BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘help’

Argument frame: X (help) Y
Stimulus sentence: (M. didn’t manage to do her homework by herself.) P. helped M .
Predicate label Ru: помочь
Argument frame Ru: X (помогать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (М. не могла сама сделать домашнее задание). П. помог М .

Abaza [c-]qraʕa

Valency pattern: ABS_COM
X: ABS
Y: COM
Locus: Y
l-an zaréma də-l-c-qráʕa-d
3 sg . f . io -mother pn 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . f . io - com -help( aor )- dcl
‘Mother helped Zarema.’

Aghul kümek q’.u-

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
aslan.a meʜemed.i-s kümek q’.u-ne
pn ( erg ) pn - dat help do. pf - aor
‘Aslan helped Muhammad’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic avəd comac

Valency pattern: SBJ_ka
X: SBJ
Y: ka
Locus: Y
+Ašur comac vəd-lə ka +xor-u
pn help( f ) do. pst - ls .3 m to friend( m )- p .3 m
‘Ashur helped his friend.’

Brazilian Portuguese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ajudou Miguel
‘Педру помог Мигелу.’

Czech pomoci

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petr Michal-ovi pomoh-l
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] pn ( m )- dat . sg help( pfv )- pst [ m . sg ]
‘Petr helped Michal.’

Finnish auttaa

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Pekka autt-oi Matti-a
pn . nom help- pst .3 sg pn - part
‘Pekka helped Matti.’

Forest Enets pɛrezi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-da pɛrezie-za
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - obl . sg .3 sg help( pfv )-3 sg . so sg
‘My friend helped Vasja’.

Latin juvo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Titian-um et Cels-um nox juv-it
pn ( m )- acc . sg and pn ( m )- acc . sg night( f ). nom . sg help[ prf . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘The night helped Titian and Celsus.’
Note: (Tac. Hist. II, 44, 12)

Modern Hebrew azar

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas azar le Menaχem
pn help[ pst .3 sg . m ] to pn
‘Pinchas helped Menachem.’

Nanai bələči-

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-du bələči-xə-ni
pn pn - dat help- pst - p .3 sg
‘Petia helped Masha.’

Norwegian Bokmål å hjelpe

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per hjalp Ola
pn help. pst pn
‘Per helped Ola.’

Polish pomóc

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Stanisław pomóg-ł Roman-owi
pn [ nom . sg ] help\ pst : pfv - pst [ m .3 sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Stanisław helped Roman.’

Russian pomočʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Pet-ja pomog Maš-e
pn ( m )- nom . sg help( pfv ). pst [ m . sg ] pn ( f )- dat . sg
‘Petja helped Maša.’

Rutul kumag hɨɁɨra

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
rasul-a nadir-ɨ-s kumag hɨɁɨ-r=a
pn - erg pn - obl - dat help( nom ) 4.do. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul helped Nadir.’

Skolt Saami vieʹǩǩted

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt vieʹǩǩt-i Määʹrj
pn . sg . nom help- pst .3 sg pn . sg . acc
‘Pete helped Maria’

Slovenian pomagati

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Peter je pomaga-l An-i
pn [ nom . sg ] aux .3 sg help: pfv / ipfv - lpt [ m . sg ] pn - dat . sg
‘Peter helped Ana.’

Swedish att hjälpa

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn hjälp-te Maja
pn help- pst pn
‘Björn helped Maja.’

Turkish yardım etmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Filiz-e yardım et-ti
pn pn - dat help make- pst
‘Mehmet helped Filiz.’

Ulcha bələči-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ti asi-n ... ti ən-bə-n bələč-i, mama-wa bələč-i
that wife-3 sg ... that mother- acc -3 sg help- prs old_woman- acc help- prs
‘This wife of his helps his mother, helps the old woman.’
Note: This example is taken from natural texts.

Zilo Andi kumeki dʒid.i

Valency pattern: ERG_DAT
X: ERG
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
pat’imati-di marjamu-ɬu kumeki dʒid.i
pn - erg pn . obl - dat help[ inan 1][ nom ] make. pst ( aor )
‘Patimat helped Mariam.’