BivalTyp

‘have a grudge’

Argument frame: X (have a grudge) against Y
Stimulus sentence: (Why doesn’t P. speak with M.?) P. has a grudge against M .
Predicate label Ru: сердиться
Argument frame Ru: X (сердиться) на Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: (Почему П. не разговаривает с М.?) П. сердится на М .

Abaza [z-]gʷəẑḳə

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
á-č’ḳʷən j-aš’á d-jə-z-gʷə́ẑḳ-əj-ṭ
def -boy def -brother 3 sg . h . abs -3 sg . m . io - ben -be_angry- prs - dcl
‘The boy is angry with his brother.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) fe-gʷəbžə.ʁe

Valency pattern: ABS_BEN
X: ABS
Y: BEN
Locus: Y
pŝaŝe-r č̣ʼale-m fe-gʷəbžə-ʁ
girl- abs guy- obl ben -be_angry- res
‘The girl holds a grudge against the guy.’

Aghul qel ke-

Valency pattern: DAT_SUBCONT.ELAT
X: DAT
Y: SUBCONT.ELAT
Locus: XY
aslan.a-s meʜemed.i-k-as qel ke-a
pn - dat pn - sub / cont - elat resentment { sub / cont }be- prs
‘Aslan has a grudge against Muhammad.’

Alik Kryz acuğlu xhiyic

Valency pattern: NOM_GENxaba7ar
X: NOM
Y: GENxaba7ar
Locus: Y
terlan rasul xab-aʕar acuğlu-ya
pn pn ( gen ) hand- inel angry- cop . m
‘Terlan holds a grudge against Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: NOM_SUP.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUP.LAT
Locus: Y
paša qʼaˁra-r-ši w-i  marin-ni-tː-ik
pn be.angry- ipfv - cvb . ipfv 1-be pn - obl - sup - lat
‘Pasha holds a grudge against Marina.’

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic carəb

Valency pattern: SBJ_al
X: SBJ
Y: al
Locus: Y
+Ašur bəcrab=əl +al baxt-u
pn be_angry. prog =3 m on woman( f )- p .3 m
‘Ashur has a grudge against his wife.’

Avar ccin baqine

Valency pattern: GEN_LOC
X: GEN
Y: LOC
Locus: XY
ʕali-l ccin b-aq-un b-ugo aħmad-i-da
pn - gen anger n -rise- seq n - cop pn - obl - loc
‘Ali holds a grudge against Ahmad.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Azerbaijani acıqlı-COP

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Aslan Rǝsul-dan acıqlı-dır
pn pn - abl angry- cop 3
‘Aslan holds a grudge against Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Bafut bíʔî … múm ntᵼ́ᵼ́ jì

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
àmbɛ́ bíʔî-nᵼ̀ sùù múm ntᵼ́ᵼ́ jì
pn sm carry- ipfv pn inside heart his
‘Ambe is angry with Suh.’

Bambara *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Brazilian Portuguese estar bravo

Valency pattern: SBJ_com
X: SBJ
Y: com
Locus: Y
Pedro está brav-o com Miguel
pn ( m ) cop _ prog .3 sg . prs angry- m with pn ( m )
‘Pedro has a grudge against Miguel.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Budugh

Valency pattern: NOM_PART
X: NOM
Y: PART
Locus: Y
aslan rosul-ekir iciğlu vi
pn pn - obl . part angry cop
‘Aslan holds a grudge against Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Catalan estar enfadat

Valency pattern: SBJ_amb
X: SBJ
Y: amb
Locus: Y
en Pere està enfadat amb en Marc
def . sg . m pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs . ind angry( m ) with def . sg . m pn ( m )
‘Pere has a grudge against Marc.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Chirag q’uc’-le

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPER
X: ABS
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
ʡa̰le rasul-l-i q’uc’-le
pn ( abs ) pn - obl - super angry- adv . prs .3
‘Ali has a grudge against Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Czech naštvanej + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petr je naštvanej na Michal-a
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] be( ipfv ). prs .3 sg upset on pn ( m )- acc . sg
‘Petr holds a grudge against Michal.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Danish have nag

Valency pattern: SBJ_til
X: SBJ
Y: til
Locus: Y
Peter ha-r nag til Marie
pn have- prs grudge( n ). sg to pn
‘Peter has a grudge against Marie.’

