BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘have (illness)’

Argument frame: X (have) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. has the flu .
Predicate label Ru: болеть#болезнью#
Argument frame Ru: X (болеть) Y -ом
Stimulus sentence Ru: П. болеет гриппом .

Abaza *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Adyghe (West Circassian) jə-ʔe

Valency pattern: POSS_ABS
X: POSS
Y: ABS
Locus: X
č̣ʼale-m grip jə-ʔ
guy- obl flu( abs ) poss -be
‘The guy has the flu.’

Aghul x.u-

Valency pattern: DAT_ABS
X: DAT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-s stalǯam x.u-naa
pn - dat pneumonia become. pf - prf
‘Aslan has pneumonia.’

Alik Kryz grip xhiyic

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
terlan grip-e
pn ( m ) flu- cop . m
‘Terlan has the flu.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as a (non-verbal) predicate (not an argument).

Archi

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
patʼimal-li-s grip qˁa-li
pn - obl - dat influenza 4.come. pfv - cvb ( evid )
‘Patimat has the flu.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic +marrə

Valency pattern: SBJ_bi
X: SBJ
Y: bi
Locus: Y
brata +mrit=əla bi gripp
girl( f ) ache. res . f =3 f with flu( m )
‘The girl has the flu.’
Note: Non-Urmi speaker.

Avar untize

Valency pattern: NOM_ERG
X: NOM
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
ʕali q’wat’u-l unt-i-jaɬ unt-un w-ugo
pn street. obl - gen be_sick- msd - erg be_sick- seq m - cop
‘Ali has the flu.’ (lit. ‘Ali is ill by the street disease.’)

Azerbaijani *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Aslan qrip-dir
pn sick_with_flu- cop 3
‘Aslan has the flu.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as a (non-verbal) predicate (not an argument).

Bambara mìnɛ

Valency pattern: DO_SBJ
X: DO
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
fàrigan` ye Sékù mìnɛ
fever\ art pfv . tr pn catch
‘Seku has a fever.’

Brazilian Portuguese estar

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro está com gripe
pn ( m ) cop _ prog .3 sg . prs with flu( f )
‘Pedro has a flu.’

Catalan tenir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere la grip
def . sg . m pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs . ind def . sg . f flu( f )
‘Pere has the flu.’

Chirag icːi-b-aχːʷi

Valency pattern: ABS_ERG
X: ABS
Y: ERG
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le grip-le icːi-w-aχː-un-ne
pn ( abs ) flu- erg get.sick- m . sg - lv : pf - aor - res . prs .3
‘Ali has the flu.’

Czech mít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr chřipk-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg flu( f )- acc . sg
‘Petr has the flu.’

Danish have

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter ha-r kræft
pn have- prs cancer( c )
‘Peter has cancer.'

Dutch hebben

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft de griep
pn (С) have.3 sg art . def . c flu( c )
‘Piet has the flu.’

Eastern Maninka yé/tɛ́

Valency pattern: la_SBJ
X: la
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Dénbalen` yé Sékù lá.
malaria\ art be pn at
‘Seku has malaria.’
Note: Non-verbal predication.

English have

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter has the flu.

Estonian olema

Valency pattern: ADESS_NOM
X: ADESS
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peetri-l on gripp
pn - adess be. prs .3 sg flu. sg . nom
‘Peeter has the flu.’

Finnish olla

Valency pattern: ADE_NOM
X: ADE
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peka-lla on flunssa
pn - ade be. prs .3 sg flu. nom
‘Pekka has the flu.’

Forest Enets kader

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
kasa-jʔ gripo-xon kadeŋa
man- nom . sg .1 sg flu- loc . sg be_ill( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend has the flu’.

French avoir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a une grippe
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg def . sg . f flu( f )
‘Paul has the flu.’

Georgian Ø-a-kv-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s grip'-i Ø-a-kv-s
pn - dat flu- nom io 3- ver : sup -have- s 3 sg
‘Petre has the flu.’
Note: This root is associated with inanimate possessees.

German haben

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl hat die Grippe
pn [ nom . sg ] have. prs .3 sg def . f . acc . sg flu[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl has the flu.’

Guinean Kpelle káa

Valency pattern: bha_SBJ
X: bha
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
kwɛ́lɛ-ɲɔ́ŋ̀ gáa Pépèe ɓà
cold-illness\ l cop pn on1
‘Pepee has fever.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Icari Dargwa w=ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_GEN
X: ABS
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
Islam beža-la w=ih-ub-ca=w
pn . abs flu- gen m =become: pf - aor - cop = m
‘Islam has the flu.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Irish bí slaghdán

Valency pattern: ar_SBJ
X: ar
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
slaghdán air Phól.
be. prs flu on pn
‘Pól has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian avere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha l’ influenz-a
pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs def . sg . f flu- sg . f
‘Leo has a flu.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: SUPER_NOM
X: SUPER
Y: NOM
Locus: X
meħamad-i-ke gripː b-aˤʁ-i-le
pn - obl - super flu( r us) n -reach. pfv - pret - cvb
‘Muhammad has the flu.’

