BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘hear’

Argument frame: X (hear) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. hears the music .
Predicate label Ru: слышать
Argument frame Ru: X (слышать) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. слышит музыку .

Abaza ʕa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
fatíjma múzəka l-ʕ-əj-d
pn music 3 sg . f . erg -hear- prs - dcl
‘Fatima hears the music.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) ze.xe-xə

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
pŝaŝe-m wered–maqe-r ze-x-j-e-xə
girl- obl song–sound- abs rec . io - loc : among -3 sg . erg - dyn -remove
‘The girl hears the music.’

Aghul un-x.a-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s muq’am-ar un-x.a-a
pn - dat tune- pl sound-become. ipf - prs
‘Aslan hears the music.’

Alik Kryz ixhayc

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
terlan-iz mahni iuxhva-ryu
pn - dat song( f ) f .hear. pfv - prs . f
‘Terlan hears the music.’

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-s lagum-mul ko-r-ši
pn - dat song- pl npl .hear- ipfv - cvb . ipfv ( npl .be)
‘Pasha hears the music.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +šammə

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
+xor-i +bəšmay=əl zmarta
friend( m )- p .1 sg hear. prog =3 m song( f )
‘My friend hears the song.’

Avar raʕize

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-da baq’an raʕ-ule-b b-ugo
pn - loc tune hear- ipf . ptcp - n n - cop
‘Ali hears the music.’

Azerbaijani eşitmək

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Aslan musiq-i-ni eşid-ir
pn music- poss 3- acc hear- ipfv (3)
‘Aslan hears the music.’

Bambara mɛ́n

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù mànkan` mɛ́n
pn ipfv noise\ art hear
‘Seku hears a noise.’

Brazilian Portuguese ouvir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro ouv-e música
pn ( m ) hear-3 sg . prs music( f )
‘Pedro hears the music.’

Catalan escoltar

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere escolt-a música
def . sg . m pn ( m ) hear-3 sg . prs . ind music( f )
‘Pere hears the music.’

Chirag č’a-b-aq’i

Valency pattern: SUPER_ABS
X: SUPER
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-l-i laˁ bajt carasːaħ=ra č'a-b-aq'-ib
pn - obl - super dem . addr song( abs ) before= add sound- n . sg -hear: pf - aor .3
‘Ali heard this song before.’

Czech slyšet

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr slyší hudb-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hear( ipfv ). prs .3 sg music( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr hears the music.’

Danish høre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter høre-r musikk-en
pn hear- prs music( c )- def . sg
‘Peter hears the music.’

Dutch horen

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet hoor-t muziek
pn ( c ) hear-3 sg music( c )
‘Piet hears the music.’

Eastern Maninka mɛ́n

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Sékù yé dɔ̀nkili` mɛ́n-na.
pn be song\ art hear- inf . la
‘Seku hears songs.’

English hear

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter hears the music.

Estonian kuulma

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
Peeter kuule-b muusika-t
pn . sg . nom hear- prs .3 sg music- sg . part
‘Peeter hears the music.’

Finnish kuulla

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: GEN~PART~NOM
Locus: TR
Pekka kuul-ee musiiki-n
pn . nom hear- prs .3 sg music- gen
‘Pekka hears the music.’

Forest Enets nɔdos

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
modʲi kasa-jʔ entʃeu soo-ʔ nɔdoʔɔ
i man- nom . sg .1 sg person. obl throat- pl hear( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend hears human voices’.

French entendre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul entend la musique
pn ( m ) hear. prs .3 sg def . sg . f music( f )
‘Paul hears the music.’

Georgian Ø-e-sm-i-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s musik'a-Ø Ø-e-sm-i-s
pn - dat music- nom io 3- ver : r -hear- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre hears the music.’

German hören

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl hör-t Musik
pn [ nom . sg ] hear- prs .3 sg music[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl hears the music.’

Icari Dargwa deh b=iq'-uj

Valency pattern: ERG_GEN
X: ERG
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Islam-il maq'am-t-a-lla deh b=iq'-a-ca=b
pn - erg tune- pl - obl - gen sound. abs n =hear: ipf - prs - cop = n
‘Islam hears the music.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Irish clois

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Clois-eann Pól an ceol.
hear- prs pn def music
‘Pól hears the music.’

Italian sentire

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo sent-e la music-a
pn ( m ) hear-3 sg . prs def . sg . f music- sg . f
‘Leo hears the music.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
meħamad-li muziˤka b-iq'-u
pn - erg music n -hear. ipfv - th
‘Muhammad hears the music.’