Dutch boos zijn

Valency pattern: SBJ_op
X: SBJ
Y: op
Locus: Y
Piet is boos op Marie
pn ( c ) cop .3 sg angry on pn ( c )
‘Piet is angry with Marie.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Eastern Maninka dímin

Valency pattern: SBJ_ma
X: SBJ
Y: ma
Locus: Y
Sékù dímin-nin Fónba mà.
pn ache- ptcp . res pn adr
‘Seku has a grudge against Fomba.’

English have a grudge

Valency pattern: SBJ_against
X: SBJ
Y: against
Locus: Y
Peter has a grudge against Mary.

Estonian pidama

Valency pattern: NOM_GENvastu
X: NOM
Y: GENvastu
Locus: Y
Peeter pea-b Mareti vastu viha
pn . sg . nom hold- prs .3 sg pn . sg . gen against grudge. sg . part
‘Peeter holds a grudge against Maret.’

Finnish kantaa kaunaa

Valency pattern: NOM_ALL
X: NOM
Y: ALL
Locus: Y
Pekka kant-aa kauna-a Mati-lle
pn . nom bear- prs .3 sg grudge- part pn - all
‘Pekka has a grudge against Matti.’

Forest Enets barzir

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
modʲi kasa-jʔ vasʲa-xa-da barziŋa
i man- nom . sg .1 sg pn - dat . sg - obl . sg .3 sg be_angry( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend is angry with Vasja’.

French être fâché

Valency pattern: SBJ_contre
X: SBJ
Y: contre
Locus: Y
Paul est fâché contre Marie
pn ( m ) be. prs .3 sg make_angry. pst . ptcp . m against pn ( f )
‘Paul is angry with Marie.’
Note: Passive construction.

Georgian Ø-braz-ob-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT.SUPERESS
X: NOM
Y: DAT.SUPERESS
Locus: Y
p'et're-Ø mašo-ze Ø-braz-ob-s
pn - nom pn - pstp : superess s 3-be_angry- sm - s 3 sg
‘Petre is angry with Masho.’

German sauer sein

Valency pattern: NOM_aufACC
X: NOM
Y: aufACC
Locus: Y
Karl ist sauer auf Marie
pn [ nom . sg ] be. prs .3 sg sour on pn [ acc . sg ]
‘Karl holds a grudge against Marie.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Guinean Kpelle líi hólu

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Pépèe líi àa hólu Ɲàákwɛ̀i pɔ́
pn heart 3 sg . prf sting pn to
‘Pepee is angry with Nyakwei.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier.

Icari Dargwa ʕaˤsi-li w=ih-araj

Valency pattern: ABS_SUPLAT
X: ABS
Y: SUPLAT
Locus: Y
Islam Nadir-rij ʕaˤsi-li-ca=w
pn . abs pn - suplat angry- adv - cop = m
‘Islam holds a grudge against Nadir.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Irish bí an chloch sa muinirtle

Valency pattern: aige_do(PREP)
X: aige
Y: do(PREP)
Locus: X
an chloch sa muinirtle aige Pól do Mháire.
be. prs def stone in. def sleeve at pn for pn
‘Pól holds a grudge against Máire.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian essere arrabbiato

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Leo è arrabbiat-o con Maria
pn ( m ) be.3 sg . prs angry- sg . m with pn ( f )
‘Leo is angry with Maria.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (passive).

Kadar Dargwa CL-irq'-es (IPFV)

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
meħamad him-r-a-ni 0-irq'-u-le ʡaˤšura-ke
pn anger- pl - obl . pl - erg m -do. ipfv - prs - cvb pn - super
‘Muhammad holds a grudge against Ashura.’

Kalderash Romani xoľavel

Valency pattern: NOM_pe
X: NOM
Y: pe
Locus: Y
o Murš-a xoľ-ajl-o pe Marijk-a
art . m . dir . sg pn - nom . sg be_angry- pst -3 sg . m on pn - nom . sg
‘Murša holds a grudge against Marijka.’
Note: With a pronominal Y argument, the NOM_peLOC structure would be used.

Kandyk Tabasaran

Valency pattern: DAT_CONT.ELAT
X: DAT
Y: CONT.ELAT
Locus: XY
dada.ji-z bal-k-an qaˁl k-a
mother- dat boy- cont - elat anger cont -be( prs )
‘The mother has a grudge against Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Karata ssime raʔaɬa

Valency pattern: POSS_DAT
X: POSS
Y: DAT
Locus: XY
ʕali-b aħmat’-ja ssime r-aʔ-a idja
pn - n pn - dat anger npl -come- pf cop
‘Ali got angry with Ahmat.’