Kalderash Romani sy

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
les-te sy les grib-o
he- loc be. prs .3 he. cl flu- nom . sg
‘He has the flu.’

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: CONT_ABS
X: CONT
Y: ABS
Locus: X
fatima.ji-k grip k-iv-na
pn - cont flu( abs ) cont -put- res
‘Fatima has a flu.’

Karata bexwala

Valency pattern: EXT_NOM
X: EXT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali q’wat’ala b-exw-a idja
pn flu n -come- ipf cop
‘Ali has the flu.’

Kaytag Dargwa ic:ara

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
petja grip-la v-iʕ-aˁvca
pn flu- gen m -be_ill- perf
‘Petja has the flu.’

Kazakh awïr

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petya tumaw awïrw-ï-men awïr-adï
pn flu illness- poss 3- ins ache- prs 2.3 sg
‘Petya has a flu.’

Kazym Khanty mǫšǝtti

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pet'a-j-en grip mǫš-ǝn mǫšǝt-ǝλ
pn - ep - poss .2 sg flu illness- loc be_ill- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja has the flu.’
Note: Some speakers disallow overt expression of Y.

Khoekhoe ūhâ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Sara-s ge ǁkhai-s-a ūhâ
pn -3 f . sg decl fever-3 f . sg - obl have
‘Sara has the flu.’

Khwarshi j/eƛa

Valency pattern: ABS_CONT
X: ABS
Y: CONT
Locus: Y
di-ja q'ale l-eƛ-ƛo wetrjanka-qо
1 sg . o - gen 1 children hpl -be.ill- prs chicken.pox- cont
‘My children have chicken-pox.’

Kina Rutul jiˁχɨˁra

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-u-s grip jiˁχɨˁ-r=a
pn - obl - dat influenza( nom ) 4.hit. pfv - cvb =be
‘Rasul has the flu.’

Kumyk awrumaq

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
patimat grip-den awru-j
pn influenza- abl ache-3 sg
‘Patimat has the flu.’

Latin aegroto

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
natur-a su-is-met aegrota-t morb-is
nature( f )- nom . sg one’s_own- abl . pl - ints be_ill[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg disease( m )- abl . pl
‘The nature suffers from its own diseases.’
Note: (Man. 5, 215)

Laz o-γ-un-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s nezle-Ø Ø-u-γ-un-Ø
pn - b - dat flu- nom io 3- ver : o -have- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim has the flu.’

Mandarin Chinese

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān le liúgǎn
pn have pfv flu
‘Zhangsan has the flu.’

Mano kɛ̄

Valency pattern: mo_SBJ
X: mo
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
nɛ́nɛ́yàà lɛ̄ Sèé mɔ̀
malaria 3 sg . exi pn on
‘Se has malaria.’
Note: Existential construction. Under specific circumstances, the verb 'to be' (kɛ̄) has a zero form.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: SUPER.LAT_NOM
X: SUPER.LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pat’imat-iče ʁʷadubar-t d-aʔ-i-le le-r
pn - super ( lat ) flu- pl npl -arrive: pfv - pst - cvb be- npl
‘Patimat has the flu.’

Mingrelian Ø-u-γ-un-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
čelo-s grip'-i Ø-u-γ-u(n)-Ø
pn - dat flu- nom io 3- ver : o -have- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Chelo has the flu.’

Modern Hebrew jeʃ

Valency pattern: le_SBJ
X: le
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
le Pinχas jeʃ ʃapaat
to pn there.is[ prs ] flu
‘Pinchas has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mukhad Rutul jıˤχıˤn

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-s tımılbır jıˤχıˤ-ri
pn - obl - dat flu n .strike. pf - aor
‘Murad has the flu.’

Nanai ənusi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Petia grippa-ǯi ənu.si-ni
pn flu- ins be_sick. ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia has the flu.’

Nivkh qоd

Valency pattern: SBJ_INS
X: SBJ
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Largun gripp-ɣir̥ qо-d
pn flu- ins be.sick- ind
‘Largun has the flu.’

Northern Akhvakh beq’uruƛa

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
hwari q’q’wat’ala b-eq’-e gidi
pn flu n -come- pf f . cop
‘Pari has the flu.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as an NP within a dependent clause.

Northern Mansi ajməntaxti

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
pajel ājməntaxt-i xōpsi ājm-əl
pn suffer_from- npst .3 sg lungs illness- ins
‘Pasha has tuberculose.’

Northern Yukaghir handˈǝr=

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sǝmiǝn hаndˈǝ-r-lˈǝ-nˈ
pn aff cold- prop - evid - intr .3 sg
‘Semien has the flu.’
Note: Not included in the database because Y is expressed as part of a nominal compound.

Norwegian Bokmål å ha

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per ha-r influensa
pn have- prs flu
‘Per has the flu.’

