BivalTyp

Лаборатория типологического изучения языков    Институт лингвистических исследований РАН

‘have’

Argument frame: X (have) Y
Stimulus sentence: P. has a car .
Predicate label Ru: иметь
Argument frame Ru: X (иметь) Y
Stimulus sentence Ru: У П. есть машина .

Abaza ma

Valency pattern: IO_ABS
X: IO
Y: ABS
Locus: X
zaréma mašína lə́-ma-b
pn car 3 sg . f . io -be- npst . dcl
‘Zarema has a car.’

Adyghe (West Circassian) jə-ʔe

Valency pattern: POSS_ABS
X: POSS
Y: ABS
Locus: X
bzəλfəʁe-xe-me mašəne-xe-r ja-ʔe-x
woman- pl - obl . pl car- pl - abs 3 pl . pr + poss -be- pl
‘The women have cars.’

Aghul qa-

Valency pattern: POST_ABS
X: POST
Y: ABS
Locus: X
aslan.a-q mašin qa-a
pn - post car { post }be- prs
‘Aslan has a car.’

Alik Kryz xhiyic

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
terlan-ux halu saʕat maşin suca
pn - apud this moment car exist . n
‘Terlan now has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Archi

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
paša-n mašin i
pn - gen care 4.be
‘Pasha has a car.’
Note: Arguably, the NP in the genitive is a clause-level constituent.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ət

Valency pattern: OBJAGR_BARE
X: OBJAGR
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
+Ašur ət-lə mašina
pn exi - ls .3 m car( f )
‘Ashur has a car.’

Avar buk’ine

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-l mašina b-ugo
pn - gen car n - cop
‘Ali has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Azerbaijani var

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Aslan-ın bu saat maşın-ı var
pn - gen this moment car- poss 3 exist
‘Aslan now has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Bambara bɛ́/tɛ́

Valency pattern: bolo_SBJ
X: bolo
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
mɔ́bili` bɛ́ Sékù bólo
car\ art be pn cntrl
‘Seku has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Brazilian Portuguese ter

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro tem um carro
pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs indf car( m )
‘Pedro has a car.’

Catalan tenir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
en Pere un cotxe
def . sg . m pn ( m ) have.3 sg . prs . ind indf . sg . m car( m )
‘Pere has a car.’

Chirag b-u

Valency pattern: GEN_ABS
X: GEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
ʡa̰li-la mašna b-u
pn - gen car( abs ) n . sg -be. prs .3
‘Ali has a car.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Czech mít

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petr auto
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg car( n )[ acc . sg ]
‘Petr has a car.’

Danish have

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter ha-r en bil
pn have- prs indf . sg car( c )
‘Peter has a car.’

Dutch hebben

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Piet heeft een auto
pn (С) have.3 sg art . indf car(С)
‘Piet has a car.’

Eastern Maninka yé/tɛ́

Valency pattern: bolo_SBJ
X: bolo
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Mɔ́nbili` dó yé Sékù bólo.
car\ art indf be pn cntrl
‘Seku has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predication.

English have

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Peter has a car.

Estonian olema

Valency pattern: ADESS_NOM
X: ADESS
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peetri-l on auto
pn - adess be. prs .3 sg car. sg . nom
‘Peeter has a car.’

Finnish olla

Valency pattern: ADE_NOM
X: ADE
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peka-lla on auto
pn - ade be. prs .3 sg car. nom
‘Pekka has a car.’

Forest Enets tɔne

Valency pattern: TOP_NOM
X: TOP
Y: NOM
Locus: X
modʲi kasa-jʔ ɔdu-za tɔnee
i man- nom . sg .1 sg boat- nom . sg .3 sg there_is( ipfv ).3 sg . s
‘My friend has a boat’.

French avoir

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Paul a une voiture
pn ( m ) have. prs .3 sg indf . sg . f car( f )
‘Paul has a car.’

Georgian h-q'-av-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
p'et're-s mankana-Ø h-q'av-s
pn - dat car- nom io 3-have- s 3 sg
‘Petre has a car.’
Note: This root is associated with animate possessees (vehicles often tend to be included in this domain).

German haben

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Karl hat ein Auto
pn [ nom . sg ] have. prs .3 sg indf [ n . acc . sg ] car[ acc . sg ]
‘Karl has a car.’

Icari Dargwa b=u:h-araj

Valency pattern: GEN_ABS
X: GEN
Y: ABS
Locus: X
Islam-la mašin te=b
pn - gen car. abs exist = n
‘Islam has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal (existential) predicate. The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Irish

Valency pattern: aige_SBJ
X: aige
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
gluaisteán aige Pól.
be. prs car at pn
‘Pól has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Italian avere

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Leo ha un-a macchin-a
pn ( m ) have-3 sg . prs indf . sg - f car- sg . f
‘Leo has a car.’