Kaytag Dargwa ʕaˁs:i vihara

Valency pattern: NOM_DATLAT
X: NOM
Y: DATLAT
Locus: Y
petja ʕaˁs:i v-ih-aˁvca maša-j
pn angry m -be. pf - perf pn - datlat
‘Petja holds a grudge against Masha.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kazakh ašulï

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ɣa ašulï
pn pn - dat angry
‘Petya is angry with Masha.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kazym Khanty λǝkaśti

Valency pattern: NOM_NOMpela
X: NOM
Y: NOMpela
Locus: Y
waśa-j-en λǝkaś-əλ maša-j-en pɛλa
pn - ep - poss .2 sg be_angry- npst [3 sg ] pn - ep - poss .2 sg at
‘Petja holds a grudge against Maša.’

Khoekhoe sunu-b-a ūhâ

Valency pattern: SBJ_!oagu
X: SBJ
Y: !oagu
Locus: Y
Petru-b ge Maria-s ǃoagu sunu-b-a ūhâ
pn -3 m . sg decl pn -3 f . sg - obl opposite grudge-3 m . sg - obl have
‘Peter has a grudge against Maria.’

Khwarshi semi mak'a

Valency pattern: GEN1_CONT.LAT
X: GEN1
Y: CONT.LAT
Locus: XY
di-lo χole-s semi m-ak'a-ha uža-qo-l
1 sg . o - gen 2 husband- gen 1 anger iii -go- prs son- cont - lat
‘My husband is angry with our son.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Kina Rutul sɨrχɨra

Valency pattern: NOM_SUB
X: NOM
Y: SUB
Locus: Y
islam sɨrχɨ-r=a nadir-ɨ-χda
pn ( nom ) 1.become.mad. pfv - cvb =be pn - obl - sub
‘Islam has a grudge against Nadir.’

Kumyk ačuwlanmaq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
patimat musa-ʁa ačuw-la-n-a
pn pn - dat anger- vblz - refl -3 sg
‘Patimat holds a grudge against Musa.’

Latin irascor

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
(frater) etiam quibus irasci-tur crebr-ius, tamen car-os habe-t
brother( m ). nom . sg even which. dat . pl be_angry[ prs . ind ]- mid .3 sg often- cmpr but dear- acc . pl . m have[ prs . ind ]- act .3 sg
‘Even those who he (brother) is so often angry with, he holds dear.’
Note: (Cic. Ep. ad Att. X, 11, 1)

Laz gur-i mu-xt'-in-er-i o-r-in-u

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
Käzim-i Fatma-šen gu(r)-I mu-xt'-in-e(r)-i Ø-[r]-en-Ø
pn - nom pn - abl heart- b prv -go- r . ext - ptcp - nom s 3-[be]- sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim is angry with Fatma.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (participle).

Mandarin Chinese yǒu jīyuàn

Valency pattern: SBJ_he
X: SBJ
Y: he
Locus: Y
Zhāngsān Lǐsì yǒu jīyuàn
pn with pn have grudge
‘Zhangsan has grudge against Lisi.’

Mano wɛ̄lɛ̄ kpō kùnɔ̄

Valency pattern: SBJ_mo
X: SBJ
Y: mo
Locus: Y
ŋ̄ ŋ̄ wɛ̄lɛ̄ kpō kùnɔ̄-pɛ̀lɛ̀ mɔ̀
1 sg . exi 1 sg face ball bend- inf 2 sg on
‘I am angry with you.’
Note: The Mano sentence contains a complex predicate, which includes a nominal and a verbal part (see Grammar notes above). The possessor is necessarily coreferential with the subject.

Mehweb

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER.LAT
X: NOM
Y: SUPER.LAT
Locus: Y
Islam himi-li-ču le-w Nadir-li-če
pn gall- obl - com be- m pn - obl - super ( lat )
‘Islam holds a grudge against Nadir.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian gurmulir-i Ø-o-r-en-Ø (PRS)

Valency pattern: NOM_ABL
X: NOM
Y: ABL
Locus: Y
čelo-Ø anučia-še(n) Ø-(o)-r-e(n)-Ø gur-mulir-(i)
pn - nom pn - abl s 3-( ver : sup )-be- sm - s 3 sg . inact heart-come-( nom )
‘Chelo has a grudge against Anuchia.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate (participle).

Modern Hebrew noter tina

Valency pattern: SBJ_le
X: SBJ
Y: le
Locus: Y
Pinχas noter tina le Menaχem
pn guard[ ptcp . sg . m ] malice to pn
‘Pinchas holds a grudge against Menachem.’