Kalderash Romani ašunel

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
o Murš-a ašun-el muzyk-a
art . m . nom pn - nom . sg listen- prs .3 sg music- acc . sg
‘Murša hears the music.’

Karata

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕalja baq’an anɬ-idja idja
pn . dat tune hear- ipf cop
‘Ali hears the music.’

Kaytag Dargwa бикьара

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
petja-l muzika d-iq’-ulca
pn - erg music( npl ) npl -reach. ipf - prs
‘Petja hears the music.’

Kazakh est

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya muwzïka-nï est-іp tur
pn music- acc hear- cvb stand.3 sg
‘Petya hears the music.’

Kazym Khanty χǫλti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pet’a-j-en amp χǒrtǝpsi χǫλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg dog barking hear. npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja hears the barking.’

Khoekhoe ǁnâu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge ǀō-i-a ra ǁnâu
pn -3 m . sg decl sound-3 c . sg - obl ipfv hear
‘Peter hears some sounds.’

Khwarshi tiqʷa

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
di-l keč’i-ba tiq-qа
1 sg . o - dat song( iii )- pl . abs hear- pst . w
‘I heard the songs.’

Kina Rutul ses ruɁur

Valency pattern: DAT_ATTR
X: DAT
Y: ATTR
Locus: XY
rasul-u-s maˁʔnij-mɨ-d ses ruɁu-r
pn - obl - dat song- pl . obl - attr sound( nom ) 4.go. ipfv - cvb
‘Rasul hears the music.’

Kumyk ešitmek

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: DO
Locus: TR
patimat muzɨka-nɨ ešit-e
pn music- acc hear-3 sg
‘Patimat hears the music.’

Latin audio

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
audi-a-t optat-os semper amic-a son-os
hear- prs . sbjv - act .3 sg desired- acc . pl . m always girlfriend( f )- nom . sg sound( m )- acc . pl
‘Let the girlfriend always hear desired sounds.’
Note: (Ov. Ars Amatoria. II, 156)

Laz uǯ-ap-a

Valency pattern: TR
X: ERG
Y: NOM
Locus: TR
Käzim-i-k muziγ-i Ø-u-uǯ-am-s
pn - b - erg music- nom io 3- ver : o -listen- sm - s 3 sg
‘Käzim is listening to / hears the music.’
Note: The meanings ‘listen’ and ‘hear’ are not formally distinguished.

Mandarin Chinese tīngdào

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān tīngdào yīnyuè le
pn hear music pfv
‘Zhangsan hears the music.’

Mano mā

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
lɛ́ɛ̀ mī wéè mā
3 sg . ipfv person speech hear: ipfv
‘S/he hears people's voices.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: CONT.LAT_NOM
X: CONT.LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Islam-ize irʁ-uwe le-r muzɨka
pn - cont ( lat ) hear- cvb be- npl music
‘Islam hears the music.’

Mingrelian Ø-a-rčkil-en-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_ERG
X: DAT
Y: ERG
Locus: X
čelo-s musik'a-Ø Ø-a-rčkil-e(n)-Ø
pn - dat music- nom io 3- pot -hear- pot - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo hears the music.’

Modern Hebrew shomea

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pinχas shomea et ha muzika
pn hear[ ptcp . sg . m ] do def music
‘Pinchas hears the music.’

Mukhad Rutul un jišin

Valency pattern: DAT_GEN
X: DAT
Y: GEN
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s maq'am-a-d jiχana un a
pn - obl - dat tune- obl - gen well sound be_in
‘Murad hears the music.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai dolǯ-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petia muzəka-wə dolǯi-ni
pn music- obl hear. npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia hears the music.’

Nivkh məd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik lu + mə-d
pn song + listen- ind
‘Kaskazik hears the song.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-ƛa maq’:a anƛ-ene godi
pn - dat tune hear- simul n . cop
‘Patahi hears the music.’

Northern Mansi xūli

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
am xūl-s-um kūt’uw
1 sg hear- pst -1 sg dog
‘I heard the dog.’

Northern Yukaghir möndˈiǝ=

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Sǝmiǝn muzуkа-lǝ möndˈiǝ-mǝ-lǝ
pn music- acc listen- tr - of .3 sg
‘Semien is listening the music.’