Polish chorować

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Michał choruje na gryp-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] be_ill: ipfv . prs .3 sg on flu- acc . sg
‘Michał has the flu.’

Russian boletʹ

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
Pet-ja bole-et gripp-om
pn ( m )- nom . sg be_ill( ipfv )- prs .3 sg flu( m )- ins . sg
‘Petja has the flu.’

Serbian imati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar ima grip
pn . nom . sg have. prs .3 sg flu. acc . sg
‘Petar has the flu.’

Shinaz Rutul načaʁ h-iši-n

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
basir načaʁ ɨj gripp-a-xvan
pn unwell cop flu- obl - com
‘Basir has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Shughni vidow

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Lola-yand rāk kasali
pn - loc cancer illness
‘Lola has cancer.’
Note: In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

Skolt Saami leeʹd

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peâtt-ast lij nuõpp-kõpp
pn - sg . loc be. prs .3 sg cold(disease)-disease. sg . nom
‘Pete has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Slovak mať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter chrípk-u
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg flu( f )- acc . sg
‘Peter has the flu.’

Slovenian imeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
An-a ima grip-o
pn - nom . sg have: ipfv . prs .3 sg flu- acc . sg
‘Ana has the flu.’

Sorani Kurdish girtin

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
ême anfuɫanza=man girt-û-e
we flu=1 pl . pc catch. pst - ptcp -be. prs .3 sg
‘We have the flu.’
Note: The 1PL.PC morpheme indexes the subject of the transitive clause in the past tense.

Southern Rutul zeʔixhva yişin

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
murad grip-a-xhvan zeʔixhv-a yişi-r i
pn flu- obl - com sick- predic m .be. pf - seq ( m ) cop
‘Murad has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Spanish tener

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro tien-e la gripe
pn [ sg . m ] have- prs .3 sg art . def . sg . f flu[ sg . f ]
‘Pedro has a flu.’

Standard Arabic muṣābun

Valency pattern: NOM_biGEN
X: NOM
Y: biGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-u-n muṣāb-u-n bi=l-Ɂanfalawanza
pn - nom - indef affected. m - nom - indef by= def -flu
‘Badr has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s grip'-Ø x-aː-r
pn - dat flu- nom io 3- ver : sup -have
‘Maizer has the flu.’
Note: This root is used to mark alienable possession.

Swedish att ha

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn ha-r influensa
pn have- prs flu
‘Björn has the flu.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: SBJNV_BARE
X: SBJNV
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
May trangkaso si Pedro
exist flu pers . subj pn
‘Pedro has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Telugu vaccu

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pravīṇ-ki flū vacciṁdi
pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat flu( n ). sg . nom come. pst .3 sg . nm
‘Praveen has the flu.’

Tsakhur ıхhay

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-qha grip vo-b-na
pn - obl - lat flu( a ) cop - a - a
‘Murad has the flu.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa d-ač'-iz

Valency pattern: SUPER(LAT)_NOM
X: SUPER(LAT)
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-ja gripː d-ač'-ible=sad
boy- super ( lat ) flu npl -come. pfv - pret . cnv = cop : npl (3)
‘The boy came down with the flu.’

Tsugni Dargwa b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: NOM_GEN
X: NOM
Y: GEN
Locus: Y
durħaˤ šatːiq'a-la w-iχ-uble=caj
boy cold. pl . obl - gen m -be. pfv - cnv . pret = cop : m (3)
‘The boy has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent.

Turkish grip olmak

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Mehmed-ın grib-i var
pn - gen flu- p .3 there_is
‘Mehmet has the flu.’

Turoyo nofəl

Valency pattern: SBJ.SS_b
X: SBJ.SS
Y: b
Locus: Y
Gabriyel nafəl b-i šawbe
pn fall. pfv .3 m in- art . f gripp( f )
‘Gabriyel has the flu.’

Ulcha ənusi-

Valency pattern: NOM_INS
X: NOM
Y: INS
Locus: Y
xusə piktə ərgə ənu-ǯi-n ənu-s-i-n
male child breath illness- ins -3 sg be_ill- ipfv - prs -3 sg
‘The boy has tuberculosis.’

Uzbek oɣrimoq

Valency pattern: NOM_bilan
X: NOM
Y: bilan
Locus: Y
Petya gripp bilan oɣri-b tur-ib-ti
pn flu with ache- cvb stand- prs 4-3 sg
‘Petja has the flu.’

West Central Oromo k'aba

Valency pattern: ABS_NOM
X: ABS
Y: NOM
Locus: X
k'ufaa-n obsaa k'ab-e
flu- nom pn . abs catch-3 sg . m . pfv
‘Obsa has the flu.’

Zilo Andi ruqχ’udo

Valency pattern: NOM_COM
X: NOM
Y: COM
Locus: Y
ali ruqχ’udo honqχisːol=loj
pn [ m ][ nom ] being_ill influenza= com
‘Ali has the flu.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.