Mukhad Rutul qhaˤl ʁa

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s q'urban-ııla qhaˤl ʁa
pn - obl - dat pn - superel anger( a ) be_on
‘Murad holds a grudge against Kurban.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai ajakta-

Valency pattern: NOM_DIR
X: NOM
Y: DIR
Locus: Y
Petia Maša-či ajakta.či-ni
pn pn - dir hold_a_grudge. ipfv . npst - p .3 sg
‘Petia holds a grudge against Masha.’

Nivkh *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Northern Akhvakh ssimi beq’uruƛa

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
pataħi ssimi b-eq’-o gudi musa-ge
pn anger n -come- seq . m m . cop pn - loc
‘Patahi holds a grudge against Musa.’

Northern Mansi *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained. Same as “be angry”

Northern Yukaghir joŋoči=

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Sǝmiǝn Əkulˈǝ-ŋinˈ joŋo-či-j
pn pn - dat aff be_angry- mult - intr .3 sg
‘Semien holds a grudge against Akulina.’

Norwegian Bokmål å være sint på

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per er sint Ola
pn be. prs angry on pn
‘Per is angry with Ola.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. Phrasal predicative expression ( is not a flagging device).

Polish wściekać się

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Michał wścieka się na Ann-ę
pn [ nom . sg ] annoy: ipfv . prs .3 sg refl on pn - acc . sg
‘Michał holds a grudge against Anna.’

Russian serditʹsja

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pet-ja serd-it-sja na Maš-u
pn ( m )- nom . sg vex( ipfv )- prs .3 sg - refl on pn ( f )- acc . sg
‘Petja holds a grudge against Maša.’

Serbian ljutiti se

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Petar se ljuti na Marij-u
pn . nom . sg refl anger. prs .3 sg on pn - acc . sg
‘Petar holds a grudge against Maria.’

Shinaz Rutul qhaˁl libq'ɨ-n

Valency pattern: DAT_EL
X: DAT
Y: EL
Locus: XY
basir-ɨs qhaˁl libq'ɨ-v karam-ɨla
pn - dat anger( a ) a .rise. pf - aor . a pn - el
‘Basir holds a grudge against Karam.’

Shughni dar-qār δêdow2

Valency pattern: NOM_EQ
X: NOM
Y: EQ
Locus: Y
Šamil tar Lola dar-qār δod
pn eq pn angry fall. pst
‘Shamil holds a grudge against Lola.’

Skolt Saami *

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
*
*
*
Note: No satisfactory translation has been obtained.

Slovak mať zášť

Valency pattern: NOM_vociDAT
X: NOM
Y: vociDAT
Locus: Y
Peter voči Mark-ovi zášť
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg against pn ( m )- dat . sg grudge
‘Peter holds a grudge against Marek.’

Slovenian jeziti se

Valency pattern: NOM_naACC
X: NOM
Y: naACC
Locus: Y
Pavel se jezi na Petr-a
pn [ nom . sg ] rfl anger: ipfv . prs .3 sg on pn - acc . sg
‘Pavel is angry with Peter.’

Sorani Kurdish r̂iq heɫgirtin

Valency pattern: EXT_le
X: EXT
Y: le
Locus: XY
Hîwa r̂iq=î le Kamr̂an-î heɫ-girt-û-e
pn hatred=3 sg . pc from pn - obl prev -catch. pst - pfv -be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa has a grudge against Kamran.’

Southern Rutul qhaˤl laˤvç'uˤn

Valency pattern: DAT_SUPEREL
X: DAT
Y: SUPEREL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s aydın-ııle qhaˤl laˤvuˤç'uˤ-r
pn - obl - dat pn - superel anger( a ) a .climb. ipf - prs
‘Murad holds a grudge against Aydin.’

Spanish enfadarse

Valency pattern: SBJ_con
X: SBJ
Y: con
Locus: Y
Pedro se enfad-a con María
pn [ sg . m ] refl .3 sg make_angry- prs .3 sg with pn [ sg . f ]
‘Pedro has a grudge against Maria.’

Standard Arabic zaʕila

Valency pattern: NOM_alaaGEN
X: NOM
Y: alaaGEN
Locus: Y
Badr-un yazʕalu ʕalā Maryam-a
pn - nom be_angry. ipf .3 m on pn - gen
‘Badr holds a grudge against Maryam.’

Svan

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPERESS
X: NOM
Y: SUPERESS
Locus: Y
maizer-Ø lile-ži Ø-i-xrin-äːl
pn - dat pn - superess s 3- ver : s -grudge- vpl
‘Maizer has a grudge against Lile.’

