid.i
pn - erg pn . obl - dat help[ inan 1][ nom ] make. pst ( aor )
‘Patimat helped Mariam.’