Kadar Dargwa

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
meħamad-la mašin le-b
pn - gen car exst - n
‘Muhammad has a car.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Kalderash Romani sy

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
les-te sy les mator-a
he- loc be. prs .3 he. cl car- nom . sg
‘He has a car.’

Karata

Valency pattern: POSS_NOM
X: POSS
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕali-b mašina idja
pn - n car cop
‘Ali has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The possessor NP displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Kaytag Dargwa би

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
petja-la no mašina bi
pn - gen already car n . cop
‘Petja already has a car.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent. Non-verbal predicate.

Kazakh bar

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petya-da mašiyna bar
pn - loc car there_is
‘Petya has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Kazym Khanty tǎjti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
petr-en mašina tǎj-ǝλ
pn - poss .2 sg car have- npst [3 sg ]
‘Petja has a car.’

Khoekhoe ūhâ

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: OBL
Locus: TR
Petru-b ge donki-b-a ūhâ
pn -3 m . sg decl donkey-3 m . sg - obl have
‘Peter has a donkey.’

Khwarshi gołe

Valency pattern: GEN1_ABS
X: GEN1
Y: ABS
Locus: X
šamile-s gołe mašina
pn - gen 1 be. prs car
‘Shamil has a car.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Kina Rutul ani wiɁi

Valency pattern: SUB_NOM
X: SUB
Y: NOM
Locus: X
rasul-ɨ-χda mašin a-ni w-iɁi
pn - obl - sub car( nom ) be- cvb 3- cop
‘Rasul has a car.’

Kumyk bar

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
patimat-nɨ mašin-i bar
pn - gen car-3 sg cop
‘Patimat has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Latin habeo

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
qui maior-es possession-es habe-nt
which. nom . pl . m bigger- acc . pl possession( f )- acc . pl have[ prs . ind ]- act .3 pl
‘... who have greater possessions.’
Note: (Cic. Catil. 2, 18)

Laz o-ʔ-on-u

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Käzim-i-s araba-Ø Ø-u-[ʔ]-on-un-Ø
pn - b - dat car- nom io 3- ver : o -have- r . ext - sm - s 3 sg . inact
‘Käzim has a car.’

Mandarin Chinese yǒu

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Zhāngsān yǒu yí-liàng chē
pn have one- clf car
‘Zhangsan has a car.’

Mano kɛ̄

Valency pattern: kele_SBJ
X: kele
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
wɛ́lì kɛ̄ ŋ̄ kɛ̀lɛ̀
money 3 sg . pst be 1 sg pstp hand
‘I had money.’

Mehweb

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Pajzula-la le-b mašina
pn - gen be- n car
‘Pajzula has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mingrelian [u]-Ø-ʔun-s (PRS)

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
čelo-s mašna-Ø Ø-ʔun-s
pn - dat car- nom io 3-have- s 3 sg
‘Chelo has a car.’

Modern Hebrew jeʃ

Valency pattern: le_SBJ
X: le
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
jeʃ le Pinχas meχona
there.is[ prs ] to pn car
‘Pinchas has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Mukhad Rutul ana jiʔi

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-χda mašin a-na viʔi
pn - obl - apud car be_in- simul a . cop
‘Murad has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Nanai bi-

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petia-du mašina bi
pn - dat car be. npst
‘Petia has a car.’

Nivkh ivd

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Kaskazik tʰu + iv-d
pn narta + have- ind
‘Kaskazik has a narta.’

Northern Akhvakh

Valency pattern: POSS_NOM
X: POSS
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pataħi-be mašina godi
pn - n car n . cop
‘Patahi has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The possessor displays some properties of a clause-level argument.

Northern Mansi ōn’ɕi

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
pājel xāp ōn’ɕ-i
pn boat have- npst .3 sg
‘Pasha has a boat.’

Northern Yukaghir lˈǝ=

Valency pattern: NA
X: *
Y: *
Locus: *
Sǝmiǝn mаšinа-gi lˈǝ-j
pn car- poss .3 aff be- intr .3 sg
‘Semien has a car.’
Note: Not included in the database because X is expressed as an NP-internal modifier. Non-verbal predicate.

Norwegian Bokmål å ha

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Per ha-r bil
pn have- prs car
‘Per has a car.’

Polish mieć

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
mąż ma samochód
husband[ nom . sg ] have: ipfv . prs .3 sg car[ acc . sg ]
‘Husband has a car.’

Russian bytʹ

Valency pattern: uGEN_NOM
X: uGEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
u Pet-i estʹ mašin-a
at pn ( m )- gen . sg be. prs car( f )- nom . sg
‘Petja has a car.’