Swedish att vara sur

Valency pattern: SBJ_pa
X: SBJ
Y: pa
Locus: Y
Björn är sur Maja
pn be. prs sour. indf . c . sg on pn
‘Björn holds a grudge against Maja.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tagalog

Valency pattern: SBJNV_LOC
X: SBJNV
Y: LOC
Locus: XY
may sama ng loob si Pedro kay Miguel
exist bad gen feelings pers . subj pn pers . dat pn
‘Pedro has a grudge against Miguel.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Telugu paga + COP

Valency pattern: DAT_ante
X: DAT
Y: ante
Locus: XY
pravīṇ-ki maheṣ aṁṭē paga
pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat pn ( m ). sg . nom that_is enmity( n ). sg . nom
‘Praveen has a grudge against Mahesh.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsakhur qhaˁl vuхhay

Valency pattern: DAT_CONTEL
X: DAT
Y: CONTEL
Locus: XY
murad-ı-s rasul-u-ke qhaˁl vo-b-na vuхha
pn - obl - dat pn - obl - contel anger( a ) cop - a - h a .be. pf
‘Murad holds a grudge against Rasul.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Tsudakhar Dargwa ʡaˤsi b-ič'-iz

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
uršːi juldaš-li-jaˤ ʡaˤsi ik'-ule=saj
boy friend- obl - super ( lat ) disappointment ( m )say- prog . cnv = cop : m (3)
‘The boy holds a grudge against his friend.’

Tsugni Dargwa q'uc'-le + COP

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER(LAT)
X: NOM
Y: SUPER(LAT)
Locus: Y
durħaˤ zumra-ge q'uc'-le=caj
boy neighbor- super ( lat ) angry- adv - cop : m (3)
‘The boy holds a grudge against his neighbor.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Turkish öfkelenmek

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Mehmet Orhan-a öfkelen-iyor
pn pn - dat be_angry- prs
‘Mehmet is angry with Orhan.’

Turoyo ġbino + COP

Valency pattern: SBJ_m
X: SBJ
Y: m
Locus: Y
Maryam ġbənto yo me Mixoyel
pn angry( f ) cop .3 sg from pn
‘Maryam is angry at Michael.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Twi wᴐ trimpᴐ

Valency pattern: SBJ_ho
X: SBJ
Y: ho
Locus: Y
Kofi wᴐ nanabarima ho trimpᴐ
pn have(3 sg . prs ) grandfather about grudge
‘Kofi has a grudge against grandfather.’
Note: CV

Ulcha tagdanasi-

Valency pattern: NOM_ban
X: NOM
Y: ban
Locus: Y
ama piktə=bən tagda-nas-i-ni
father child=to feel_angry- atten - prs -3 sg
‘Father is angry with his child.’

Uzbek ɣazablanmoq

Valency pattern: NOM_DAT
X: NOM
Y: DAT
Locus: Y
Petya Maša-ga ɣazablan-moqda
pn pn - dat be_angry- prs 3.3 sg
‘Petja holds a grudge against Maša.’

West Central Oromo haaloo k'aba

Valency pattern: NOM_LOC
X: NOM
Y: LOC
Locus: Y
obsaa-n boontuu-tti haaloo k'ab-at-ee dʒir-a
pn - nom pn - loc grudge. abs hold- mid - conv aux -3 sg . m . npst
‘Obsa has held a grudge against Bontu.’

Wolof tong

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBJ
Locus: TR
Omar dafa-y tong Sàmba
pn f oc v .s i :3 sg - incpl have.a.grudge pn
‘Omar has a grudge against Sàmba.’

Yargun Lezgian

Valency pattern: ERG_SUB/POSTEL
X: ERG
Y: SUB/POSTEL
Locus: Y
Sahib-a Eldar-a-kaa qhel-nva
pn - erg pn - obl - sub / postel sulk- prf
‘Sahib holds a grudge against Eldar.’

Zazaki

Valency pattern: SBJ.INTR_ra.PSTP
X: SBJ.INTR
Y: ra.PSTP
Locus: Y
o ajɛ=ra xulli=jo
3 sg . m . abs 3 sg . f . obl =from creepy= cop .3 sg . m
‘He has a grudge against her.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Zilo Andi <j>-iχ.onn-ij

Valency pattern: NOM_SUPER
X: NOM
Y: SUPER
Locus: Y
pat’imati j-iχ.onn-ij marjam-ʔa
pn [ f ][ nom ] f -be_offended. pst - pf pn - super
‘Patimat is cross with Mariam.’