Norwegian Bokmål å høre

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per høre-r musikk
pn hear- prs music
‘Per hears the music.’

Polish słyszeć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Ann-a słyszy muzyk-ę
pn - nom . sg hear: ipfv . prs .3 sg music- acc . sg
‘Anna hears the music.’

Russian slyšatʹ

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Pet-ja slyš-it muzyk-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg hear( ipfv )- prs .3 sg music( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja hears the music.’

Serbian čuti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar čuje muzik-u
pn . nom . sg hear. prs .3 sg music- acc . sg
‘Petar hears the music.’

Shinaz Rutul un h-iši-n

Valency pattern: DAT_ATTR
X: DAT
Y: ATTR
Locus: XY
basir-ɨs un h-iʔi maˁni-je-d
pn - dat call n - cop song- obl - attr
‘Basir hears the song.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni x̌īdow

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Azim soz x̌īn-t
pn song hear-3 sg
‘Azim hears the music.’

Skolt Saami kuullâd

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peâtt kooll musiikk
pn . sg . nom hear. prs .3 sg music. sg . acc
‘Pete hears the music.’

Slovak počuť

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter počuje hudb-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] hear( ipfv ). prs .3 sg music( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter hears the music.’

Slovenian slišati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a sliši glasb-o
pn - nom . sg hear: ipfv . prs .3 sg music- acc . sg
‘Ana hears the music.’

Sorani Kurdish giwê bûn

Valency pattern: EXT_le
X: EXT
Y: le
Locus: XY
Hîwa êsta giwe=î le mûsîqa-ye
pn now ear=3 sg . pc from music-be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa hears the music now.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Southern Rutul un yidq’ın

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s ç'al-mı-d un aˤğuˤ-r
pn - obl - dat word- pl . obl - n sound ( n )go. ipf - prs
‘Murad hears the (sound of) music.’

Spanish oír

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro oy-e la música
pn [ sg . m ] hear- prs .3 sg art . def . sg . f music[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro hears the music.’

Standard Arabic samiʕa

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Badr-u-n yasmaʕu l-musīqā
pn - nom - indef hear. ipf .3 m def -music/ acc
‘Badr hears the music.’

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s musik'a-Ø x-e-sm-i
pn - dat music- nom io 3- ver : r -hear- prs
‘Maizer hears the music.’

Swedish att höra

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn hör musik-en
pn hear. prs music- def . c . sg
‘Björn hears the music.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: TR
X: ACT
Y: UND
Locus: TR
Na-ri~rinig ni Pedro ang tugtugin
pot . pv . ipfv ~hear pers . gen pn subj music
‘Pedro hears the music.’

Telugu viṇu

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pravīṇ saṁgītamu viṁṭunnāḍu
pn ( m ). sg . nom music( n ). sg . nom listen. dur .3 sg . m
‘Praveen hears the music.’

Tsakhur q:ayхhiy

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-k’le ses q:ayхhı
pn - obl - aff voice n .hear. pf
‘Murad hears the voice.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-z t'ama b-iq'-ule=sab
boy- dat sound n -hear. pfv - prog . cnv = cop . n
‘The boy hears the noise.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-aq'-i / b-iq'-i

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-j t'ama b-aq'-ib
boy- dat sound n -hear. pfv - pret (3)
‘The boy hears the noise.’

Turkish duymak

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Mehmet müziğ-i duy-uyor
pn music- acc hear- prs
‘Mehmet hears the music.’

Turoyo šoməʕ

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_DO.LS
X: SBJ.SS
Y: DO.LS
Locus: Y
Šabo k-šoməʕ mosiqa
pn prs -hear. ipfv .3 m music( f )
‘Shabo hears the music.’

Ulcha doldi-

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
ama min jaja-wa-je dold-i-ni
father my song- acc -1 sg hear- prs -3 sg
‘Father hears my song.’

Uzbek eštimoq

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petya muzika-ni ešit-ib tur-ib-ti
pn music- acc listen- cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja hears the music.’

West Central Oromo ɗaggeeffata

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
obsaa-n sirb-ittʃa ni ɗaggeeffat-a
pn - nom music- def . abs foc listen-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘Obsa listens/hears the song.’

Zilo Andi anɬ.i-r

Valency pattern: AFF_NOM
X: AFF
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-<b>o anɬ.i-r ketʃ’ibaqχ’an
pn - aff < inan 1> hear. pst - prog song+melody[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Ali hears the music.’