Serbian imati

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Petar ima kol-a
pn . nom . sg have. prs .3 sg car- acc . pl
‘Petar has a car.’

Shinaz Rutul an h-iši-n

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
basir-ɨχda a-nɨ-v mašin
pn - apud exist - prs - a car( a )
‘Basir has a car.’

Shughni vidow

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Ahmed-and mošin
pn - loc car
‘Ahmed has a car.’
Note: In this example, the verb 'to be' is non-overt.

Skolt Saami leeʹd

Valency pattern: LOC_NOM
X: LOC
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Peâtt-ast lij autt
pn - sg . loc be. prs .3 sg car. sg . nom
‘Pete has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Slovak mať

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
Peter aut-o
pn ( m )[ nom . sg ] have( ipfv ). prs .3 sg car( n )- acc . sg
‘Peter has a car.’

Slovenian imeti

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ACC
Locus: TR
mož ima avt-o
husband[ nom . sg ] have: ipfv . prs .3 sg car- acc . sg
‘Husband has a car.’

Sorani Kurdish hebûn

Valency pattern: EXT_SBJ
X: EXT
Y: SBJ
Locus: X
Hîwa maʂên-êk=î he-ye
pn car- indf =3 sg . pc exist -be. prs .3 sg
‘Hiwa has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The 3SG.PC morpheme indexes the non-canonical subject of a clausal expression of possession, emotion or cognition (in any tense).

Southern Rutul yişin

Valency pattern: APUD_NOM
X: APUD
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ıxda maşin viʔi
pn - apud car( a ) a . cop
‘Murad has a car.’

Spanish tener

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Pedro tien-e coche
pn [ sg . m ] have- prs .3 sg car[ sg . m ]
‘Pedro has a car.’

Standard Arabic kāna

Valency pattern: indaGEN_NOM
X: indaGEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ʕinda badr-i-n sayyārat-u-n
at pn - gen - indef car( f )- nom - indef
‘Badr has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Svan

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
maizer-s x-a-q'-a mankana-Ø
pn - dat io 3- ver : sup -want- prs car- nom
‘Maizer has a car.’
Note: This root is associated with animate possessees (vehicles often tend to be included in this domain).

Swedish att ha

Valency pattern: TR
X: SBJ
Y: DO
Locus: TR
Björn ha-r en bil
pn have- prs indf . c . sg car
‘Björn has a car.’

Tagalog

Valency pattern: SBJNV_BARE
X: SBJNV
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
May kotse si Pedro
exist car pers . subj pn
‘Pedro has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Telugu uṁḍu

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
pravīṇ-ki kār' uṁdi
pn ( m ). sg . obl - dat car( n ). sg . nom be. prs .3 sg . nm
‘Praveen has a car.’

Tsakhur ıхhay

Valency pattern: LAT_NOM
X: LAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
murad-ı-qha mašın vo-dun
pn - obl - lat car cop - n . n
‘Murad has a car.’

Tsudakhar Dargwa

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
uršːi-la qali le-b
boy- gen home cop . exst - n
‘The boy has a house.’
Note: The NP in the genitive displays some properties of a clause-level dependent.

Tsugni Dargwa le-b; b-iχʷ-i / b-irχʷ-i

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
durħaˤ-la hanna qali le-b
boy- gen now home cop . exst - n
‘The boy now has a house.’
Note: NP in the genitive is arguably a clause-level dependent. Existential predicate.

Turkish var

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Mehmed-in araba-sı var
pn - gen car- p .3 there_is
‘Mehmet has a car.’

Turoyo kit-

Valency pattern: OBJAGR_BARE
X: OBJAGR
Y: BARE
Locus: XY
Gabriyel kət-le raḏayto
pn exi - ls .3 m car( f )
‘Gabriyel has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.

Ulcha bi-

Valency pattern: DAT_NOM
X: DAT
Y: NOM
Locus: X
min piktə-du mašina bī-ni
my child- dat car be. prs -3 sg
‘My son has a car.’

Uzbek bor

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
Petya-niŋ mašina-si bor
pn - gen car- poss .3 sg is_present
‘Petja has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate. The possessor NP has some properties of a clause-level constituent.

West Central Oromo k'aba

Valency pattern: TR
X: NOM
Y: ABS
Locus: TR
nam-ittʃ-i konkolaataa k'ab-a
man- def - nom car. abs have-3 sg . m . ipfv
‘The man has a car.’

Zilo Andi dʒi

Valency pattern: GEN_NOM
X: GEN
Y: NOM
Locus: X
ali-b dʒi maʃina
pn - inan 1( gen ) cop car[ inan 1][ nom ]
‘Ali has a car.’
Note: Non-verbal predicate.